Light of Hope University


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The Light of Hope University is a project of Engineering Ministries International (EMI), a
non-profit Christian development organization made up of architects, engineers and design professionals who donate their skills to help children and families around the world step out of poverty and into a world of hope.

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Light of Hope University

  1. 1. The Light of Hope University in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso Engineering Ministries International Project 5488 Light of Hope University Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
  2. 2. The Vision The Seal Background and Village of Hope Light of Hope University In 2001 The Village of Hope was founded on the legacy of one College education is not readily available to people in Burkina Faso. adopted child, Sarah. Pastor Michel Ouedraogo had been evangeliz- Christian colleges and universities are rarely found anywhere across ing in Burkina Faso among local villages for several years, but he had all of West Africa. According to the Association of African Universities, been continually ejected from one area based on his spiritual message there are only 213 universities in the entire African continent, and very of Jesus Christ. Pastor Michel and his wife Lydia adopted Sarah from few of these teach Christian principles. Burkina Faso and Africa are in one of the villages. Raised in the Ouedraogo household, Sarah grew up need of a university that is able to teach a meaningful curriculum part- to study and become a nurse. Once Sarah graduated nursing school, nered with the Word of God. she went home to her original village to help those that had refused to listen to Pastor Michel. Through Sarah’s care, local villagers began entrusting Pastor Michel with more and more children. Today, Pastor Michel cares for over 400 children, providing food, shelter, and an edu- cation at their boarding school – The Village of Hope. Just as Sarah did, these children return to their villages several times each year to share the word of God. Purpose Light of Hope University has its name expressed in its logo. The symbol of the university is actually two symbols combined: one of a lighthouse shining out to the world and one of a road leading to that lighthouse. The lighthouse is representative of Christ shining as a light to the world. A Christian university among a predominantly uneducated and Muslim region of Africa will indeed serve as a light in the darkness. The road is representative of a way of getting to that Light. The university hopes to be a road leading students to the life of Jesus Christ. The logo designed by the Light of Hope represents everything the Uni- versity hopes to accomplish. The Light of Hope University hopes to lead people to a life in Christ by providing an education in an area of the world where it is not available. They also hope graduates from the Light of Hope University will be able to reflect the same light they have seen to the people they encounter everyday in their communities. Boarding school children at The Village of Hope Light of Hope University 1
  3. 3. Light of Hope University Western African Education Islam first moved into Western Africa around 700 AD, and continues to be the national religion of many North, Western, and Sub-Saharan Afri- can countries. In recent years, Christianity has made an impact in these regions of Africa, but Christians are still a small percentage of the popu- lation. Because of the large Islamic population, most of the universities that are constructed serve Muslims. Burkina Faso is a centrally located West African country that is able to serve a wide variety of students. Light of Hope University plans to provide a quality Christian educa- tion to students throughout the continent of Africa. Initially planning to offer a wide variety of curriculums including business administration, finance, marketing, project and human resource management and in- surance, the Light of Hope University is also planning later programs to include theology, medicine, law, and arts and letters. The vision is to provide an education and accredited degrees to students so that they may provide a Christian influence in the African workplace. Lecture hall at the university in Ouagadougou The level of education will be competi- tive with any other program throughout all of Africa by implementing the best teaching methods available and pro- viding facilities conducive to learning. The campus will also provide various forms of entertainment and enrichment venues for both the students and the city of Ouagadougou. A state-of-the-art amphitheater and sports complex will host these events. Students accepted to the university will be required to pay an enrollment fee, but scholarship op- portunities will also be available. Students waiting for class at the only university in Ouagadougou Light of Hope University 2
