Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Miniupa2011 lepore
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Miniupa2011 lepore


Published on

1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide
  • Story of my backgroundThe emergence of a participatory culture and people-centered design will affect what companies design and produce in the future/It will also affect how companies go about designing
  • Many of us talk about being user-centered, and most of us want to be user-centered designers. But what does that really mean? And how do you take the understanding you gain from user research and do something meaningful with it for an innovative outcome?
  • Theatrical tradition dates back far in our history and has long been a success means of gaining empathyTheater has long given people—artists in particular—a means of interacting with their communitiesAs business becomes more dependant on knowledge to create value, work becomes more like art (artful making what managers need to know)Theater will allow the transformation into an artistic process that will be truly human-centered//LM – NICE!
  • What is it about theatrical practice that drives this empathy though? What makes it so proven? There are 2 major aspects….Artful making -
  • Peter Brooks – his ideas of rough, holy, immediate and deadly theater. Immediacy is the best route to empathy.Immediacy means being in touch with not only the people, but natural environment – the whole picture. This fits in nicely with the ideas of Austin and Devin/artful making who believe innovation emerges from iterative process.
  • The story about first rehearsal
  • It takes multiple iterations to move from the first stumbling rehearsal through getting the blocking down, memorizing our lines, working through the characters and the scenes; adding our costumes, stage settings, and lighting; and finally, arriving at the final production.Looking at the three activities by which Brooks says we can achieve this kind of emergent outcome that immediacy provideswe can begin to see the overlap between the rehearsal process and product development.Break the straight line – and you’ll infuse creativity
  • As you move forward your iterations get smaller, closer together and more refined. Each phase requires an increasing amount of commitment, communicates a different thing and has a more increased level of fidelity. You may go back to a different phase if needed even.
  • It’s your job to make sure that empathetic understanding is always carried throughTable talk – the initial discussion of the script – the story, the characters, intents, setting, and so forthThrough line – is how the threads of the story are carried throughAlso goes with Twyla Tharp’s “spine” and the goal on the index card that goes in the box. Do table talk to get your team on the same page. If you are getting off track along the way, don’t hesitate to do more table talk.Understand and maintain the overall through line — and the actions and intentions for achieving it.Break the work into manageable pieces. Don’t get overwhelmed by trying to tackle the whole thing at once. Do frequent run-throughs in the context of the whole through line once you design each chunk.Check in with your audience at reasonable points to understand the level of user acceptance you’ve achieved. Then, fine tune.
  • Have you ever seen really good improv? Did you walk out of the experience willing to swear that the actors had rehearsed it ahead of time or it was some kind of magic? I’ll let you in on an actor’s secret: chances are the work was neither rehearsed nor magic! What’s more likely is that the group performing the improv was a true ensemble of actors who had trained and practiced the principles of improv and were accustomed to working together.
  • The story from peformance and community (chris grabbing me)The reason an ensemble works so well is that it comprises people whose knowledge you can rely on—one person doesn’t have to know everything. This is also why it’s best to have a multidisciplinary team, so you can take advantage of people’s different insights, perspectives, and knowledge.”
  • “Empathy with the user is a powerful tool for innovation. It gives you insight into the problem, but even more important, it makes you care about the outcome.”
  • Let me give you an example of what I’m talking about. If I walked up to your team and asked for some Spanish carpets to store some papers in, you would probably look at me like I was crazy. But I recently worked with a team for whom this term was an important communication clarifier. It also happened to be a funny joke.
  • Participarty activities need some way to be managed…forum theater is a way to do so…part of boal’s theater of the oppressedStart by having the core members of your group—the people with the best knowledge of the particular problem the story would address—work on the definition and improvisation of a specific problem or story.I encourage you to do a physical enactment, as well as communicating your story visually by capturing your scenario in sketches. If you’ve created personas, this would be the perfect opportunity to embody them, as I described in my UXmatters column “What’s My Persona? Developing a Deep and Dimensioned Character.” Defining the specific problem you’re addressing, then enacting your story provide the scaffolding your more hesitant participants need to become engaged and find a clear way to contributing when you present your story to the larger group. It is much less scary to start from this shared experience than from scratch. Coming up with multiple scenarios may require a few different groups to tackle different issues, but they can work in parallel.At this point, the remaining members of the larger group can become spect-designers and jump in with their own ideas and potential solutions.Whether they participate through physical enactment or by adding to the sketches, they can help fill in the gaps or provide a wider range of perspectives that inform potential solutions. It is my belief that the concepts the group develops would be richer and more diverse, because of everyone’s contributions.Finally, evaluate the concepts as potential solutions.The point of brainstorming is to pull out the broadest sweep of potential solutions from participants, so save evaluation for this explicit step. Nothing hinders creativity more than the fear of looking or sounding silly, so reserve judgment till you’ve gathered everyone’s ideas. Then, if you truly want to understand which concepts are the right ones, test them with actual users.
