Sustainable Communities Building Blocks ProgramEPA Office of Sustainable Communities SUSTAINABLE DESIGN + DEVELOPMENTRenaissance Planning GroupAsheboro, North Carolina May 21, 2012Alan Steinbeck, AICP
About the Sustainable CommunitiesBuilding Blocks Program• The Sustainable Communities Building Blocks Program seeks to provide quick, targeted technical assistance to communities using a variety of tools that have demonstrated results and widespread application.• This technical assistance will help selected local and/or tribal governments to implement development approaches that protect the environment, improve public health, create jobs, expand economic opportunity, and improve overall quality of life.Sustainable Communities Building Blocks Program
Sustainable Design + Development • Purpose of Tool: Help communities understand the key principles and decisions at the location, site, and building levels that can result in a more sustainable plan or development proposal. • Builds upon existing EPA publication, Smart Growth Guidelines for Sustainable Design and Developm Sustainable Communities Building Blocks Program
What is Smart Growth? Development strategies intended to: • protect open space and farmland, • revitalize existing communities, • maintain affordable housing and • provide a variety of transportation choices.Image: AECOM.
Smart growth borrows the best of traditional neighborhoods and cities.Photo: Port Washington, WI EPA Smart Growth (Flickr, 2011)
Sustainable development strengthens and directs development towards existing communitiesPhoto: EPA.
Smart communities allow the mixing of residential, office and commercial uses in appropriate locations to improve access while reducing the need for car travel.Photo: AECOM.
Sustainable communities improve accessibility by connecting people to destinations and offering multiple ways to get around.Photo: Rideau Canal, Ottawa Vince Alongi (Flickr, 2011)
Green buildings and sustainable infrastructure make buildings and their landscapes healthier, more efficient, and longer-lasting.Photo: Arlington County(Flickr, 2011)
Conventional development patterns often lead to: • higher infrastructure costs • higher fuel bills • hindered worker access to jobs • greater vulnerability to rising oil prices • lower rates of walking and higher health care costs • higher GHG emissions • greater ecosystem disruption.Photo: AECOM.
Advantages of Smart GrowthHousing andTransportationCost Burdensby CommuteDistanceSource: Urban Land Institute TerwilligerCenter for Workforce Housing, BeltwayBurden: The Combined Cost of Housingand Transportation in the GreaterWashington, DC, Metropolitan Area(2009) Cited in “Growing Wealthier,” Center for Clean Air Policy, January 2011.
Evaluating the Impact of DifferentDevelopment Options on Energy UseA household in this type of home in a conventional suburbanlocation can reduce its energy consumption by… Energy-efficient Energy-efficient Transit-oriented home and car in a home and car location transit-friendly site*Single-family detached home 34 percent 38 percent 53 percentSingle-family attached home 35 percent 41 percent 56 percent(rowhouse or townhouse)Multifamily home 38 percent 49 percent 62 percent …just by adopting … just by being …by making its home energy-efficiency located in a and car more energy- measures in their transit-friendly efficient on a site that home and driving a site. is close to transit. fuel efficient car.* Note: the final column is not the sum of the first two columns, as the marginal benefit of using a fuel-efficient car ina transit-friendly site is not equal to the benefit of doing so in an auto-dependent site, as the car is used lessSource: U.S. EPA, 2011.
Advantages of Compact, Walkable Communities• Compact development reduces traffic fatalities. – Every 1% increase in the index toward more compact development, traffic fatality fell by 1.5% and pedestrian fatality rates fell by 3.6% (Reid Ewing, et al., 2003)• Walkable communities save money. – A 1999 study by Todd Litman of the Victoria Transportation Policy Institute estimated that for each trip not driven, society saves between $1 and $3.50 in avoided costs (congestion, road maintenance, parking, pollution, noise, safety)• Walkable communities are healthier. – Residents of the most walkable environments in Atlanta were found to get approximately 37 minutes of moderate activity per day, whereas residents of the least walkable environments got only 18 minutes (Lawrence Frank and Peter Engelke, 2005)Cited in “Growing Wealthier,” Center for Clean Air Policy, January 2011.
