What CM Does for Program Mgt

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CM and Program Mgt

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What CM Does for Program Mgt

  1. 1. Technical & Management Consultants What Configuration Management Does for Program Managers© ARTIS Professionals, LLC DCN: AP07-97-00002_Rev01 1
  2. 2. Program Management Requirements must lead and physical items must conform… Technical & Management Consultants Program management is a four- step closed-loop cycle for managing acquisitions. It begins with a work breakdown structure (WBS) and extends into a critical path network of finite schedules and workloads. It’s two cycles: A requirements management cycle coexists with a physical item cycle. 4 Steps: Plan, Do, Study, Act© ARTIS Professionals, LLC 2
  3. 3. Requirements Mgt Never be afraid to ask, “Where is that written?” Technical & Management Consultants If you cant describe what you are doing as a process, you dont know what you are doing. W. Edwards Deming (Founder of TQM) If you dont document your process, youre not formally communicating it to others. Vincent C. Guess (Founder of CMII) A Requirement Without Documentation… …Is A Rumor© ARTIS Professionals, LLC 3
  4. 4. Configuration Mgt CM maintains the integrity of approved baselines… Technical & Management Consultants Without CM, program managers cannot formally communicate policy requirements – this means wading thru hearsay, legacy data, redundant meetings and endless fact-finding.© ARTIS Professionals, LLC 4
  5. 5. A Little CM Not Enough Technical & Management Consultants The BP Gulf Oil Rig Disaster 4 Steps: Plan, Do, Study, Act© ARTIS Professionals, LLC 5
  6. 6. Executive Baseline Mgt Especially for organizational growth towards partnerships… Technical & Management Consultants Oil Spill: BP Had Wrong Diagram to Close Blowout Preventer Maria Recio, Dave Montgomery and Mark Washburn | McClatchy Newspapers June 14, 2011 07:52:28 AM WASHINGTON — In the days after an oil well spun out of control in the Gulf of Mexico, BP engineers tried to activate a huge piece of underwater safety equipment but failed because the device had been so altered that diagrams BP got from the equipments owner didn’t match the supposedly failsafe devices configuration, congressional investigators said Wednesday. Who ordered the alterations in the blowout preventer, the 500,000-pound mass of gears and hydraulic valves that sits atop and underwater well and is intended to snap the pipe if disaster threatens, was the subject of dispute at Wednesdays hearing. Transocean, the owner of the blowout preventer and of the sunken Deepwater Horizon rig, said any alterations would have come at BPs instigation; BP, which owns the well and hired Transocean to drill it, said it had never sought the changes. Rep. Bart Stupak, D-MI, chairman of the House Energy and Commerce Committee’s Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, said the changes prevented BPs engineers from activating a "variable bore ram" intended to close tight around the pipe and seal it. "When they investigated why their attempts failed to activate the bore ram," Stupak said of BP engineers, “they learned that the device had been modified.” A useless test ram – not the variable bore ram – had been connected to the socket that was supposed to activate the variable bore ram. "An entire day’s worth of precious time had been spent engaging rams that closed the wrong way.” Stupak said that BP officials told subcommittee investigators that “after the accident, they asked Transocean for drawings of the blowout preventer. Because of the modifications, the drawings they received didn’t match the structure on the ocean floor,” Stupak said. “BP said they wasted many hours figuring this out.” A failed pressure test caused [Congress] to question the work of a third company, Halliburton, which was contracted to pour concrete around the wells pipe and cap it. Frank Patton, a drilling engineer for the governments Mineral Management Service, which oversees offshore drilling, told a separate inquiry in Kenner, LA, that drilling mud "is the most important thing in safety for your well.” He said that any alteration to the blowout preventer would have required both BP and MMS approval.© ARTIS Professionals, LLC 6
  7. 7. CM Importance Shrouded Savings hidden when disasters (small or otherwise) never materialize… Technical & Management Consultants When investigators look to ascribe blame, CM / QA processes and practices are the first to be audited… Proper CM Would Have Prevented :  Eleven (11) People From Dying  BP’s $7 Billion Rig Loss and Cleanup Costs  BP’s $40 Billion Lawsuit Against Transocean  BP’s Corporate Black Eye  President Obama’s Political Black Eye  BP’s Tainted Reputation  BP Chairman’s Replacement  Gulf Coast Businesses Destroyed  Gulf Wildlife and Marshland Destroyed© ARTIS Professionals, LLC 7