  • Transcript

    • 1. I’m in the user’s shoes, now what?
      How finding an empathetically user-centered perspective on design builds innovation
      May 2011
      Traci Lepore
      Principal Interaction Designer
      Twitter: @traciuxd
    • 2. If this is the direction we are moving, the way we work needs to change – we need to be more user-centered
      UXD today and the need for a new approach
      Design is moving from being an engineering focused practice to a human experience focused practice
      With that transition understanding the user’s experience becomes important
      The availability of new technologies with more sophisticated and physical interaction requires deeper understanding of context of the experience
    • 3. Towards a user-centered process
      Empathy: The power of entering into another’s personality and imaginatively experiencing his experiences: the power of entering into the feeling or spirit of something…and so appreciating it fully. (Greek: en, in, pathos, feeling)
      The designer learns from experiencing the user andworks for the experience of the user
      The designer, user and product are not separate - successful design of experiences requires empathy
      Empathy is the heart of UXD
    • 4. It’s a natural parallel artistic process to turn to for help
      Theater teaches us empathy
      Theatrical approaches to UXD could provide:
      A useful way of establishing a common, shared context for audience participants
      Instruction in engaging and insightful communication and teamwork
      Encouragement of dialog and suggestions of solutions betweendesigners and users
      Opportunity to test those suggestions
      Iteration that allows changes to be incorporated immediately and tested again
    • 5. The route to empathy already exists in typical UXD process and people – it just needs some enhancement
      Empathetic UXD should work like an art process…
      If UXD was user-centered and empathetic like theater it would have:
      A production process that includes:
      Rapid iteration
      Cyclical rehearsal, not linear movement towards the end product
      Strategy creation and direction
      Worked by an ensemble that:
      Know and trust each other
      Have shared language and domain knowledge
      Engage in improvisation & innovative play
      Have a forum for design negotiation
    • 6. The Production Process
    • 7. Immediacy in UXD = iteration…
      Maintaining immediacy drives timely empathy
      Immediacy: a reflection of the here and now and evolves from observation of the world around us
      Maintaining Immediacy requires committing to a truly user-centered process which:
      Gathers requirements from users
      Produces concepts based on those requirements
      Validates them with users again before beginning to develop
      And immediacy doesn’t end at the release, immediacy means continual assessment and iteration
    • 8. Out of the chaos comes structure and delight
      Iteration leads to innovation
      Try lots of ideas in a short period of time
      Get everyone’s input – make use of the ensemble
      Use your wealth of stored and shared stimuli and experiences
      Experiment and find metaphors and analogies
      Throw out what doesn’t work, letting you keep what does
      Allows for failure in a safe environment
      Keeps you from having to go with the first idea –no matter whether it’s the best or not
      Keep the immediacy
      Constant check and balance against the user stories and needs
      Keeps freshness
    • 9. The building blocks of iteration
      Rehearsal processes aren’t much different than product development
      Break the straight line by thinking in multiple chunks of the building blocks you put together
    • 10. The phases of iteration
      Concept Validation
      Ideas drop off – commit to viable options
      Level of Fidelity
      Run Through
      Dress Rehearsal
      Ideas, possibilities to pursue
      Structure, overall flow
      Structure, flow, & details (w/o final visual design)
      Final branded and fully developed product
      Be clear about what phase you are in and what you are communicating
    • 11. It’s up to you to maintain the forward motion
      The UX designer’s role – driving the vision
      Getting help along the way:
      Do the table talk – discuss the vision and have a shared understanding
      Be clear about the story and the intents
      Break the work into manageable pieces and the run through multiple pieces together as a whole
      Check in with your audience at reasonable points, then fine tune
    • 12. Promotes empathy, which leads to innovation
      The empathetic UXD production process
      An immediate, iterative and artistic process pulls it all together
    • 13. Ensembles, Improv and Innovation
    • 14. No one can do it alone and unconnected
      It takes a village…
      Empathy requires that you understand
      The whole picture
      The users
      The team
      The context and domain of your design problem
      The physical and cultural environment
      That an ensemble gives you the best chance of understanding the whole picture
      The power of empathy derived from the ensemble drives spontaneity and innovation
    • 15. Being connected to a whole larger than yourself evokes the kind of empathy that makes magic happen
      Ensembles deliver innovation – not magic!