  4. 4. The Site The current site is located adjacent to the existing Village of Hope prop- erty. This page shows a picture of the existing site and a proposed site layout. In order to accommodate a 30,000 student master plan the ministry will need to purchase additional land that is suitable for cam- pus development. The proposed site is bordered to the east by a ravine that overlooks a valley that will provide a beautiful view for students and faculty. The roadway to the north of the site is a major commerce road in Burkina Faso and will provide easy access to the campus for all students and future events. Master Plan Rationale Development will progress in phases with construction of the first phase to be completed near the existing property and expanding south and east as the university grows. The ravine to the right of the central road provides a beautiful vista, however, the topography prevents any de- velopment except small scale residential growth in certain areas. Since the first EMI team visited the site in March 2009, the government com- mitted to a new property boundary in April 2009 which is expected to allow enough land for this proposed master plan but future EMI teams will need to modify the proposed site master plan and/or modify the new site boundaries. The African University Light of Hope University 3
  5. 5. The chart below shows the planned enrollment and staffing in each The Concept phase. In developing the campus master plan, the EMI design team was asked Students - Staff Phase I Phase II Phase III Final Phase to focus on the following design priorities: Students 500 1,500 9,000 30,000 • Natural ventilation and natural lighting On Site (80%) 400 1,200 7,200 24,000 • Ultimate total capacity of 30,000 students Off Site (20%) 100 300 1,800 6,000 • 80% of students expected to live in on-campus dormitories • 5 to 10 different degree programs Lecturers 9 27 100 290 • Dormitories and classroom buildings are the first priority Staff 5 15 80 240 Guest (max) 4 12 20 50 The design of a dormitory, classroom building, kitchen and dining hall, Personnel (Admin) 10 16 31 66 and outdoor space became the basic components of Phase I that can Personnel (FTE) 10 20 40 80 be easily repeated or modified in later phases. Phase I will build: In the final build-out, the campus will • 2 dormitories total: • 1 dining hall • 120 dormitories, • 1 classroom building • 20 dining halls, • 2 homes for guest lecturers • 40 classroom buildings, • 25 guest lecturer homes, Phase II will build: • 1 administration building, • 4 more dormitories • 2 libraries with student unions • 1 classroom building • 2 maintenance buildings • 4 additional guest lecturer homes • 3 recreation centers • 1 auditorium. Phase III will build: • 30 dormitories • 5 dining halls • 10 classroom buildings • 6 guest lecturer homes • 1 administration and security building • 1 library with a student union • 1 maintenance building • 1 recreation center • 1 auditorium See Appendix 1.1 for a list of program spaces along with their respec- tive square meters. Light of Hope University 4
  6. 6. Campus Layout Aerial view of campus looking north Individual dormitory building Campus view of dormitories New dormitory Light of Hope University 5
  7. 7. Dormitory Design The dormitory design is based on the goal of providing adequate light- ing and ventilation while maintaining lower energy costs. Light of Hope University 6
  8. 8. Classroom Building Design The classroom design is based on the goal of providing adequate lighting and ventilation while maintaining lower energy costs. Campus view of classrooms and dormitories Light of Hope University 7
  9. 9. The Design: Initial Phase and Final Build-Out Light of Hope University 8
  10. 10. Domestic Water In addition to the supply wells, water storage is an important component of a distribution system. The storage tanks’ main intent is to provide In order to serve the expected population of the Light of Hope Univer- at least one day’s worth of water demand. However, an advantage to sity, domestic water use must be considered. This includes drinking more storage is a larger amount of water available for fire suppression water as well as water used daily for sanitation and basic needs. The and other emergencies. Additionally, more up front storage allows for current water supply wells and distribution lines are not adequate to future development to occur without the necessity of many new wells. serve the University. Based upon the ministry-recommended demand of 420 liters