  8. 8. Baseline Traffic Cops Executives must institute core-business discipline for downstream… Technical & Management Consultants Three Ways to Instill Enterprise Discipline: 1. Configuration Management If you don’t pay CM for product lifecycle management (PLM)… 2. Quality Assurance If you don’t pay QA for total quality management (TQM)… 3. Legal You will pay lawyers and plaintiffs in a court of law.© ARTIS Professionals, LLC 8
  9. 9. Paper Drives Parts Not the other way around... Technical & Management Consultants The one constant in life is Change. Reliability, Maintainability and Availability (RMA) for parts needs Configuration Management (CM) processes on paper.© ARTIS Professionals, LLC 9
  10. 10. Baseline Traceability CM links configuration items to requirements… Technical & Management Consultants© ARTIS Professionals, LLC Graphics: © Institute of Configuration Mgt 10
  11. 11. A Configuration Baseline Simplest definition… Technical & Management Consultants A baseline is the currently approved (or documented) configuration items making up a product or system.© ARTIS Professionals, LLC Graphics: © Institute of Configuration Mgt 11
  12. 12. A Configuration Item Simplest definition… Technical & Management Consultants A configuration item (CI) is any entity that needs to be uniquely identified for purposes of tracking or revising in time.© ARTIS Professionals, LLC Graphics: © Institute of Configuration Mgt 12
  13. 13. Two Hierarchies of CIs Configuration items make up baselines… Technical & Management Consultants CMII recognizes two (2) separate hierarchies of configuration items (CIs) throughout a program or organization. CMII adopts the following model for identifying CIs, which are parts, software, documents, forms, and records.© ARTIS Professionals, LLC Graphics: © Institute of Configuration Mgt 13
  14. 14. CI Unique Identification CM ensures documents are traceable and retrievable… Technical & Management Consultants Standardized naming and numbering conventions are used to identify and describe physical items and control interchangeability. Proper relationships between the physical items, software, documents, forms and records are displayed in the following illustration.© ARTIS Professionals, LLC Graphics: © Institute of Configuration Mgt 14
  15. 15. Verifying Baselines Typical SE model for baseline verification… Technical & Management Consultants The Segment / System Specification (SSS) is typically finalized following the Systems Requirements Review (SRR). The functional baseline (FBL) is established at the Systems Functional Review (SFR). The Allocated Baseline (ABL) is typically established at the Preliminary Design Review (PDR). The government may choose to take control of the ABL which would normally occur following a system Functional Configuration Audit (FCA) or the System Verification Review (SVR). The Development Baseline (DBL) is initiated at the Critical Design Review (CDR), sometimes known as “Pilot Production.” The Acquirer certifies the Product Baseline (PB) following the Physical Configuration Audit (PCA), which verifies a Technical Data Package (TDP) and accompanies the transfer of Configuration Control Authority (CCA) to the Acquirer for all changes.© ARTIS Professionals, LLC 15
  16. 16. Concur vs. Approve During development: Class II concurrence; Class I approval… Technical & Management Consultants Performing Activity Tasking Activity Program Mgr CL1 Program Mgr Contractor Acquirer Contractor’s CM Plan Acquirer’s CM Plan CRs CM CM Team Team CL2 CM CL1 CM Closed-Loop Closed-Loop CTR CCB ACQ CCB CRs ECPs Dev Lifecycle Dev Lifecycle CCB = Configuration Control Board Field CR = Change Request Mod CTR = Contractor ECP = Engineering Change Proposal© ARTIS Professionals, LLC 16
  17. 17. Current Authority Verbatim per MIL-HDBK-61A(SE)… Technical & Management Consultants SOWs - Contracts states who controls changes and when: 6.1.1.1 Current Authority On the micro-level, if an ECP proposing a change to a product impacts several documents, the change proposal, evaluation, and implementation must consider: • Who is the contractual authority to approve an ECP? This is the product configuration control authority (CCA) • Who has the right to approve revision of each document affected by an ECP? This is the current document change authority (CDCA). • Is a related ECP required from a CDCA organization before the CCA for the product can approve an ECP for the product? • Are there other Government or industrial activities involved because the product has multiple users? If so, these are “application activities.” Is one designated the “lead” application activity?© ARTIS Professionals, LLC 17
