WHO ARE THESE PEOPLE?• Name• Two Adjectives• Favorite Film• Comfort Food• Preferred Musical Genre• Favorite Washington Landmark
REASONS FOR GOING TO GRAD SCHOOL 1. I desperately want to learn more 9. Grad school is tuition free. about Communication. 10. I’m seeking international 2. I will increase my earning power by recognition and academic research going to graduate school. will get me there. 3. I hated my old job and wanted a real 11. I want to become a very skilled change. writer and scholar. 4. I’m seeking greater recognition, fame, 12. I had no idea what to do and grad and fortune in my chosen field. school seemed like a good option. 5. I’ve always wanted to teach, and 13. An M.A. is the new B.A. graduate school pays me to do that. 14. I like to meet new people and the 6. I don’t want to be stuck behind a desk folks at UM seemed nice. and I like flexibility and freedom. 15. Everyone in my family has an 7. I want to contribute to the body of advanced degree—it’s an knowledge in my chosen field. expectation. 8. I want to work with a particular 16. I really like school and see myself as faculty member and help with their a life-long student. research.
MODELS OF GRADUATE EDUCATIONApprentice Model Preprofessional Model
…a professor should have to restrain students from speaking out passionately about the subjects under discussion….as a graduate student, you have chosen to enter an elite profession, the implication being that you have something valuable to contribute to it. It is incumbent upon you, therefore, to show your actual ability to contribute something, however difficult it may be for you at the beginning of your career.‖
COMMUNICATION RESEARCH? What is research? What does it mean to engage in research? What is Communication research? How does it differ from other kinds of research? How it is similar? What kinds of research have you engaged in thus far? What knowledge did that research generate? What questions did you answer? What questions won’t you be able to answer after 5+ years of graduate school?
PROFESSIONALIZATION & RESEARCH Professionalization: Learning the systems, the processes, the dynamics of a professional institution. Putting into practice the knowledge of a profession and the dictates of professional systems. Acquiring the skills and background to adjust, adapt, and achieve. Research: A critical aspect of professionalization in higher education. The conduct of inquiry with the goal of generating knowledge, provoking arguments, and offering illuminating insights. Often bound by disciplines, methods, domains of inquiry, subjects, and audiences.
How do you select an advisor?What factors are important in this process?Who do you listen to?What should the advising relationship look
THE ADVISING RELATIONSHIP Advice & mentoring Professional advancement Reputation and professional standing Research trajectory Friendship, support
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ADVISING RELATIONSHIP Agreement about Different communication advising models Agreement about Replication model advising model Apprenticeship model Co-creation model
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ADVISING RELATIONSHIP Expectations for a dissertation Maintaining the relationship: Behaving professionally Framing issues collaboratively Backing up the advisor Appreciating the advisor
QUESTIONS TO ASK Does the professor have the time to take you on as a doctoral student? Does the professor have the interest to take you on as a doctoral student? Is the demeanor/personality appealing and comfortable for your academic style and needs? Have former graduate students of the professor had good experiences and completed their programs in a timely fashion? Does the professor anticipate being at the university during the entire period of your planned program? Does the professor exhibit the ability to communicate openly, clearly, and effectively from your perspective? Does the professor have personal research papers, articles, books, etc. that you might review to gain additional insight into his/her research area? Does the professor have a history of giving proper attention to proteges who work under his/her guidance? Among the faculty, university, and broader communities, is this professor known and respected for his/her research, writing, and publications? Adapted from H.G. Adams (1992), Mentoring: An Essential Factor in the Doctoral Process for Minority Students, National Center for Graduate Education for Minorities.
MILLER ON COMMUNICATION Communication is part of the behavioral sciences Communication is interdisciplinary Communication borrows method and content from other domains Communication’s primary responsibility is the study of specific types of behavior Communication’s behavior is the situation when a source transmits a message to a receiver(s) with conscious intent to affect the latter’s behaviors.
GERBNER ON COMMUNICATION Communication lays out the explicit or implicit preoccupation with the tactics of power, persuasion, and manipulation. Communication is not about producing desired results/outcomes. Communication is not only about producing effects or changes. Communication IS social interaction through symbols and message systems. The production and perception of message systems cultivating stable structures of generalized images is at the heart of the communications transaction.