per capita per day (LPCPD) in order to have one day of storage, there need to Current Conditions be tanks totaling to 500 m3. This equates to four storage tanks sized During the site visit the EMI team was able to gather preliminary data 5m X 5m X 5m, one atop each dormitory laundry room and washroom. on the existing domestic water situation at the Village of Hope site. It Similar storage tanks should be built concurrent with the construction of was found that the current water supply is adequate for present use each future dormitory to provide necessary capacity. More information conditions. Additionally, the ministry has conducted previous water about water storage is in Appendix 3.1. tests and has reported that the water is more than acceptable for hu- man consumption. The existing aquifer must be tested or its production monitored to ensure it can keep up with the pumping requirements and still support the Village of Hope. Proposed Recommendations EMI recommends using additional ground wells as a water supply for the university. These wells would need to be drilled at least 30 meters away, and preferably uphill, from any washroom or washing facility to minimize the possibility of contamination. While the community and university board must agree on a desired level of service, EMI recom- mends the following conservative components as a basis for discus- sion for the University’s water distribution system. EMI recommends that the University constructs one well for the first two phases. This well must be capable of providing flows to serve the 1,200 planned students through Phase II. The university can then build additional wells on an as-needed basis and conduct thorough tests during normal operation. This will allow the wells to be used immediately and still give an accu- rate, ongoing analysis of the aquifer’s performance. See Appendix 2.1 for two options for aquifer testing. Light of Hope University 9
  11. 11. Wastewater Disposal Storm Water Management Traditional wastewater disposal techniques currently used at the Village Planning and designing for stormwater management in Burkina Faso, of Hope consist of traditional septic tanks and seepage pits. However, as in most West African countries, must account for a dry season and the Light of Hope University will require much more intense develop- a rainy season. These two seasons bring about unique design stipula- ment. tions. The design needs to account for the rainfall amounts in the rainy season without hindering operations in the dry season. Current Conditions Based on the excessive amount of rock present and unsatisfactory in- Current Conditions filtration rates, the design and use of traditional septic / drain field sys- The current site conditions are a volcanic rock surface with veins of tems will be severely restricted and are not recommended. However, porous soil intermingled. The ground is covered with dense vegetation, EMI recommends further examination of the newly obtained land. but the root base is very shallow so it isn’t expected to slow the water as it runs over the site. The slope of the land is very low, and water Possible Solution isn’t expected to run across the entire site. While inspecting the site, During the EMI team’s visit, Biological Filtration Plants were mentioned it appeared that in some areas water would sit on the surface and not as a possible solution. These treatment plants often times consist of infiltrate the ground water table. With these site conditions being con- sedimentation tanks, biological filters, and secondary sedimentation sidered and the level of rainfall being accounted for, it is clear that some tanks with sludge digesters. Disadvantages of these plants are: the ex- sort of water management will be needed in order to prevent problems pensive cost to build and maintain them; they require trained operators; in development of the university. they require a high amount of energy; generally they have been found to lead to sludge disposal problems in warm developing countries; and Proposed Recommendations the effluent reuse is not as feasible as wastewater stabilization ponds. Taking into account the rainfall and site conditions a channel is proposed However, advantages of the biological filtration plants are: they’re easy to front all major roadways. The channel will resemble the systems that to design; they take up much less land than wastewater stabilization are already in place throughout the city of Ouagadougou. The channels ponds; and they can be placed close to other development. will be covered with a pre-formed concrete slab cover that will provide small openings to allow for the water to enter, yet still keeping trash out. Proposed Recommendations The slab top will also serve as a