  18. 18. Configuration Control Authority Verbatim per MIL-HDBK-61A(SE)… Technical & Management Consultants Who approves certain changes in various lifecycles? 6.1.1.1a Configuration Control Authority The contractual configuration control authority (CCA) approving the implementation of a change to a product (system or CI) may initially reside with a Contractor or with the Acquirer. It may transfer from the Contractor to the Acquirer, or may continue to reside with the Contractor throughout the life cycle of the CI. This authority is technically responsible for the performance of the product as well as fiscally responsible for funding changes to the product. The level of Acquirer configuration control is generally determined as part of CI selection. During an acquisition program, it is the levels at which the Acquirer specifies, contracts for, accepts and plans to logistically support the individual components of a system or CIs. Acquirer configuration control always addresses the functional baseline and the allocated baselines established for lower level CIs whose specifications have been issued by, or approved by the Acquirer. Similar and related Contractor configuration control practices also apply to CIs and component parts below the level of Acquirer configuration control. The contractual configuration control authority addresses the total set of documents that are baselined for the product controlled by that authority for a specific contract. This authority can be the Current Document Change Authority (CDCA), described in Part b, for individual documents that require change (e.g., a system or CI performance specification). If it is not the CDCA for a given document, it does not have the authority to approve a proposed change to that document, and therefore must solicit ECP approval from the applicable CDCA, or select an alternate design.© ARTIS Professionals, LLC 18
  19. 19. Current Doc Change Authority Verbatim per MIL-HDBK-61A(SE)… Technical & Management Consultants Who controls the contents of a document? 6.1.1.1b Current Document Change Authority The concept of current document change authority is an expression of a relationship that has always existed. Before the need to manage configuration documentation with an automated information system this concept was not clearly articulated but was embodied in the terms “Originating Design Activity” and “Current Design Activity.” [Ref: ASME- Y14.100.] However, the definition of those terms refer specifically to design documents, e.g., engineering drawings, as opposed to all documentation, and they also include custodial as well as design responsibility. The CDCA on the other hand, pertains to specifications or any other type of document and is independent of the organization that physically maintains and stores the document. The CDCA is the organization that has decision authority over the contents of the document, reflecting proprietary or data rights to the information that the document contains. The CDCA may be a Government activity or a Contractor, and the authority may be transferred. However, there is only one CDCA for a document at a time.© ARTIS Professionals, LLC 19
  20. 20. CDCA Scenarios Verbatim per MIL-HDBK-61A(SE)… Technical & Management Consultants Six (6) scenarios illustrate the logic of CDCA designation:© ARTIS Professionals, LLC 20
  21. 21. CDCA Scenarios Verbatim per MIL-HDBK-61A(SE)… Technical & Management Consultants© ARTIS Professionals, LLC 21
  22. 22. Identify Change Responsibility Verbatim per MIL-HDBK-61A(SE)… Technical & Management Consultants Contracts should identify responsibility for ECP dispositions… MIL-HDBK-61A(SE) Section 6.2.1.4 Review and Dispositioning ECPs In order to facilitate dispositioning ECPs affecting documents for which the government is the CDCA, Contracts should identify the government representative(s) responsible for dispositioning both Class I and Class II ECPs. Where the government is an Application Activity (AA), or in a performance based acquisition, where the government is not CDCA for the design documentation, contracts should clearly specify government and contractor responsibilities for Class I ECPs and RFDs affecting government-baselined performance specifications. This can be accomplished by incorporating a special configuration control clause in the contract similar to the example on the next page.© ARTIS Professionals, LLC 22
  23. 23. Sample Contract Language Verbatim per MIL-HDBK-61A(SE)… Technical & Management Consultants CONFIGURATION CONTROL PROCEDURES FOR ENGINEERING CHANGES: (a) Any Engineering Change Proposal (ECP) or any Request for Deviation (RFD) affecting an item being acquired under this contract shall be in accordance with attachment [XXXXX], contract statement of work (SOW) paragraph(s) [XXX]. Quantities and distribution, or electronic delivery/access, shall be as stated on DD Form 1423 (Contract Data Requirements List) or distribution list attached hereto. (b) No Class I engineering change shall be implemented until authorized by the Contracting Officer (CO). (c) Each Class II engineering change shall be submitted to the cognizant Administrative Contracting Officer (ACO), or in the absence of such ACO, by __________________ for concurrence in classification. -Or – Each Class II engineering change shall be dispositioned by the Contractor. (d) No major or critical deviation shall be effective until authorized in writing by the CO. (e) Minor deviations, requested prior to manufacture, shall be authorized, (or disapproved) by