Reality-Behavior Based Marksmanship

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Demonstrates the differences and similarities between what is traditionally taught as "Combat Marksmanship" vs. "Reality - Behaviorally Based Combat Marksmanship" with the pistol.

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  • Let them know there is a test question on this and that the fundamentals do not include anything about storage or holster selectionTell them the rest will be covered at the range- STOP HERE. The rest is for their reading enjoyment.
  • Let them know there is a test question on this and that the fundamentals do not include anything about storage or holster selectionTell them the rest will be covered at the range- STOP HERE. The rest is for their reading enjoyment.
  • Reality-Behavior Based Marksmanship

    1. 1. The Fundamentals of “Combat Marksmanship” and Reality- Behavior Based Combat Marksmanship • Grip • Trigger Control • Stance • Breath Control • Sight Alignment • Follow-Through • Sight PictureSKILLS YOU REALLY NEED WHEN IT REALLY COUNTS
    2. 2. The Fundamentals of Marksmanship GRIP TRIGGER CONTROL Controlling the weapon while shooting and Independent movement of the finger on the through recoil with pressure and friction and trigger moving it straight back until the gun fires leverage. with minimal movement of the sights and gun. STANCE BREATH CONTROL A body position that allows effective movement, A method of controlling breathing to minimize fighting, and shooting, with control of recoil. gun movement as the body expands and contracts during inhalation and exhalation. SIGHT ALIGNMENT The relationship between the front and rear FOLLOW THROUGH sights. (Gun-wrist-body alignment for point Consciously maintaining the shooting shooting) fundamentals for a brief time after the shot is fired. Preparing to fire the next shot. SIGHT PICTURE The placement of the aligned sights or weapon on the target or exact aiming point. Combined with sight alignment = “Sight Package”SKILLS YOU REALLY NEED WHEN IT REALLY COUNTS
    3. 3. Grip GRIP: Controlling the weapon while shooting and through recoil with pressure and friction and leverage. Grip is reality based- under duress you will probably squeeze the weapon hard. Get used to the convulsive grip in training. At close range against sudden encounters, shooting will often be done with one hand. It is quicker and allows the other hand to be used for grasping items and for balance. The strong side thumb can be straight or curled down for better contact and control. For Marksmanship, Two hands are better than one, and a firm grip with the support and a lighter grip with the strong hand will allow better trigger manipulation and is the most desirable for accuracy. This will most likely require anticipation and control of duress.SKILLS YOU REALLY NEED WHEN IT REALLY COUNTS
    4. 4. Grip: Strong Hand Initial “Vee” Web of hand high up on Thumb rests on frame placement- gun backstrap with no space or ‘rides’ safety. directly in line showing. Middle finger Thumb can be straight with forearm. tight under trigger guard- or bent for better Trigger finger on no space. pressure. frame.SKILLS YOU REALLY NEED WHEN IT REALLY COUNTS
    5. 5. Grip: Support Hand Second hand always Second hand fills the gap; Thumbs and trigger comes from the rear- strong side thumb rests on finger point along thumb pointed forward top of support hand, or slide. Notice change fingers down at 45 ‘rides’ safety. No space in wrist angle degrees. under trigger guard.SKILLS YOU REALLY NEED WHEN IT REALLY COUNTS
    6. 6. Stance STANCE A body position that allows effective movement, fighting, and shooting, with control of recoil. Reality Based Combat Stance is based on the instinctive response to threats- facing, flinching, fighting: • Toes to threat • Lower the center of gravity • Toes Straight • Bent knees • Back Straight • Head, Shoulders forward • Strong, tight base • Aggressive forward lean • It is also an important part of aiming as the body aligns and points the weapon and the eyes simply verify it is on target with minor correction • Traditional marksmanship will direct shooters to bring the gun to their eyes. We teach dropping into the fighting stance as the gun is brought up because that will be your natural reaction under duress.SKILLS YOU REALLY NEED WHEN IT REALLY COUNTS