Advantages of Sustainable Development • Sacramento Council of Government found that growing in a compact pattern as opposed to sprawl, would result in dramatic savings. – $9.4 billon less of public infrastructure costs (e.g. transportation, water supply, utilities) – 14% fewer carbon dioxide emissions – $655 million less for residents’ annual fuel costs – $8.4 billion less for land purchases to mitigate the environmental harm of development Cited in “Cities discover economic benefits of sustainable planning, land use,” Sustainable Communities, January/February 2011.Photo: AECOM.
Advantages of Sustainable Design • Improves air quality – Building walkable communities with multiple transportation choices can reduce air pollution by reducing auto mileage and smog-forming emissions. • Protects water quality – Compact development with fewer paved surfaces reduces stormwater runoff, which often contains phosphorus and nitrogen. • Preserves open space – Encouraging development in existing areas protects open space for wildlife habitats and natural water filtration.Photo: EPA.
Sustainable communities must work at all scalesPhoto: EPA.
Regional Considerations Choosing Smart Growth Locations • Plan regionally • Utilize underused, vacant, or abandoned land in existing cities and towns • Increase accessibility to activity centers and encourage multimodal transportation optionsPhoto: Providence, RI; Jef Nickerson (Flickr, 2011)
Smart Growth Locations •Strengthen the municipal tax base •Improve existing infrastructure •Increase accessibility to employment centers •Reduce commutes timesPhoto: St. George, Utah; Ken Lund (Flickr, 2011)
Neighborhood ConsiderationsCreating sustainable, desirable neighborhoods • Incorporate well-designed buildings, streets, and infrastructure • Create distinct places with defined boundaries • Plan for a diversity of uses and usersPhoto: AECOM.
Neighborhood Plan – Placemaking •Walkable, complete streets create a sense of place and promote healthy lifestyles •Compact development enhances access to various services •Diverse housing stock provides opportunities for all incomes and ages •Multi-modal connectivity invigorates neighborhoods •Conserved open spaces provide natural habitats, water management and carbon sequestration.Photo: EPA.
Building Considerations Designing and constructing healthy, efficient buildings • Use green building techniques that make buildings and their landscapes more efficient, more durable, and healthierPhoto: AECOM.
Green Buildings & Infrastructure •Healthier, durable, energy and water efficient buildings – Improve indoor air quality – Extend the life of building materials, reduce waste – Conserve resources to save energy and water costs •For more information, checklists, best practices, and technical resources see programs such as EPA’s ENERGY STAR Qualified Homes Program, LEED, and South FacePhoto: AECOM.
Smart Growth Case Studies What Does Sustainable Development Look Like?Photo: AECOM.
Park Hill Industrial Corridor Implementation Strategy Louisville, KentuckyPhotos: AECOM.
Park Hill Industrial Corridor Implementation Strategy •Brownfield remediation /redevelopment •Centrally-located industrial district with numerous vacant and underutilized properties •Opportunity to attract businesses and promote local workforce developmentImage: AECOM.
Park Hill Industrial Corridor Implementation Strategy •Adaptive reuse of Flavorman facility, 24,000 sq. ft. • high tech lab • blending room, • warehouse, • shipping dock, • conference room, • employee exercise room • test kitchen • corporate apartmentImages: Flavorman.
Stapleton Denver, Colorado • Existing city airport was repurposed as an urban infill community • Mixed-uses – residential, retail, and workplace • Restoration of Westerley CreekImage: AECOM.
Stapleton •Recycled airport runway concrete for green infrastructurePhoto: AECOM.
Stapleton •Creation of dozes of acres of prairie grasslandsPhoto: AECOM.
Stapleton •Provision of complete streetsPhoto: AECOM.
Louisville’s West Main Street Cultural Arts District Louisville, Kentucky • Existing blighted neighborhood in downtown Louisville • $6 M in public realm investment has yielded over $150 M in private investmentPhoto: AECOM.
Louisville’s West Main Street Cultural Arts District •100,00 sq ft of office •3 museums •200 residential units •1 hotel •6 restaurants •Voted top ten Main Street by the American Planning AssociationPhoto: AECOM.
