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    parasitology lab notes parasitology lab notes Presentation Transcript

    • Lab 8: Blood Parasites
    • Trypanosoma cruzi
      • Extracellular hemoprotozoan found circulating in peripheral blood
      • Primarily found in Central & South America but occasionally reported in the south half of US
      • Transmitted by the kissing/assassin bug (reduviid bug)
      • Swimming stage called trypomastigote , banana shaped w/ lateral undulating membrane & thin, whiplike flagellum (tail)
      • Also has a resting cyst stage ( amastigote ) that may be found encysted in cardiac muscle
    • Trypanosoma cruzi
      • Zoonotic potential!!!!
      • In humans causes Chagas Disease, acute symptoms are mild, chronic disease causes multiple organ damage (heart diz, intestinal malformation) if untreated is fatal!!!!
      • In dogs, can cause “mega” syndromes (megasophagus/
      • megacolon), heart failure & severe fatigue
      • Transmission: by posterior station – insect does not inject! Insect defecates while taking blood meal – animal/human scratches feces into open wound.
    • Babesia spp.
      • Intracellular protozoan found w/in RBCs of dogs – destroys RBCs
      • Pear-shaped trophozoites in center of cell – side by side
      • B. canis: Transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguinus (Brown dog tick)
    • Babesia spp.
      • B. bigemina/bovis : Transmitted by Boophilus tick.
      • Destroys RBCs at such a rate that it looks like cattle are urinating blood due to hemoglobin in urine
      • Also called Red Water Fever or Texas Cattle Fever
      • Seen more in Mexico & South America after eradication efforts in US – REPORTABLE DISEASE!!!!
      • Cattle have immunity for 1 st 6mo. Then can cause severe anemia, anorexia, splenomegaly & fever.
      • Boophilus tick is one host tick –
      • Vertical transmission, female tick
      • passes Babesia transovarially to
      • baby ticks
    • Mycoplasma haemophilus: previously known as Hemobartonella felis/canis
      • Bacterial cause of Feline Infectious Anemia
      • Rarely seen in healthy animals – seen commonly with immunosuppressed cats (FELV+ or FIV+)
      • Epicellular rods on RBCs and in plasma
      • Transmitted by blood sucking insects (fleas, ticks, lice & mosquitoes)
      • Causes severe anemia, jaudice/icterus, animal may eat dirt or litter in effort to supplement more iron
    • Mycoplasma haemophilus
      • Rarely seen in dogs, unless immune system suppressed
      • Usually filtered by spleen
      • Can be diagnosed through blood smear or PCR (Coomb’s test)
      • Easily treated with Doxycycline
    • Eperythrozoans
      • Rickettsial parasites of swine, cattle, llamas
      • Appearance similar to M. hemophilus (Hemobartonella)
      • Seen as small cocci or rings on RBCs or free in plasma
      • Hemolytic in stressed or immunosuppressed animals only
      • Otherwise animal will filter through spleen
      • Transmitted by tick vectors
    • Anaplasma marginale
      • Anaplasmosis – dark staining cocci on periphery or margin of RBCs
      • Mostly affects cattle & other ruminants
      • More severe in adults when stressed or immunocompromised
      • Considerable economic damage in cattle esp. older cows
      • Seen most in SE US
      • Causes anemia, dehydration & hypoxia
      • Anaplasma + Babesia = Tick Fever
    • Cytauxzoon felis
      • Seen naturally in wild cats – innocuous
      • Causes severe fatal hemolytic anemia in domestic cats
      • Quickly destroys RBCs until death
      • Rare
      • Transmitted by Dermacentor variabilis : American Dog Tick
      • Seen in RBCs, WBCs, Macrophages – small dark staining, irregular ring form in cell
    • Ehrlichia canis
      • Rickettsial parasite of dogs
      • Lives in WBCs, monocytes & neutrophils
      • Clusters in cytoplasm in morulae
      • Transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanquinus : Brown dog tick
      • Causes anorexia, depression, stiffness, edema of limbs & scrotum, coughing, dyspnea
      • Will see thrombocytopenia, leukopenia & anemia
      • Dx: buffy coat smear or serologic testing
      • Incidence increasing recently!!!