the ACO, or in the absence of such ACO, by _________________________. -Or - Minor deviations, requested prior to manufacture, shall be dispositioned by the contractor (f) Minor deviations to manufactured items shall be granted (or disapproved) by the local Material Review Board (MRB) when properly constituted, or in the absence of such ACO by ___________________. (As used in paragraphs (b) and (d) of the foregoing clause, the term “Contracting Officer (CO)” means the “Procurement Contracting Officer (PCO)” or the “Administrative Contracting Officer (ACO)” if the contract provides that orders may be issued and priced by the ACO. The PCO or ACO may authorize only Class I engineering changes and major deviations which have been approved by the Procuring Activity Change Control Board (CCB). The PCO and ACO may authorize only critical deviations involving safety that have been approved by Procuring Activity Change Control Board (CCB) and by the Program Mgt Office.© ARTIS Professionals, LLC 23
  24. 24. Technical Data Packages Verbatim per MIL-HDBK-61A(SE)… Technical & Management Consultants Contracts should include contractual language for the Acquirer to receive a Technical Data Package (TDP) as a deliverable, prior to system acceptance, which contains hardware and software artifacts for a Product Baseline. This is in case the Acquirer and Contractor part ways, or the Contractor or subcontractor go out of business. Otherwise, the Acquirer will lose the capacity to own or change drawings for Operations & Maintenance. Here’s a sample of SOW language to prevent that from happening: Any end-item artifacts or data items (drawings, documents, software code, bill of materials, parts lists, vendor data sheets, etc.) created, revised, or used in the identification or traceability of program requirements, configuration items or baselines, is to be documented by the Contractor and is subject to review, concurrence and/or approval by the Acquirer prior to acceptance or deployment. [See CDRL XXXX] These data items shall:  Support the installation, fabrication and/or production of the system, product or CI  Fully document CIs and their relationship to next higher assemblies  Be available in the following formats:  For 2D as-built (production) drawings, AutoCAD, Rev. 14 or higher  Separate bills-of-material (BOMs), using MS Excel v2003 or higher  Vendor data sheets (web/catalog data) for COTS end-items  Level III production (as-built) drawings per MIL-DTL-31000C  Be delivered in a technical data package (TDP) on electronic media consisting of working AutoCAD files (.cad), working Microsoft files (.doc, .xls, .ppt, .mdb), in addition to electronic copies of those same files via Acrobat files (.pdf).© ARTIS Professionals, LLC 24
  25. 25. Generic Contract Language Select embedded file for SOW language… Technical & Management Consultants The embedded file below is for Statements of Work (SOW) regarding Configuration Management (CM) contractual language, and includes the following: 1.Identification of Baseline Configuration Items (CIs) 2.Configuration Control Authority (CCA) 3.Current Document Change Authority (CDCA) 4.Class II ECP Concurrences 5.Class I ECP Approvals 6.CM Definitions 7.CM Acronyms CM SOW Language 8.CM Samples – Completed DID Forms 9.CM Samples – Contractor Deliverables 10.Technical Data Packages prior to Acceptance 11.Level III Production Drawings 12.Verification of Baselines (FCAs, PCAs, SVRs)© ARTIS Professionals, LLC 25
  26. 26. Class I Changes Verbatim per MIL-HDBK-61A(SE)… Technical & Management Consultants 6.2.1.4a Dispositioning Class I ECPs Class I ECPs (see Table 6-2) must be dispositioned (approved or disapproved) for implementation by a properly constituted government Configuration Control Board (CCB). After the CCB direction is issued, it is important to proceed expeditiously with the "definitization" process (obtaining a pricing proposal, auditing, fact finding, and negotiating the final price) for this change and issuing a supplemental agreement. Until the contract modification is received and bi-laterally agreed to by the Government and the contractor, the contractor is not authorized to proceed with the implementation of the proposed change. The contractual approval or disapproval of an ECP should not be confused with the acceptance and approval of the ECP as a data deliverable. Approval of the ECP data delivery required by CDRL / DD-Form-1423 signifies only that the ECP satisfies the requirements of the ECP DID and is considered acceptable for government processing. Acceptance of the data deliverable does not signify "technical approval" of the change proposed by the ECP and should not be interpreted as authorizing the performing activity to proceed with the work proposed by the ECP.© ARTIS Professionals, LLC 26