NILSEN ON COMMUNICATIONCategory I Definition: stimulus-response situations in which one deliberately transmits stimuli to evoke response.Category II Definition: stimulus-response situations in which there need not be any intention of evoking response in the transmission of the stimuli.
• Ph.D., Mass Media & Cultural Studies, University of Manchester, UK, 2000.• At UM since 2007.• Co-author of Islam dot com: Contemporary Islamic Discourses in Cyberspace (Palgrave- Macmillan, 2009).
• Ph.D., Purdue University, 2006.• At UM since 2005.• Recipient of numerous research awards, including the Outstanding Scholarly Article Award from ICA’s Intercultural Communication Division.
COURSEWORK, KNOWLEDGE, & SKILLS The coursework you pursue and the plan of study you design should accomplish several objectives: 1. It should challenge you and provoke your interest and enthusiasm. Take courses that ask a lot of you, that require research, that are outside of your comfort zone. 2. It should allow you to begin to formulate and develop your dissertation. 3. It should make clear to you all that you don’t know. 4. It should enhance your preprofessionalization process. 5. It should fulfill the requirements necessary to complete the degree.
THE (HI)STORIES WE TELL• Three types of • The 3 COMM stories: stories:• the people • Speech story• the ideas • Journalism story• the process • Communication story
AFTER FOUR WEEKS…RolesInstitutionsPowerKnowledge
DELIA’S STORYCommunication research in America: Largely concerned with the study of mass communication/media Role of public communication media in social/political life Communication research is shaped by the rise of the social sciencesDelia brings to the fore the question of method inthe (hi)story of Communication research.
GRUNIG’S STORYPublic relations research/scholarship is a biographical story Scott Cutlip James GrunigDefining characteristics: Public relations and relationships Interdependence Management function of public relations Roles and models of public relations
PIETILÄ’S STORYMass Communication (Media Studies) has progressed through different phases:Mass Communication ResearchNew Leftist Media StudiesCultural Criticism
TYPES/SCHOOLS OF COMMUNICATION RESEARCHG E N E R A L C AT E G O R I E S UM RESEARCH AREAS• Rhetorical = practical art of • Feminist Studies discourse• Semiotic = intersubjective • Health Communication mediation by signs• Phenomenological = experience • Intercultural of otherness Communication• Cybernetic = information processing • Media Studies• Sociopsychological = viewed • Persuasion & Social expression, interaction, and influence Influence• Sociocultural = production of • Public Relations social order• Critical = discursive • Rhetoric & Political Culture reflection/power
• Ph.D., University of North Carolina, 2006.• At UM since 2009.• Lead investigator on ―Terrorist Countermeasures‖ project with DHS National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism ($1.3 million).
• Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1975.• At UM since 1981.• Chair of the Department, 1997- 2007; Co-author of The Measurement of Communication Processes: Galileo Theory and Method (Academic Press, 1980)
• Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1973.• At UM since 1986.• Co-author of Making Sense of Political Ideology: The Power of Language in Democracy (Rowman & Littlefield, 2006)
• Ph.D., Purdue University, 1968.• At UM since 1968.• Author/Editor of nine books, including Listening and Listenable Briefings.
BASIC COMPONENTS OF A CV• Name and • Publications Affiliation • Conference• Educational Presentations Background • Award &• Dissertation/Re Honors search • Service Information • Memberships• Work Experience • Language/Skills • References
WHAT IS RESEARCH? The systematic investigation into the study of materials, sources, etc. in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. An endeavor to discover new or collate old facts etc. by the scientific study of a subject or by a course of critical investigation. A procedure by which we attempt to find systematically, and with the support of demonstrable fact, the answer to a question or the resolution of a problem. The systematic, controlled, empirical, and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about presumed relations among natural phenomena.
WHAT RESEARCH IS NOT? A simple gathering of facts or information Moving facts from one situation to another An esoteric activity, removed from practical life A word to get your product noticed
YOUR RESEARCH IDENTITY Intellectual identity The social scientist The theorist The historian The critic
YOUR RESEARCH IDENTITY Disciplinary Identity Theory competency History/context Knowledge of scholarship Methodological skill/expertise
YOUR RESEARCH IDENTITY1. Name your topic: I am studying _____.2. Imply your question: because I want to find out who/how/why _____.3. State the rationale for the question and the project: in order to understand how/why what _____.
