0
Effective Lectures
• When lecturing can be an effective pedagogical tool and how to build it into
course design
• What cog...
Lecture as a tool
The Lecture
• According to McKeachie, the
lecture is the oldest teaching
method and still the most
widely (badly?) used in...
The Lecture
• Effective lecturers combine the talents of the
scholar, writer, producer, comedian, entertainer and teacher ...
The Lecture
• Strengths of lecture according to Cashin:
• Some other advantages attributed to lectures are
perhaps more re...
The Lecture
• Limitations of lecture according to Cashin:
• However, lecturing also has some serious limitations
when it b...
Try those first 4 slides
again
The Lecture: the oldest and most used
teaching method
The Lecture: Most common but not most
effective Teaching method

Discussion

Lecture

Higher in
retention &
transfer
Lower...
The Lecture
• Strengths of lecture according to Cashin:
•
•
•
•
•

Lectures can show how experts in a field think,
How the...
The Lecture
• Limitations of lecture according to Cashin:
• Not suited for higher levels of learning:
comprehension, appli...
Think-Pair-Share

Compare & Contrast the two styles
How are most lectures Given
today?
What do student think of
this?
Things people would rather do than
encounter a PowerPoint
• Forego sex tonight

• Do their taxes
• Go to the dentist
• Wor...
Things to Consider
Cognitive

Brain

Effective
Lecture Design

Presentation

Techniques
Cognitive Considerations
“Whatever you think about, that’s
what you remember. Memory is
the residue of thought.”
-Cognitive Psychologist Daniel
Wil...
Cognitive Considerations

Learning
Attention

Active
Processing

Cognitive
Load

Working
Memory
Sweller’s Cognitive Theory

Limited
space in
working
memory!
Sweller’s Cognitive Load
Theory
Type

Description

Extraneous

Cognitive processing that does
not serve the instructional ...
Brain Considerations
Brain Likes Novelty
Are your
lectures
engaging or
sleep
inducing?
Brain Considerations
• Passive brains + Passive body

learning

• Brain Guru John Medina explains
Presentation
Considerations
Death by PowerPoint
• Dead Words on Screen
• Black and White
• Lots of text!

• Read most or all dead words to your
studen...
Lecture or Target Practice?

Learning
Conclusion
Problems with Lectures
• Why don’t students read the text?
• It will be “covered” in lecture

• Flawed Assumption: I have ...
Any Use for Lectures? Yes
• Mini/micro lectures – 10-15 min. long
• Clarification, examples
• Separate with engaged learni...
• Targeted lectures – not to “cover”
material
• Purpose: to expand, address
confusions, or illustrate applications
• Test ...
Techniques to make
Lectures more engaging
Next Time
Friday January 17
“Core Services: Engaging Lecture”
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FCTE Lecture/PowerPoint Presentation

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FCTE Lecture/PowerPoint Presentation from Cutting Edge presentation on Friday Dec 6, 2014.