  27. 27. Class II Changes Verbatim per MIL-HDBK-61A(SE)… Technical & Management Consultants 6.2.1.4b Dispositioning Class II ECPs Unless otherwise specified by contract (e.g., as part of the Single Process Initiative), the government administrative contracting officer or plant representative serves as the dispositioning authority for Class II ECPs. The default action required on Class II changes is concurrence / non- concurrence in classification only, unless the contract requires approval or disapproval. Government concurrence in Class II ECP classification normally allows the contractor to incorporate the change in the applicable CI and update its configuration documentation without any further government action or authorization being required. A non-concurrence in classification will normally result in the Class II ECP being canceled or reclassified to a Class I ECP. [See CM Note (Not in MIL-HDBK-61A(SE)] The government should require approval/disapproval of class II ECPS only when the Government is the CDCA for the original drawings, or data files, and compliance with the specific detailed design is a requirement of the contract. If there is a government ACO or plant representative available, the Government tasking activity may elect to have the ACO or representative review the proposed class II changes for concurrence in classification before they are submitted to the government tasking/procuring activity (that is the CDCA) for approval. CM Note: This is a two-edged sword, because a Class I change normally forces the government’s hand regarding a Contract Modification, with budgetary and scheduling changes in the Contractor’s favor. The lesson learned here: Never micromanage Class II changes once concurrence is given. If government wants to micromanage development of any CI not previously agreed-upon, by all means push for a reclassification, but be ready to pay for it.© ARTIS Professionals, LLC 27
  28. 28. Review & Disposition Verbatim per MIL-HDBK-61A(SE)… Technical & Management Consultants© ARTIS Professionals, LLC 28
  29. 29. ECP Guidance Verbatim per MIL-HDBK-61A(SE)… Technical & Management Consultants MIL-HDBK-61A(SE), Table 6-2 states: 1. The first criteria for ECP (both Class I and Class II) is that it is an engineering change; it must affect approved configuration documentation. 2. Furthermore an ECP is limited to a change to approved configuration documentation that is under Government configuration control; it must require a change to a document for which the Government (tasking activity) is the current document control authority (CDCA) or which is cited in a contract. a. The Government becomes the CDCA in several ways: • Provide the document as a Government document with Government CAGE code identification • Approve a contractor document and assume control by transferring CDCA and adding a Government CAGE code to the document. b. The Government cites a configuration document in the contract in several ways: • Specifically addressing it, as in “Provide the system in accordance with Specification Performance Specification number __________________.” • Defining in the SOW or CDRL, that the system performance specification, allocated performance specifications for specific CIs, and where applicable (e.g., in a design based acquisition) the product configuration documentation, shall be submitted for Government approval and configuration control. • Adding specific documents to the SOW by contract modification© ARTIS Professionals, LLC 29
  30. 30. ECP Guidance Continued… Technical & Management Consultants MIL-HDBK-61A(SE), Table 6-2 states: 3. Items (1), (2), and (3) amplify the criteria by providing specific evaluation factors to use in judging whether a proposed change to any document must be processed as a Class I or Class II ECP: Item (1) Since there are both contractor-approved and Government-approved configuration documents, any change to contractor approved requirements must be examined to determine if it also impacts Government approved (CDCA or contractually cited) configuration documentation. Item (2) This item concerns a change to Government controlled configuration documents, which if it did not impact cost, warranties, or milestones would not otherwise be class I. A change to contractor-controlled configuration documentation which might also affect cost, warranties or milestones, does not require a class I ECP because it is not a Government configuration control issue – it is treated like a commercial item, i.e., the contractor is obligated to the contract provisions but can change the design of the product so long as it meets the specified performance requirements. If the contractor’s design change makes the end product more or less costly, the contractor either absorbs the increase or benefits from the savings. The Contractor must initiate contractual change action, outside the scope of configuration control, in order to change the contract cost, warranties or milestones. Item (3) Provides some factors to evaluate when examining a proposed change to Government- controlled product configuration documentation. Many of these factors are specified by requirements in functional and allocated configuration documentation, covered by Item (1). A proposed change to PCD must be examined to see it impacts functional or allocated requirements.© ARTIS Professionals, LLC 30