TPG RESEARCH IDENTITIESI am studying the life and times of Judson Welliver because I want to find out how the practice/institutionalization of presidential speechwriting began in order to understand why presidential speechwriting is a specialized craft in contemporary political practice.I am studying the popular culture expression of President Bill Clinton because I want to find out how this president continues to circulate as a cultural figure of some uncertain, cipherous meaning in order to better understand how the presidency and particular presidents are ideologically defined in the contemporary U.S.I am studying the political image in U.S. political because I want to find out how such rhetorics operate as the source and basis of political judgment in order to understand how Americans in the 21st century engage in political communication.
RESEARCH IDENTITY STATEMENTSI am a rhetorical historian who studies U.S. higher education discourse. Usingthe techniques of textual analysis and social/cultural historiography, I investigatethe construction and influence of philosophical, curricular, and pedagogical ideasin higher education. Examples of such ideas include general education, criticalthinking, and academic freedom. In my current work, I am studying influentialdiscourses on liberal education in an effort to identify the rhetorical strategies bywhich “timeless truths” in education are created. Through this and other research,I seek to clarify the role of higher education in a democratic society, whichpromises to enhance decision-making processes regarding this vital and powerfulU.S. institution.
RESEARCH IDENTITY STATEMENTSI am a social scientist who studies family communication patterns. I employ bothquantitative methods such as statistics and experiments as well as the qualitativemethod of ethnography. I am studying family communication patterns becauseI want to find out which communication variables contribute to family closenessand cohesion and which lead to the dissolution of the family unit. My researchis aimed at the general public with the intention of teaching communicationstrategies to families in order to help improve and/or save their familialrelationships.
COMMUNICATION DATA & ARGUMENTSIn 2007, the flagship humor publication, The Onion, launched the Onion News Network (ONN), a comic news organization producing online sketch videos. This article argues that ONN is a distinctive form of hyperreal social critique that uses ironic iconicity, rather than slapstick or the usual tomfoolery of much comedy programming, to invite rhetorical insights about contemporary media events and political practices. ONNs videos draw attention toward communicative dynamics, creating spaces for alternative civic understandings through a televisual technique that imitates but also reconfigures the structure, delivery, or content of mainstream news broadcasts like CNN and Fox News. Although not without limitations, this ironic iconicity crafts a multimodal online rhetoric and demonstrates the contingency, recursivity, and judgment of news communication norms and practices.Don Waisanen, “Crafting Hyperreal Spaces for Comic Insights: The Onion News Network’s Ironic Iconicity,” Communication Quarterly 59 (2011): 508-528.
COMMUNICATION DATA & ARGUMENTSThis article examines the evolving dynamic between citizens, journalists, and politicians—what we call agenda control— using the CNN/YouTube presidential primary debates as a case. A systematic content analysis of questions asked and candidates’ answers as compared with standard journalist-as-questioner debates hosted by MSNBC reveals that the dynamic between politicians, journalists, and citizens suggests that journalists do a better job of getting candidates to answer questions than do citizens in the YouTube video format, not by virtue of being journalists, but by virtue of asking the right form of question. Results also indicate that the CNN/YouTube debate questions from citizens failed to reflect the broad set of issues of interest to those who submitted questions, and instead included a disproportionate number of culture–war issues and campaign strategy questions. Findings suggest that journalists maintain the upper hand in agenda control.Jennifer Stromer-Galley & Lauren Bryant, “Agenda Control in the 2008 CNN/YouTube Debates,” Communication Quarterly 59 (2011): 529-546.
COMMUNICATION DATA & ARGUMENTSThis essay highlights and explores a point of tension between theoretical writings on style and moral frames. Past political communication scholarship points to the importance of the feminine style in todays televisual era of politics. In this same political era, the conservative strict parent moral frame has dominated most policy debates. Surprisingly, this highly successful moral frame appears squarely at odds with the feminine style so closely connected with political success. This essay attempts to unravel this tension between styles and frames by examining discourse drawn from the 2007 debate over comprehensive immigration reform. To account for the success of conservative messages within this debate, this essay both (a) calls into question the nature of the relationship between the television medium and the feminine style and (b) expands our understanding of the discursive operation of deep moral frames by drawing a distinction between intra-familial and extra-familial policy discourse. David Levasseur, J. Kanan Sawyer, & Maria A. Kopacz, “The Intersection between Deep Moral Frames and Rhetorical Style in the Struggle over U.S. Immigration Reform,” Communication Quarterly 59 (2011): 547-568.