Lancaster County, PA• Envision Lancaster County: Comprehensive Plan • Directs development to 47 urban and village growth areas • Preserves farmland, rural areas, and County characterPhoto: Lancaster County, PA; Ken Lund (Flickr, 2011)
Lancaster County, PA • 85% of new growth be directed to designated areas • Urban areas must achieve a density of 7.5 units per acre • Village areas achieve a density of 2.5 units per acrePhoto: Ephrata, Lancaster County, PA; Andrew Bossi (Flickr, 2011)
The Yards, Washington, D.C.Image: AECOM.
The Yards, Washington, D.C.• Public private partnership to adaptively reuse the old annex to the Navy Yard. • 42-acres: 2,800 residential units; 1.8M sf of office; 400,000 sf retail; waterfront park • LEED-ND GoldImage: AECOM.
Philadelphia Navy YardPhiladelphia, PA • Redevelopment of historic navy yard • Listed on the National Register of Historic Places; structures dating from 1875 • Solar energy center (1.5 million kilowatt-hours) • Keystone Innovation Zone (KIZ)Photos: Philadelphia Navy Yard, 2011.
Philadelphia Navy Yard•Total of 15 million square feet (1.4 million sq m) at build-out•Estimated to employ 20,000 employees. Currently over 7,500 employees•Liberty Trust Property/Synterra Partners paid 40% of the Master Plan’s cost; PIDCpaid the remainder. Liberty Trust Property/Synterra Partners are committed toinvesting $250 million in 1.4 million square feet of new space in next 10 yearsPhotos: Meyer, Scherer & Rockcastle, 2011.
Capper CarrollsburgWashington, D.C.•Transformation of public housing into mixed-use, mixed-incomeneighborhoodPhoto: AECOM.
Twinbrook Station Rockville, Maryland • Mixed-use, transit- oriented development • Establishes new connections between existing development, Metro station, and new development • Pedestrian-focused neighborhood • LEED for Neighborhood Development pilot projectImage: The JBG Companies.
Twinbrook Station • Infill development will transform 26 acres of surface parking into a mixed-use, mixed-income community • Proximity to transit creates an opportunity to reduce vehicle miles traveledImage: The JBG Companies.
Tsigo Bugeh VillageTewa, Chico Valley, NM• 40-unit development• Modern, pueblo-style housing • Attached units divided around two plazas, one oriented to the solstice and the other to the equinox• Six hornos (outdoor ovens), community meeting space, playground, computer room, weight room, business center and laundry facilityImages: The Urban Land Institute, EnterpriseRose Architectural Fellowship.
Nageezi HouseSan Juan County, NM•1475 square foot house (2bedrooms)•Completed: July 2005•Built for the Augustines, a familyof Navajo elders•Passive heating and coolingstrategies – Uses over 60% less energy use than a traditionally designed house•Architect: Stardust Center forAffordable Homes & the FamilyImages: Arizona State University, 2008.
Thank You!For more information:www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/buildingblocks.htmContact:Kevin Nelson, AICPSustainable Communities Building Blocks Program Managernelson.email@example.comSustainable Communities Building Blocks Program
Ten Principles of Smart Growth • Mix land uses. • Take advantage of compact building design. • Create a range of housing opportunities and choices. Six Principles of Green Building • Create walkable neighborhoods. • Foster distinctive, attractive • Protect ecosystems and enhance communities with a strong sense of communities place. • Protect climate and ambient air quality • Preserve open space, farmland, while conserving energy resources natural beauty, and critical environmental areas. • Protect and conserve water • Strengthen and direct development • Conserve materials and resources towards existing communities. • Provide a variety of transportation • Use environmentally preferable and safer choices. building products and services • Make development decisions • Promote healthy indoor environments predictable, fair, and cost effective. Source: EPA Green Building Principles, Goals, and • Encourage community and Recommended Practices stakeholder collaboration in development decisions. Source: Smart Growth Network
Group Exercise: Sustainable Development Analysis Helpful Harmful Strengths are positive, existing attributes of the community that are helpful to sustainable development S Strengths W Weaknesses Weaknesses are those that are harmful