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parasitology lab notes parasitology lab notes Presentation Transcript

  • Lab 8: Blood Parasites
  • Trypanosoma cruzi
    • Extracellular hemoprotozoan found circulating in peripheral blood
    • Primarily found in Central & South America but occasionally reported in the south half of US
    • Transmitted by the kissing/assassin bug (reduviid bug)
    • Swimming stage called trypomastigote , banana shaped w/ lateral undulating membrane & thin, whiplike flagellum (tail)
    • Also has a resting cyst stage ( amastigote ) that may be found encysted in cardiac muscle
  • Trypanosoma cruzi
    • Zoonotic potential!!!!
    • In humans causes Chagas Disease, acute symptoms are mild, chronic disease causes multiple organ damage (heart diz, intestinal malformation) if untreated is fatal!!!!
    • In dogs, can cause “mega” syndromes (megasophagus/
    • megacolon), heart failure & severe fatigue
    • Transmission: by posterior station – insect does not inject! Insect defecates while taking blood meal – animal/human scratches feces into open wound.
  • Babesia spp.
    • Intracellular protozoan found w/in RBCs of dogs – destroys RBCs
    • Pear-shaped trophozoites in center of cell – side by side
    • B. canis: Transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguinus (Brown dog tick)
  • Babesia spp.
    • B. bigemina/bovis : Transmitted by Boophilus tick.
    • Destroys RBCs at such a rate that it looks like cattle are urinating blood due to hemoglobin in urine
    • Also called Red Water Fever or Texas Cattle Fever
    • Seen more in Mexico & South America after eradication efforts in US – REPORTABLE DISEASE!!!!
    • Cattle have immunity for 1 st 6mo. Then can cause severe anemia, anorexia, splenomegaly & fever.
    • Boophilus tick is one host tick –
    • Vertical transmission, female tick
    • passes Babesia transovarially to
    • baby ticks
  • Mycoplasma haemophilus: previously known as Hemobartonella felis/canis
    • Bacterial cause of Feline Infectious Anemia
    • Rarely seen in healthy animals – seen commonly with immunosuppressed cats (FELV+ or FIV+)
    • Epicellular rods on RBCs and in plasma
    • Transmitted by blood sucking insects (fleas, ticks, lice & mosquitoes)
    • Causes severe anemia, jaudice/icterus, animal may eat dirt or litter in effort to supplement more iron
  • Mycoplasma haemophilus
    • Rarely seen in dogs, unless immune system suppressed
    • Usually filtered by spleen
    • Can be diagnosed through blood smear or PCR (Coomb’s test)
    • Easily treated with Doxycycline
  • Eperythrozoans
    • Rickettsial parasites of swine, cattle, llamas
    • Appearance similar to M. hemophilus (Hemobartonella)
    • Seen as small cocci or rings on RBCs or free in plasma
    • Hemolytic in stressed or immunosuppressed animals only
    • Otherwise animal will filter through spleen
    • Transmitted by tick vectors
  • Anaplasma marginale
    • Anaplasmosis – dark staining cocci on periphery or margin of RBCs
    • Mostly affects cattle & other ruminants
    • More severe in adults when stressed or immunocompromised
    • Considerable economic damage in cattle esp. older cows
    • Seen most in SE US
    • Causes anemia, dehydration & hypoxia
    • Anaplasma + Babesia = Tick Fever
  • Cytauxzoon felis
    • Seen naturally in wild cats – innocuous
    • Causes severe fatal hemolytic anemia in domestic cats
    • Quickly destroys RBCs until death
    • Rare
    • Transmitted by Dermacentor variabilis : American Dog Tick
    • Seen in RBCs, WBCs, Macrophages – small dark staining, irregular ring form in cell
  • Ehrlichia canis
    • Rickettsial parasite of dogs
    • Lives in WBCs, monocytes & neutrophils
    • Clusters in cytoplasm in morulae
    • Transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanquinus : Brown dog tick
    • Causes anorexia, depression, stiffness, edema of limbs & scrotum, coughing, dyspnea
    • Will see thrombocytopenia, leukopenia & anemia
    • Dx: buffy coat smear or serologic testing
    • Incidence increasing recently!!!