COMMUNICATION DATA & ARGUMENTSThis study explores the lived experiences of people who act as allies in the interest of social justice. Interviews were conducted to investigate the meaning of the ally identity and the tactics allies use to interrupt stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination against others. Findings suggest that people who speak out on behalf of social justice from positions of relative power do so (a) out of identity concerns that emphasize moral obligations, (b) largely through authoritative and dialogic strategies that draw on their symbolic capital, and (c) in ways that reflect ideologies of culturally dominant groups. The study also describes tensions arising out of the contradictory nature of deploying social power against the system that confers it. Conventional definitions of ―allies‖ that rely on static notions of power, finally, are challenged as too simplistic.Sara DeTurk, “Allies in Action: The Communicative Experiences of People Who Challenge Social Injustice on Behalf of Others,” Communication Quarterly 59 (2011): 569-590.
COMMUNICATION DATA & ARGUMENTSIn an attempt to enrich Sloop and Onos (1997) theory of outlaw discourse, this article draws from the more extensive literature on the trickster to demonstrate how the two concepts have a shared heritage. First, the nature of outlaw discourse is reviewed, and then the myth of the trickster is discussed. Following these overviews, the similarities and differences between the two are explained by providing three brief examples of trickster-influenced outlaw discourse that demonstrate the potential for a trickster perspective to enrich the study of certain kinds of outlaw discourse.Sarah Hagedorn VanSlette & Josh Boyd, “Lawbreaking Jokers: Tricksters Using Outlaw Discourse,” Communication Quarterly 59 (2011): 591-602.
COMMUNICATION DATA & ARGUMENTSThis article offers a theoretical examination of civility within the modern U.S. Senate (USS), grounding the contemporary literature—which conceives of civility as a set of standards for public argument—in the notion of civil society as espoused by Adam Ferguson. Fergusons theory of civil society suggests that civility within deliberative bodies should be weighed against other factors, including the antagonistic nature of debate and the morality (in a utilitarian sense) of its participants and outcomes. The essay concludes with examples of how critics might apply this perspective to USS debate to reveal the rhetorical functions of (in)civility.Christopher Darr, “Adam Ferguson’s Civil Society and the Rhetorical Functions of (In)Civility in United States Senate Debate,” Communication Quarterly 59 (2011): 603-624.
COMMUNICATION DATA & ARGUMENTSThis article updates and clarifies what is known about where political information is gathered online. Some studies have found that the online sites of traditional media companies dominate online interest and marginalize non-traditional sites that present independent views, which damages the Internets ability to provide diverse viewpoints. Other research shows a trend toward more non-traditional site use. This study uses survey data from political information gatherers during the 2008 U.S. presidential campaign to measure how much traditional and non-traditional media sites dominated their attention and whether factors such as demographics, political interest, social ties, and use of offline media limited or contributed to that domination. The survey found that non-traditional sites controlled respondents online attention as much as traditional media sites in terms of political information, and several factors contributed to accessing traditional and non-traditional media online. John Parmelee, John Davies, & Carolyn A. McMahan, “The Rise of Non-Traditional Site Use for Online Political Information,” Communication Quarterly 59 (2011): 625- 640.
ARGUMENTS FOR COMMUNICATION RESEARCH• Historical Social networks• Comparative experienced by• Descriptive media organizations in• Correlation developing• Experimental countries.• Evaluative• Action What data would• Ethnogenic you collect for• Feminist each of the• Cultural argument categories at left?
• Ph.D., University of Georgia, 2005.• At UM since 2008.• Author of ―President Clinton and the White House Prayer Breakfast,‖ in The Political Pulpit Revisited (Purdue University Press, 2004).
AREAS OF RESEARCH Disciplines Sub-disciplines Fields Specialties Areas
COMMUNICATION Communication and Technology Interpersonal and group communication (including communication in family, developmental, and relational settings); Critical/cultural Studies of Organizational communication Communication/Media Intercultural and international communication Health Communication Health communication Political communication Intercultural/International Communication and technology Communication Rhetorical studies (including theory, history, and criticism) Interpersonal/Small Group Discourse studies (including language pragmatics, discourse analysis, and Communication similar studies) Critical, cultural, interpretive studies of communication and media Mass Communication Research Feminist communication studies Organizational Communication Mass communication research (including institutions, effects, media and society) Political Communication Communication law and policy Rhetorical Studies Advertising and public relations
BOOKS IN COMMUNICATION RESEARCH Types of Types of books Publishers Textbooks University Presses Academic/scholarly Commercial monographs Publishers Edited volumes Self-publishers Handbooks/encyclop e-dias, etc.