sidewalk for pedestrians around cam- EMI recommends wastewater stabilization ponds used in conjunction pus. Water will get into the channels from areas around campus using with septic tanks to dispose of sanitary sewer waste. Waste stabilization site grading and other conduits to prevent the need for unwarranted ponds do not have the disadvantages of other options but do require infrastructure. The water will be directed towards the ravine where the much greater land. A typical Waste Stabilization Pond could take 20 water currently runs. Before releasing into the ravine, the water should times the amount of land of a Biological Filtration Plant. However, efflu- be retained through a reclaiming pit filled with water. The purpose of ent from the ponds is used in many places for both edible and inedible this pit is to slow the flow of the water down, and recharge the aquifer crop irrigation. Water reuse in this system increases both downstream with water that it depends on. water quality and crop production. See Appendix 4 for more informa- tion. Light of Hope University 10
  12. 12. Electrical Power Conclusion Existing Conditions Education is critical in teaching generations of people to advance civi- There is currently no municipal power to this region. The Village of Hope lization. The inaccessibility of education in the 21st century is an issue operates its own generator to provide for its power needs. However, needing a remedy. In Burkina Faso, the need for a Christian educa- while the EMI design team was on location, construction was underway tion is clear. Christian students are either being refused acceptance or to bring municipal power to the surrounding areas. harassed when applying for and attending college. The Light of Hope University is not a plan to isolate Christians as a way to prevent perse- Proposed Recommendations cution in Africa. It is a plan to provide an opportunity for the Gospel to It is expected that this new municipal power extension will provide for be heard and embraced alongside a winning education that prepares the needs of the new campus. Future engineering teams will need to students for the future and equips them to be a positive influence in address the total power needs and appropriate distribution strategies. their communities. Today, Pastor Michel and his wife along with over 400 children live at the Village of Hope adjacent to the proposed campus. Note: This report and the drawings within are the current vision for the Light of Hope University project. They represent final schematic design documents rather than con- struction documents. As such, design professionals must be consulted to continue the design, modify it as necessary, and create a comprehensive set of drawings that can be used for construction. Light of Hope University 11
  13. 13. Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Program of Spaces 1.1 Aquifer Testing 2.1 There are two options for aquifer testing: the first option is to conduct Building - Space Phase I Phase II Phase III Final Phase a standard draw down test with a test well. This would be done prior to actually using the wells, and it would require the continuous operation Dormitory 2,300* 6,900 41,400 138,000 1150 sqm each (2)** (6) (36) (120) of a pump for a minimum of 30 days at high flow rates while recording aquifer draw down levels. Operating the pump for so long and having Dining Hall & Kitchen 576 576 3,456 11,520 limited water storage capacity would not only waste potable water, but (1) (1) (6) (20) would also incur high costs due to electricity or fuel for the pump, so Classroom Bldg & 1,368 2,736 16,416 54,720 that option is not recommended. Lecture Halls (1) (2) (12) (40) Duplexes - 70sqm guest 140 420 700 1,750 The second method of testing the aquifer is a monitoring approach. lecturers (2) (6) (10) (25) This would allow for the use of the well for drinking water immediately. Gathering Space 600 600 3,600 12,000 The well would be monitored and aquifer levels recorded, but it need Outdoor & Covered (1) (1) (6) (20) not be operating continuously. Instead, the recorded information would Basketball Courts (1) (1) (6) (20) pertain to actual daily usage. Each additional well that was constructed Administration / 1,000 1,000 would implement this monitoring technique to keep a tab on the existing Security aquifer. It is important that good records of the aquifer performance are Library w/ Student Union 3,000 6,000 kept in order to maintain its sustainability. (1) (2) Maintenance Bldg 500 1,000 Recreation Complex 2,400 7,200 multi-purpose outdoor (1) (3) Auditorium - 4,000 cap 3,900 3,900 Part 1 and 2 - TOTAL 4,984 11,232 66,127 216,495 *All buildings listed in sq. meters **All building quantities shown as (X) Light of Hope University 12