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  • By Howard Dickinshttp://www.flickr.com/photos/dorkomatic/5874024242/in/photolist-9X4UL3-8EmH4A-9X24un-9X4V9o-8ChUeR-85i4Ug-c6bmEy-85megQ-84Wmgs-cF79X1-eGrsYf-7QEABS-9pvoQJ-7QBgjk-89N3Zi-a7NKzn-8b4cZg-8416Nc-acquUy-acqv2Q-dJzboZ-8JA6QE-8nxbP8-8e9EpU-7QBgor-ajjHZf-8Pscxd-9X4VJQ-eq4ymJ-diRD56-gMyzxm-99zrEv-bDKJET-8JajbV-dumgJ6-e2qdsb-97Ee5j-aLaWv2-7LSbs5-8Vpg7v-duPqWG-eP2pe5-cJA8aj-bA5tUg-aUPX9v-bnaCkN-bnaCgo-8TQYST-8V3hwh-8nTJ81-7Gjw8E/
  • McKeachie, W.J., and Svinicki, M. (2006). McKeachie’s teaching tips: Strategies, research, and theory for college and university teachers (12th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. This illustration from a fourteenth-century manuscript shows Henry of Germany delivering a lecture to university students in Bologna. 
Artist: Laurentius de Voltolina; Liber ethicorum des Henricus de Alemannia; Kupferstichkabinett SMPK, Berlin/Staatliche Museen 
PreussiischerKulturbesitz, Min. 1233
  • Cashin, William. (2010). Effective Lecturing: Idea Paper #46. The Idea Center: Insight. Improvement. Impact.
  • McKeachie, W.J., and Svinicki, M. (2006). McKeachie’s teaching tips: Strategies, research, and theory for college and university teachers (12th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. This illustration from a fourteenth-century manuscript shows Henry of Germany delivering a lecture to university students in Bologna. 
Artist: Laurentius de Voltolina; Liber ethicorum des Henricus de Alemannia; Kupferstichkabinett SMPK, Berlin/Staatliche Museen 
PreussiischerKulturbesitz, Min. 1233
  • Effective lecturers combine the talents of the scholar, writer, producer, comedian, entertainer and teacher to promote student learning.If you are one dimensional so is your teaching when using the lecture.No, the lecture is not the most effective teaching method available to teachers but when a curriculum is focused on covering the most content in the shortest amount of time, the lecture tends to be the pedagogy du jour. So, lets’ focus on it.For future reference, discussion methods are superior to lectures in:student retention of information after the end of the course; transfer of knowledge to new situations;For future reference, discussion methods are superior to lectures in:student retention of information after the end of the course; transfer of knowledge to new situations;
  • Cashin, William. (2010). Effective Lecturing: Idea Paper #46. The Idea Center: Insight. Improvement. Impact.
  • Photo:AndriusPetruceniaTitle: A public lecture by AndriusKubilius, Prime Minister of Lithuania 2010Url: http://www.flickr.com/photos/andriux_uk_events/4729659879/
  • http://sofushka.files.wordpress.com/2011/12/bsl.jpgUse laser pointer topointout students not paying attention
  • Berk, R. A. ( 2012, April). Top 10 evidence-based, best practices for PowerPoint in the Classroom. Transformative Dialogues: Teaching & Learning Journal, 5 (3), 1-7.
  • Source: Willingham. D. (2009) Why Don’t Students Like School…
  • Clip art – Brain or thinkingAttentionCognitive loadWorking memory
  • Working memory has limited space Consider what students are or should be thinking aboutDoes my lecture achieve my goal of what they should be thinking?Photo credit http://www.flickr.com/photos/60929693@N07/5801417258/Title: overflow
  • Table 3.4. Three Kinds of Cognitive Load cognitive processing during learning that Mayer, Richard E. (2012-03-22). Multimedia Learning (Kindle Locations 1512-1514). Cambridge University Press. Kindle Edition. Extraneous Load: Mental work that irrelevant to learning goalWaste space Intrinsic Load: Element interactivity: several knowledge elements must be coordinated in working memory to accomplish as task. Can’t be alter by instructional designPrior knowledge or skills the students have (or don’t have – increases intrinsic cognitive load)Experts have automate skills – frees up intrinsic loadSimple tasks for experts are complicated tasks for novices that require multiple stepsGermane Load:Mental work imposed by instructional designUse diverse examples or methodsLead to better learning outcome
  • Irony of lecture: lots of sitting
  • Berk, R. A. ( 2012, April). Top 10 evidence-based, best practices for PowerPoint in the Classroom. Transformative Dialogues: Teaching & Learning Journal, 5 (3), 1-7.
  • Transcript of "FCTE Lecture/PowerPoint Presentation"