• Ph.D., University of Georgia, 2007.• At UM since 2007.• Author of The Faithful Citizen: Popular Christian Media and Gendered Civic Identities (Baylor University Press, 2010).
IMPORTANCE TO PH.D. CURRICULUM 1. Coursework in a broad 6. Required comprehensive range of theoretical exams or project perspectives 7. The breadth of course 2. Quantitative methods offerings outside the coursework PhD-granting 3. Methods courses taught department or school within the PhD-granting 8. Required preliminary or department or school qualifying exams 4. The quality of course 9. Critical-cultural studies offerings outside the coursework PhD-granting 10. Coursework on the department or school economics and law of 5. Qualitative methods communication coursework industries 11. Rhetoric courseworkSource: K.A. Neuendorf, et al., “The View from the Ivory Tower: Evaluating Doctoral Programs in Communication,” Communication Reports 20(2007): 24-41.
RESEARCH METHODS IN COMMUNICATIONBasic premises about scientific inquiry 1. realism: science is an attempt to find out about one real world. 2. demarcation: clear distinction between scientific theories and other beliefs. 3. science is cumulative. 4. observation-theory distinction. 5. foundations—observations and experimentation. 6. deductivism. 7. concepts are precise; meanings are fixed. 8. the unity of science.
RESEARCH METHODS IN COMMUNICATIONNon-scientific (interpretivist) approaches to COMM: 1. meaning is individualized, interpretive, and socially evolved. 2. knowledge is often subjective, individualized, and inductively derived. 3. methods: interpretation of subjective meanings; arguments and critical theory. 4. research is governed by phenomenology, ethnomethodology, and symbolic interactionism. Phenomenology: the study of structures of consciousness as experienced from the first-person point of view. Ethnomethodology: the study of the everyday methods people use for the production of social order; goal is to document the methods and practices through which society’s members make sense of their world. Symbolic interactionism: people act toward things based on the meaning those things have for them; and these meanings are derived from social interaction and modified through interpretation; human beings are best understood in relation to their environment.
RESEARCH METHODS IN COMMUNICATION Critical/Humanistic Methods: 1. Historical 2. Ideological 3. Literary 4. Biographical 5. Critical/Cultural 6. Journalistic
RESEARCH REPORTS Provide citation information—author(s), title, journal, date Discuss the questions/arguments raised in the article. What is their basis? What is their theoretical foundation? Discuss the methods that are employed in the article. Discuss the conclusions/findings of the article. Offer an evaluation of those conclusions and/or findings. Discuss any questions/concerns/issues that you discover about the research.
THE ENDS OF RESEARCH Why do we do research? What is our purpose? Where will our research have the most impact? How does research influence, effect, enrich other people? Where are the spheres of influence for our research?
GOAL #1—DISSEMINATING RESEARCH Public Publication presentation Outlet Audience Process Convention Product Community Process
HONESTY, ETHICS, & RESEARCHIssues Issues Ownership, aut Participants horship, plagiar Research ism (self and Design other) Informed Citation and Consent acknowledgme nt IRB Writing Parsimony
• Ph.D., Indiana University, 1992.• At UM since 1998.• Author of The Rhetorical Presidency, Propaganda, and the Cold War, 1945-1955 (Praeger, 2002); Co- editor of The Handbook of Rhetoric and Public Address (Wiley- Blackwell, 2010)
• Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 2005.• At UM since 2008.• Author of many publications, includin g recent articles in Health Communication, Vac cine, and Human Communication Research.
HONESTY, ETHICS, & RESEARCHIssues Issues Ownership, Participants authorship, Research plagiarism (self Design and other) Informed Citation and Consent acknowledgme nt IRB Writing Parsimony
• Ph.D., Purdue University, 1975.• At UM since 2004.• Among many publications, co- author of Women in Public Relations: How Gender Influences Practice (Guilford, 2001).