  14. 14. Appendix 3 of policies and water and wastewater usage rates. These fees would help to alleviate capital costs associated with initial construction, as Water Storage 3.1 well as annual operation and maintenance costs. Regarding the cost There are several options available for water storage. The university of this project, the dense rock that must be drilled and excavated for can use two elevated tanks per dormitory area – one above the wash- the wells and piping will be need to be considered, and may drive up rooms and one above the laundry facility. With this method, new tanks construction costs. Otherwise, the costs should be similar to other simi- would be built with each additional dormitory. lar projects in the area with regards to mobilization of equipment and securing materials. A second option would be to construct one large elevated tank to sup- 1 ply each dormitory complex. This would incur high costs due to con- Lifewater Technical Note No. RWS. 1.P.1, pg. 4. struction, operation, and maintenance. A third option is to use a combination of large and small elevated tanks. This would allow the smaller tanks to offset some of the necessary storage in the large tank. However, the large tank would still incur high capital costs. Before deciding exact storage tank sizes or how many wells to drill, there must be a consensus on the desired level of service. Water us- age sources for developing areas recommend designing for 150 liters per capita per day (LPCPD)1. This would generally allow for basic water use, including bathing, cooking, and lavatory requirements. However, sources at the Village of Hope recommend 420 LPCPD, which is based on experience of average university students’ water usage. The design water usage would dramatically affect the required number of wells, and in turn, the storage requirements, and even piping sizes. For in- stance, at 150 LPCPD, a system storage capacity of 4,500 m3 would be required to supply one day of water for 30,000 without the pumps running; however, at 420 LPCPD, 12,600 m3 for water storage is neces- sary. The above recommendations simply provide a framework for the drink- ing water infrastructure requirements for the new university. A more thorough analysis must be completed to decide on specific piping sizes and materials, as well as pumps and construction methods for the wells. Alongside these decisions, it is common for a utility service of this size to elect a board of officials to oversee the selection and implementation Light of Hope University 13
  15. 15. Appendix 4 Wastewater Stabilization Pond 4.1 It was hoped that septic tank / drain field systems could be utilized to dispose of the wastewater. At the time of the site visit, only approxi- mately 10% of the required area for this project had been located. Vi- sually, it was estimated that approximately 80% of the project’s area had exposed volcanic rock. Several areas not covered by rock were evaluated for their infiltration potential. Two out of three of the tests resulted in no infiltration or infiltration rates of faster than 5 minutes per inch. Because of this, traditional septic tanks and drain field systems are unsuitable and not recommended. Although stabilization ponds require much more land, in some coun- tries, land owners gladly provide land to situate these stabilization ponds, due to the increased crop production by using the effluent for irrigation. Additionally, due to the presence of fractured rock, a pond lining will most likely be required if a wastewater stabilization pond is constructed. Discussions should be held between an engineer familiar with such de- sign techniques and the university’s Board. The Board should be edu- cated on the various options of wastewater disposal, associated instal- lation, maintenance, and administrative requirements of each system. Additionally, the following information will be vital to the exact design of waste stabilization ponds. Some typical questions to consider are: • Are there any cultural objections to waste stabilization ponds and water reuse? • Can adequate land be provided at least 500 km from dwellings? • Does the land have adequately slow infiltration rates? • Can adequately slow infiltration soil be imported to the site? • Water usage rates could vary significantly. What should initial designs be based on? Typical water uses vary from 150 liters per day to 420 liters per day. Light of Hope University 14