    1. 1. Effective Lectures • When lecturing can be an effective pedagogical tool and how to build it into course design • What cognitive principles should be considered (e.g., attention, cognitive load theory) when creating PowerPoint slides • Effective principles for utilizing PowerPoint slides
    2. 2. Lecture as a tool
    3. 3. The Lecture • According to McKeachie, the lecture is the oldest teaching method and still the most widely (badly?) used in universities throughout the world. • Don’t believe it is the oldest?
    4. 4. The Lecture • Effective lecturers combine the talents of the scholar, writer, producer, comedian, entertainer and teacher to promote student learning. • If you are one dimensional so is your teaching when using the lecture. • No, the lecture is not the most effective teaching method available to teachers but when a curriculum is focused on covering the most content in the shortest amount of time, the lecture tends to be the pedagogy du jour. So, lets’ focus on it. • For future reference, discussion methods are superior to lectures in: • • student retention of information after the end of the course; transfer of knowledge to new situations;
    5. 5. The Lecture • Strengths of lecture according to Cashin: • Some other advantages attributed to lectures are perhaps more relevant to graduate instruction, especially for majors. Lectures can show how experts in a field think, how they approach questions, and how they try to solve a problem. A lecture can summarize scattered material, or describe latest discoveries or issues.
    6. 6. The Lecture • Limitations of lecture according to Cashin: • However, lecturing also has some serious limitations when it becomes the primary means of instruction. The most serious is that lecturing is not suited for higher levels of learning: comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation (Bloom et al., 1956), and creativity (Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001). • Perhaps equally limiting, in a traditional lecture, the students are mostly passive. This results in learners’ attention waning quickly. If a lecture consists solely of the teacher talking, lack of student feedback can be a big problem.
    7. 7. Try those first 4 slides again
    8. 8. The Lecture: the oldest and most used teaching method
    9. 9. The Lecture: Most common but not most effective Teaching method Discussion Lecture Higher in retention & transfer Lower in retention & transfer
    10. 10. The Lecture • Strengths of lecture according to Cashin: • • • • • Lectures can show how experts in a field think, How they approach questions How they try to solve a problem Summarize scattered material Describe latest discoveries or issues
    11. 11. The Lecture • Limitations of lecture according to Cashin: • Not suited for higher levels of learning: comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evalu ation and creativity • Passive student • Waning attention
    12. 12. Think-Pair-Share Compare & Contrast the two styles
    13. 13. How are most lectures Given today?
    14. 14. What do student think of this?
    15. 15. Things people would rather do than encounter a PowerPoint • Forego sex tonight • Do their taxes • Go to the dentist • Work on Saturday
    16. 16. Things to Consider Cognitive Brain Effective Lecture Design Presentation Techniques
    17. 17. Cognitive Considerations
    18. 18. “Whatever you think about, that’s what you remember. Memory is the residue of thought.” -Cognitive Psychologist Daniel Willingham
    19. 19. Cognitive Considerations Learning Attention Active Processing Cognitive Load Working Memory
    20. 20. Sweller’s Cognitive Theory Limited space in working memory!
    21. 21. Sweller’s Cognitive Load Theory Type Description Extraneous Cognitive processing that does not serve the instructional goal; caused by confusing instructional design. Intrinsic (Sometime called Essential) Cognitive processing required to represent the essential material in working memory; cause by the complexity of material. Germane (Sometime called Essential Generative) Cognitive processing required for deeper understanding; caused by motivation of the learner. Germane Load Intrinsic Load Extraneous Load Total Cognitive Load
    22. 22. Brain Considerations
    23. 23. Brain Likes Novelty Are your lectures engaging or sleep inducing?
    24. 24. Brain Considerations • Passive brains + Passive body learning • Brain Guru John Medina explains
    25. 25. Presentation Considerations
    26. 26. Death by PowerPoint • Dead Words on Screen • Black and White • Lots of text! • Read most or all dead words to your student • Student 17-30 years old easily bored and impatient
    27. 27. Lecture or Target Practice? Learning
    28. 28. Conclusion
    29. 29. Problems with Lectures • Why don’t students read the text? • It will be “covered” in lecture • Flawed Assumption: I have to “cover” the material or students won’t know it. Passive learning equals superficial learning • Active learning = lasting learning
    30. 30. Any Use for Lectures? Yes • Mini/micro lectures – 10-15 min. long • Clarification, examples • Separate with engaged learning activities • Brain Guru John Medina again
    31. 31. • Targeted lectures – not to “cover” material • Purpose: to expand, address confusions, or illustrate applications • Test comprehension and promote critical thinking • E.g. present case study, scenario, realistic simulation
    32. 32. Techniques to make Lectures more engaging Next Time Friday January 17 “Core Services: Engaging Lecture”
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