    7. 7. Sight Alignment: Wrist-Gun-Body Alignment SIGHT ALIGNMENT The relationship between the front and rear sights. (Gun-wrist- body alignment for point shooting) One of the most important parts of point shooting is the alignment of the gun to the body, via the bend in the wrist Initially the gun is grasped and aligned parallel to the forearm, but as the gun is brought to the center of the body, the wrist must lock and bend to keep it oriented directly to the threat The gun is oriented perpendicular to the upper body along the center line or dominant eye based on the shooters dominance If the upper body and lower body are squared to the threat, point shooting will be much easier If the body must turn, the triangle between the arms and the body still must project the gun straight out from under the dominant eye/center line. This will take more practice.SKILLS YOU REALLY NEED WHEN IT REALLY COUNTS
    8. 8. Sight Alignment: Full Sight Aimed Alignment Equal on FULL SIGHT AIMED FIRE “Sight Picture” both sides • “Equal Height” • “Equal Light” • Final focus on the top part of the front sight • Rear sights and target aligned but blurry • Set up with combat breath control during the respiratory pause • Mostly useful in pro-active and offensive situations with the ability to fully anticipate the need for the shot • Front sight should not move during trigger pull • Check using dime and washer and unknown empty gun anticipation drillSKILLS YOU REALLY NEED WHEN IT REALLY COUNTS
    9. 9. Sight Alignment: Wrist-Gun-Body Alignment Peripheral Vision- When learning the technique, it helps to verify your wrist-gun- target alignment based on the outline of the weapon Errors: • The side of the slide is showing in either direction • The front sight is not visible at all • The top of the slide is showing T too much- (greater than half o R the width of the back of the p e a frame outline) rSKILLS YOU REALLY NEED WHEN IT REALLY COUNTS
    10. 10. Sight Picture: Sight Package SIGHT PICTURE Sight package involves the entire body The placement of the aligned sights or weapon and weapon- not just the sights- and the on the target or exact aiming point. Combined related target with sight alignment = “Sight Package” It is uncommon for anyone at any level of training to take the time to verify their „Sight Package‟ includes the level of aiming sights when directly and immediately verification that takes place before shooting under close range threat. Sight package in reality based shooting is based This is primarily due to the instinctive on: stress response requiring clear visual 1. Primarily the level of duress of the shooter focus on the threat. (immediate survivability) 2. Secondarily on • The accuracy needed to hit the target; combined with (target profile) • The situational concerns (situation)SKILLS YOU REALLY NEED WHEN IT REALLY COUNTS
    11. 11. Sight Picture/Sight Package Continuum Continuum of sight package: 1. Index Shooting (body point)- no to little visual verification of the gun. Indexed by body posture, body part, or on the target itself. Gun may be partially visible in field of view. 2. Target Focused Point Shooting- only peripheral and eventually subconscious rough alignment towards the target. Top edges of slide form a ‘Runway” to the target below line of vision. 3. Target Focused Flash Sight Picture- rough visual alignment of the sights/weapon while primarily focused on the target. Front sight anywhere above rear sight is sufficiently accurate. 4. Full sighted fire- lining up the sights completely as in traditional marksmanship. Front sight centered and level; final focus on front sight. 1 2 3 4SKILLS YOU REALLY NEED WHEN IT REALLY COUNTS
    12. 12. Sight Picture: Sight Package Point Shooting Sight Package • We want to practice while being focused on the threat as much as possible, with only peripheral verification of the sight package • The amount of peripheral verification will be slowly reduced over time until it is subconscious • The primary shot zone is high center mass- the top part of the sternum • With precision, we want to be focused on a small part of the threat: “Aim small, miss small.” • We are looking for “railroad tracks” or a “runway” along the edge of the outline of the sides of the gun’s frame straight to the target like a perspective drawing.SKILLS YOU REALLY NEED WHEN IT REALLY COUNTS
    13. 13. Trigger Control • TRIGGER CONTROL- Independent movement of the finger on the trigger moving it straight back until the gun fires with minimal movement of the sights and gun • Trigger control is probably the greatest source of error in pistol marksmanship • The trigger must be pulled or squeezed straight backward to avoid pulling the weapon out of alignment during the shot • Ideally a shooter wants to squeeze the trigger back slowly until there is a “surprise break” and the shot is fired • Trigger control and grip work together to eliminate shot anticipation • Finger placement on the trigger is highly individualistic, and can greatly affect marksmanship. (A) may be too much trigger for some and may push shots to the left. (B) is the preferred point, but not best for every personSKILLS YOU REALLY NEED WHEN IT REALLY COUNTS