  31. 31. Class I Definition Anything else is a Class II… Technical & Management Consultants MIL-HDBK-61A (SE) Table 6-2): A “Class I” ECP proposing a change to approved configuration baselines for which the Government is the Current Document Change Authority (CDCA) that has been included in the Contract or Statement of Work by the Tasking Activity, and: (1) Affects any physical or functional requirement in approved functional or allocated configuration documentation, or (2) Affects any approved functional, allocated or product configuration documentation, and cost, warranties or contract milestones, or (3) Affects approved product configuration documentation and one or more of the following: (a) government furnished equipment, (b) safety, (c) compatibility, interoperability, or logistic support, (d) delivered technical manuals for which changes are not funded, (e) will require retrofit of delivered units, (f) preset adjustments or schedules affecting operating limits or performance to the extent that a new identification number is required, (g) interchangeability, substitutability, or replacing items in a non-repairable subassembly (h) sources on a source control drawing, (i) skills, manning, training, biomedical factors or human engineering design.© ARTIS Professionals, LLC 31
  32. 32. Technical & Management Consultants Background Slides© ARTIS Professionals, LLC 32
  33. 33. A History of CM The military created CM to replicate weapons systems… Technical & Management Consultants DoD CM Standards and Specs were released… MIL-HDBK-61A© ARTIS Professionals, LLC 33
  34. 34. Configuration Items Technical & Management Consultants Configuration items (CIs) were first used by the Department of Defense in the late 1960s, early 1970s. The most explicit instructions on how they were to be used, and how they relate to other CM practices, were provided in the following MIL Standards: MIL-STD-483A Configuration Management Practices for Systems, Equipment, Munitions and Computer Programs 4 June 1985 MIL-STD-480B Configuration Control for Engineering Changes, Deviations and Waivers 15 July 1988© ARTIS Professionals, LLC 34
  35. 35. MIL-STD-480 Definitions Technical & Management Consultants Baseline Baselines, plus approved changes, constitute the current approved configuration. For CM purposes, there are 3 baselines established sequentially, as follows: • Functional Baseline (high-level system) • Allocated Baseline (separate developmental segments or CIs) • Product Baseline (as produced) Configuration Identification The selection of documents to comprise the baseline for the system and CIs and the numbers and other identifiers affixed to items and documents. Configuration Control The systematic proposal, justification, evaluation, coordination, approval or disapproval of proposed changes in the configuration of a CI after formal establishment of its baseline. Configuration Management A discipline applying technical and administrative direction and surveillance to (a) identify and document the physical and functional characteristics of CIs, (b) audit CIs to verify conformance to documented requirements, (c) control changes to CIs and their related documentation and (d) record and report the status of proposed changes and the implementation status of approved changes.© ARTIS Professionals, LLC 35
  36. 36. MIL-STD-483 Definitions Technical & Management Consultants Part Number All discrete parts, assemblies and units shall be identified by part numbers in accordance with DOD-STD-100. MIL-STD-483A, Appendix IX Configuration Item Identification Numbers A family of like-units of a configuration item that individually satisfies prescribed functional requirements shall (in addition to a part number) be identified by an unchanging base number such as a CI identification number or a type-model-series designator. The CI number… a. Shall establish a base for serializing individual units of a CI; b. Shall not change when the unit is modified; c. Shall remain the same even though the CI may have more than one application or be reprocured from different contractors; d. Shall be composed of seven digits of alpha-numeric characters. MIL-STD-483A, Appendix IX Serial and Lot Numbers A single unit or lot in a family of like-units of a CI shall be permanently and uniquely identified by a serial or lot number. The serial or lot number shall not exceed 15 digits of alpha-numeric characters. It shall be assigned sequentially and shall be numeric in the last four digits. MIL-STD-483A, Appendix IX© ARTIS Professionals, LLC 36