      Misconception: Innovation happens spontaneously – therefore is magic
      Reality: Alot of individual work and teamwork goes into spontaneity
      An ensemble can:
      Be spontaneous, or improvise in the moment when needed
      Successfully work as a group tobrainstorm and evaluate
      Draw on the skills of a whole that is larger than any one individual
      Provide empathy for more than just the user – but also the group and the environment
    • 16. An ensemble is more than just a team
      Working together in a group is difficult. To be an ensemble and not just a team requires:
      Practice in the core principles of improvisation
      The ability to recombine and reincorporate things you already know
      A multidisciplinary team to split the work of obtaining domain knowledge
      Shared experiences, language, and gestures
      Warming up before brainstorming
      Negotiation during the brainstorming
      Ensembles don’t happen overnight just because you put people together
    • 17. An ongoing preparation task for the individual & group
      Ready, set, improvise!
      Creativity and spontaneity
      Build up your stimuli and input reserves
      Warm up and play games
      Be OK with failure
      Trust and collaboration
      Know your team
      Focus on being present
      Skillful improvisation
      Follow the rules of “Yes, and…”
      Rely on the first two points
    • 18. The best way to understand the user’s world is to engage in it
      Stealing isn’t illegal, it’s encouraged!
      “Playing Degas” A role playing game to help Picasso understand the innovators around him
      Innovation comes from empathetic understanding of
      Other creators
      Which lets you
      Be in tune with the world
      Combine listening and action
      So you can call on those tools at any time - spontaneously
    • 19. Improv that is truly spontaneous requires deeper communication capabilities in the ensemble
      Shared language – the secret sauce of improv
      “A shared language … becomes a critical factor in the kind of improvisation that leads to innovation. A shared language is the key thing you can rely on and fall back on in moments of spontaneity with your ensemble. And it is what makes improvisation fast, smooth, and seamless.”
      Shared language doesn’t have to be verbal; it can include gestures and shared experiences the group has had together.
    • 20. All design is a negotiation, so take advantage of it!
      A forum for design negotiation
      Small subgroup of the ensemble define and improvise the embodiment of a specific problem or issue
      Leverage the members who know the most about the context
      Scaffold structure makes it less scary for the larger group
      Presenting the embodied issues to a larger group in a participatory experience by
      Let members of the larger group jump in with their variations on the story
      Fill in gaps, and get all perspectives
      Defer evaluation until the process has revealed everyone’s concepts and ideas
      Don’t hinder the creativity!
    • 21. Empathic UXD leads to innovation
    • 22. We can learn from theater how to derive more empathy in our UXD processes
      Today’s UXD world requires more empathy
      The way we go about the business of user experience design is changing
      There is a move to focus on the human aspects of design, not the technical
      This change, along with increasing complexity in available technologies and experiences, make it imperative that designers have an empathetic perspective
      Theatrical techniques and methods can help support building that empathetic perspective when infused into various points in already existing design processes
    • 23. Empathetic UXD perspectives drive innovation
      Through an immediate, iterative and artistic process
      That builds on understanding of needs by the use of characters and storytelling of requirements
      Validates & refines ideas through iterative runs of work - shared with users in participatory exercises
      Communicates the design story for buy in
      Worked by a group
      That does the work of building an ensemble capable of improvising
      Has a shared language
      Can negotiate successfully in a participatory exercise
    • 24. Find out more on
      The Holy Grail of Innovation: It Takes an Ensemble to Achieve Inspired Creativity
      Sketches and Wireframes and Prototypes! Oh My! Creating Your Own Magical Wizard Experience
      I Have an Idea! Forums for Design Conversations and Negotiations
      Putting Together a Production: A Rehearsal Strategy for Design
      The UX Designer’s Place in the Ensemble: Directing the Vision
      What Place Does Theater Have in the Creative Process of Design?
    • 25. Great books to read
      “Artful Making: What Managers Need to Know About How Artists Work” by Robert Austin and Lee Devin
      “The Creative Habit: Learn it and Use it for Life” by Twyla Tharp
      “The Empty Space” by Peter Brook
      “Games for Actors and Non-Actors” by Augusto Boal