  16. 16. Wastewater Stabilization Pond 4.2 Waste Stabilization Pond Design Project: Light of Hope University, Burkina Faso Design: Rev Date: 27 July 2009 I. Design Assumptions and Requirements Case 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Enrollment capita 500 1500 7500 22500 500 1500 7500 22500 Per captia wastewater contribution lcd 80 80 80 80 336 336 336 336 Per capita BOD 5/ contribution gcd 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 Total infiltration to sewers estimated at m^3 / day 5 15 75 225 5 15 75 225 Influent bacterial concentration assumed FC / 100 ml 5.00E+07 5.00E+07 5.00E+07 5.00E+07 5.00E+07 5.00E+07 5.00E+07 5.00E+07 Mean minimum month temperature. °C 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 Effluent Standard required for unrestricted irrigation mg / l 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 Effluent Standard required for unrestricted irrigation FC / 100 ml 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 II. Design Calculations Sewage flow m^3 / day 40 120 600 1800 168 504 2520 7560 Sewage flow plus infiltration m^3 / day 45 135 675 2025 173 519 2595 7785 Total Organic Load kg 20 60 300 900 20 60 300 900 Influent BOD 5/ Concentration mg / l 444 444 444 444 116 116 116 116 III. Anaerobic Ponds Anaerobic volumetric loading. kg BOD 5//m^3/d 0.167 0.167 0.167 0.167 0.167 0.167 0.167 0.167 Volume of Ponds m^3 120 359 1796 5389 120 359 1796 5389 Check of detetion time based on loading rate and flow days 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 Increase to 2 if several month's temps are below 20C days 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 Revised volume of ponds m^3 121.5 364.5 1822.5 5467.5 467.1 1401.3 7006.5 21019.5 Assumed number of ponds to split volume into. # of ponds 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Assumed operational depth m 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Assumed width m 3 5 11 18 5 9 21 36 Assumed length m 6 10 21 37 11 19 42 72 Assumed operational depth ft 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 Assumed width ft 9 16 35 61 18 31 69 119 Assumed length ft 18 31 70 121 35 61 137 238 Reserve Ponds # of ponds 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Total Pond Area m^2 46 137 683 2050 175 525 2627 7882 Total Pond Area acres 0.011 0.034 0.169 0.507 0.043 0.130 0.649 1.948 Light of Hope University 15
  17. 17. Wastewater Stabilization Pond 4.2 IV. Facultative Ponds kg BOD 5/ha/day 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260 Removal rate of anaerobic pond. 54% 54% 54% 54% 54% 54% 54% 54% Influent BOD 5 to facultative pond. mg/l 207 207 207 207 54 54 54 54 Pond area m^2 358 1,073 5,365 16,096 358 1,073 5,365 16,096 Assumed depth m 1.75 1.75 1.75 1.75 1.75 1.75 1.75 1.75 Assumed volume m^3 626 1,878 9,389 28,168 626 1,878 9,389 28,168 Detention time of facultative pond days 13.9 13.9 13.9 13.9 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 Pond area acres 0.1 0.3 1.3 4.0 0.1 0.3 1.3 4.0 Probable BOD 5/ removal of Facultative Pond 78% 78% 78% 78% 78% 78% 78% 78% Cumulative removal 91% 91% 91% 91% 91% 91% 91% 91% V. Maturation Ponds FC removal rate day^(-1) 1.29653875 1.29653875 1.29653875 1.29653875 1.29653875 1.29653875 1.29653875 1.29653875 Assumed number of ponds in series # of ponds 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Assumed detention time days 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Bacterial concentration of effluent FC / 100 ml 1393 1393 1393 1393 4659 4659 4659 4659 Probable cumulative percentage removal an+fac+ 3*mat 95% 95% 95% 95% 95% 95% 95% 95% Effluent BOD 5/ mg / l 22 22 22 22 6 6 6 6 Maturation Pond Volume (Each) m^3 225 675 3375 10125 865 2595 12975 38925 Assumed depth m 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 Maturation Pond Area (Each) m^2 150 450 2250 6750 576.666667 1730 8650 25950 Assumed depth ft 4.9 4.9 4.9 4.9 4.9 4.9 4.9 4.9 Maturation Pond Area (Each) acres 0.0 0.1 0.6 1.7 0.1 0.4 2.1 6.4 VI. Conversion Factors 1 m^3 = 1000 l 1 m= 3.2808399 ft 1 m^2 = 0.0002471 acres Total of all three pond areas acres 0.21084302 0.63252905 3.16264526 9.48793578 0.55916138 1.67748414 8.38742069 References: 1. Basis of Design 2. 100 liters/capita/day, with 80% making it to sewage. World Bank, WTP7: Notes on the Design and Operation of Waste Stabilization Ponds in Warm Climates of Developing Countries. (Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 1983), 8 3. BBC Weather, BBC – Weather Center – World Weather – Average Conditions - Ouagadougou, available from; Internet, accessed 27, July 2009 4. World Bank, WTP7: Notes on the Design and Operation of Waste Stabilization Ponds in Warm Climates of Developing Countries. (Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 1983), 10. 5. Ibid, 18. 6. Ibid, 19. 7. Ibid, 23. 8. Ibid, 20 - 21. Light of Hope University 16
  18. 18. Wastewater Stabilization Pond Conceptual Drawing 4.3 Light of Hope University 17
  19. 19. Wastewater Stabilization Pond Conceptual Drawing 4.4 Light of Hope University 18