  37. 37. CI Guidelines Technical & Management Consultants Configuration Item (CI) An aggregation of hardware, firmware, software or any of its discrete portions, which satisfies an end use function and is designated for configuration management. Any item required for logistic support and designated for separate procurement is a CI. MIL-STD-480B, Page 6 Level of Government Control The CI selection process separates the elements of a system into individually identified subsets for the purpose of managing their development. CI selection reflects an optimum management level during acquisition. The contracting agency contracts at this level. MIL-STD-483A, Page 13 Logistics and Life Cycle Considerations The CI selection should be determined by a need to control a CIs inherent characteristics or its interface with other CIs. Selection is normally accomplished through the systems engineering process in conjunction with Configuration Mgt and the participation of Logistics. Choosing too many CIs increases the cost of control. Choosing too few runs the risk of too little control. CI selections are made accordingly. MIL-STD-483A, pgs 113, 114 Common Subsystem Considerations On development programs that are common to more than one system, the basic CI should be that which is common to all applications. MIL-STD-483A, Page 113 Interfaces Interfaces among CIs should be simple. Functions that are highly interdependent should be allocated to the same CI. MIL-STD-483A, Page 115© ARTIS Professionals, LLC 37
  38. 38. Computer Software CIs ITIL: Information Technology Infrastructure Library… Technical & Management Consultants IT systems and software developers define CIs differently: "A configuration item (CI) is any component of an IT infrastructure, including a documentary item such as a service level agreement or a request for change, which is (or is to be) under the control of configuration management and therefore subject to formal change control. The lowest level CI is normally the smallest unit that will be changed independently of other components. CIs may vary widely in complexity, size and type, from an entire service (including all its hardware, software, documentation, etc.) to a single program module or a minor hardware component. All existing or potential service problems will be capable of being linked to one or more CIs.”Guidelines for selecting CIs Per SEI’s CMMI guidelines are: • Work products that may be used by 2 or more groups • Work products that are expected to change over time • Work products wherein a change to one causes others to change • Work products that are critical for the project. The following work products are examples of CIs per CMMI: Process descriptions Test Results Requirements Interface Descriptions Design Code / Module Test plans and procedures Tools (i.e., compliers)© ARTIS Professionals, LLC 38
  39. 39. CM Reference Material Technical & Management Consultants Software Configuration Management Patterns: Effective Teamwork, Practical Integration, Steve P. Berczuk, Brad Appleton, Addison Wesley, 2002, ISBN 0201741172 CMII for Business Process Infrastructure, Vincent C. Guess, Holly Pub., 2002, ISBN 0972058206 Practical CM: Best Configuration Management Practices for the 21st Century (with CD-Rom), David D. Lyon, Raven Pub Co, 2002, ISBN 0966124820 Managing the Change: Software Configuration & Change Management, Michael Haug, Eric W. Olsen, Springer Verlag, 2001, ISBN 3540417850 Developing and Managing Engineering Procedures: Concepts and Applications, Phillip A. Cloud, William Andrew Publishing, LLC, 2000, ISBN 0815514484 Engineering Documentation Control Handbook: Configuration Management in Industry, Frank B. Watts, Second Edition, William Andrew Publishing, 2000, ISBN 0-8155-1446-8 Configuration Management: The Missing Link in Web Engineering, Susan Dart, Artech House, 2000, ISBN 1580530982 A Guide to Software Configuration Management, Alexis Leon, Artech House, 2000, ISBN 1580530729 Software CM Strategies and Rational ClearCase: A Practical Introduction (TheADDP9 Object Technology Series), Brad A. White, Geoffrey M. Clemm, Addison Wesley Professional, 2000, ISBN 0201604787 Engineering Procedures Handbook, Phillip A. Cloud, Noyes Publications, 1998, ISBN 0815514107 Bills of Material : Structured for Excellence, Dave Garwood, Dogwood Publishing Co. Inc., 1997, ISBN 0062111899 Practical Software Configuration Management: The Latenight Developers Handbook (Book /CD-ROM), Tim Mikkelsen, Susan Pherigo, Prentice Hall PTR, 1997, ISBN 0132408546 Engineering Documentation Control Practices & Procedures, Ray E. Monahan, Marcel Dekker, 1995, ISBN 0824795741 Implementing Configuration Management, Fletcher J. Buckley, IEEE Press, 1993, ISBN 0-7803-0435-7 Software Configuration Management (Wiley Series in Software Engineering Practice), H. Ronald Berlack, John Wiley & Sons, 1991, ISBN 0471530492 Fundamentals of Configuration Mgt, Thomas T. Samaras, Frank L. Czerwinski, Wiley-Interscience, 1971, ISBN 0-471-75100-6© ARTIS Professionals, LLC 39
  40. 40. Contact Information Technical & Management Consultants Timothy R. Ferguson, CMIIP Sr. Configuration and Data Manager ARTIS Professionals, LLC 5877 Little Road Lothian, Maryland 20711 Cell: 410-259-6873 ConfigurationManager@Live.com DUNS: 078571297 CAGE: 6ALJ4© ARTIS Professionals, LLC “CMIIP” Trademark, Institute of Configuration Mgt 40
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