    14. 14. Trigger Control • The trigger should be released only far enough so a “click” is felt and heard, which indicates the trigger has Fully reset Forward • Trigger reset is part of good follow up • After the final shot, always prepare to take one more • For combative marksmanship, the trigger and gun are often squeezed convulsively. This requires a harder grasp on the weapon to keep it steady Fully • Single shot- Shot is fired with a single sight picture with careful and full follow through as if firing another Back shot (always prepare for one more during follow through practice) • String (Tap)- Each shot is fired separately with a new sight picture, but with minimal time between shots. As shooters improve, they are able to do this rhythmically and quickly. Reset • Burst (Hammer)- One sight picture is acquired and weapon is fired as fast as the weapon can be controlled, useful only at very close rangeSKILLS YOU REALLY NEED WHEN IT REALLY COUNTS
    15. 15. Breath Control BREATH CONTROL A method of controlling breathing to minimize gun movement as the body expands and contracts during inhalation and exhalation. • Ideally, one should shoot during the respiratory pause after exhaling while the body is the most motionless • If the shot is not made in time, another full breath with release should take place • Combat breathing should start as soon as you are alerted to the potential need for violence • Against a spontaneous threat, you will most likely hold Example: Run, Stop, Shoot your breath while shooting; stop doing this as soon as Officer chases and armed bad guy until you recognize it and make breathing part of your tactical response and follow through he gets a clear shot, the officer stops • If you make the deliberate decision for a perfect shot, quickly, forces out a quick exhalation, you should set up the breath, which sets you up finds the sights fully and shoots in a mentally for the fundamentals of marksmanship; The compressed time frame. skill is to snap into position, breath out, and take a deliberate fully aimed shot as quickly as possibleSKILLS YOU REALLY NEED WHEN IT REALLY COUNTS
    16. 16. Follow Through• FOLLOW THROUGH- Consciously maintaining the shooting fundamentals for a brief time after the shot is fired. Preparing to fire the next shot.• In real-life situations, this will only happen if taking one perfect shot, otherwise it will be highly compressed FAST-5• Combat follow through is shooting the threat until it is no longer a threat- typically to the ground and/or with weapon dropped Fight• Next the shooter follows the threat down and assesses, while still aimed in Assess and ready to shoot Scan• If the threat does not need to continue to be shot, the shooter should place the finger on frame, compress the weapon, and scan his Take off surroundings Take Cover• If the shooter is more comfortable staying extended, it is not a major error. Talk The purpose of the compression to a ready position is to break tunnel Top Off vision and protect it from a potential attack Treat injuries• The shooter should scan “left, middle (back to check the threat), right, middle (checking the threat one last time)- this can be done on the move• The shooter should then “take off” and “take cover” getting behind cover or moving to a flank while checking the rear for un-expected threats• Other “T’s” are Talk, Top off, or Take care of injuries• Verbal commands should initially be “Don’t move” or “Stay down”SKILLS YOU REALLY NEED WHEN IT REALLY COUNTS
    17. 17. Differences Between Combat Marksmanship and Reality-Behavior Based Combat Marksmanship FUNDAMENTAL “COMBAT” MARKSMANSHIP REALITY-BEHAVIOR BASED COMBAT MARKSMANSHIP GRIP Heavy squeeze support hand; light Strong ‘convulsive’ grip with both squeeze strong hand hands STANCE More upright; gun brought to eyes Combat Crouch, body dropped as gun brought up SIGHT ALIGNMENT Focus on front sight perfectly Focus on threat; body-wrist-gun centered in rear sight forms runway to the target under eyes SIGHT PICTURE High upper chest (when available); High upper chest (when available); again final focus on front sight; focus on small part of target; gun in target blurry peripheral vision TRIGGER CONTROL “Controlled Surprise Break” “Convulsive grip” and straight rearward pressure if possible BREATH CONTROL Respiratory Pause Combat breathing before and after, or forced exhalation for a fast shot FOLLOW THROUGH Preparing for the next shot Preparing for the next shot and tactical responseSKILLS YOU REALLY NEED WHEN IT REALLY COUNTS

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