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  • 1. PresentationPresentation from the 2009 World Water Week in Stockholm©The Author(s), all rights reserved
  • 2. Opening Plenary Session2009 Stockholm Water Prize Laureate August 17, 2009 at  2009 World Water Week  Stockholm by: Dr. Bindeshwar Pathak, Ph.D., D.Litt. Founder Sulabh Sanitation & Social Reform Movement
  • 3. FACT: Access to Sanitation Provision Common sights in developing countries 2.6 billion people lack basic sanitation worldwide – of which 650 million people reside in India.
  • 4. Existing scenario of open defecation 3
  • 5. Lack of Sanitation The three basic problems which India was facing;• Defecation in the open• Cleaning of bucket toilets manually by the people called scavengers• Public places without facilities of toilets and urinals. 4
  • 6. 400000 BC 200000 BC STONE AGE Defecation in the open was widely (PALALEOLITHIC, practiced as people lived in the jungles, MESOLITHIC AND dense forests and caves. The idea of NEOLITHIC AGE) health hygiene or sanitation was unknown to them. 5000 BC INDUS VALLEY Latrines were fairly common and rubbish CIVILISATION chutes were also not unknown. All garbages, human and animal excreta were easily deposited in the fields and they turn into natural manure. 1500 BC VEDIC INDIA There were no toilets inside the house. 700 BC POST VEDIC PERIOD People had to go outside for attending nature’s call and return home only after bath. 326 BC ALEXENDER THE Nobody was allowed to defecate in the 300 BC GREAT open in the city. They used to go outside. MAURYA PERIOD 300 BC BACTERIA People used to go outside for open 100 BC SUNGAS defecation. BC/AD KUSHAN DYNASTY People used to go to nearby fields, 100-300 groves etc. for nature’s call. 5
  • 7. 400 WHITE HUN DYNASTY There was no open defecation in the city. The500-800 GUPTA DYNASTY buildings, theatres, dining halls were very clean with a very high degree of civic sense and every house having sewage system.900-1500 THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD People used to defecate in the open, except for Kings and Queens in the palace using the own toilets which was cleaned by war captives. 1600 MUGHAL EMPIRE After the advent of Muslims in India the term 1700 sweeping and scavenging seems to have taken the form of a formal profession. It is said that the system of bucket privies was designed and constructed by Muslims for their women in Purdah. Those who were made captives were forced to clean latrines, bucket privies and throw off the night soil at distant places. 1600 BRITISH DOMINATION Civil Lines were inhabited by the white rulers 1700 with fine sewage and drainage system, while the other parts were left out for the natives. After setting up of army cantonments and municipalities a large number of people were employed to do sweeping and scavenging work on a regular basis. 6
  • 8. 1947 INDEPENDENT INDIA In the rural areas open defecation was widely prevalent. Hardly one percent of the people used to have latrines in the house. In the urban areas also a large number of people used to go for open defecation or have dry latrines in their houses.2009 POST INDEPENDENT After a lapse of sixty two years of independence PERIOD the sanitation scenario is gradually changing due to the efforts of the Govt. and NGOs like Sulabh. The sanitation coverage in the rural areas has increased from almost zero to 57 percent in 2008 and the percentage of people going in for open air defecation has dropped from 89 percent in 1990 to 74 percent in 2006. The practice of open defecation continues and there are still a large number of dry latrines cleaned manually by the scavengers. Even now out of 5161 towns only 232 towns and cities have sewer lines and that too partial. The sanitation coverage in the urban areas is only 63 percent. The percentage of open defecation has been reduced from 28 percent in 1990 to 18 percent in 2006. 7
  • 9. The Unfathomable Plight of Scavengers!!Cleaning of bucket toilet manually by a woman scavenger, a sub-humanpractice 8
  • 10. contd… contd…These practices endangered hygiene andhealth of millions of the people which wereafflicted by diseases such as cholera,diarrhoea and dehydration due to insanitaryconditions.Girls did not go to school because of lack oftoilets. 9
  • 11. An Ancient JokeIn the days when you couldn’t count on a public toiletfacility, an English woman was planning a trip to India ‐She registered to stay in a small guest house owned by thelocal schoolmaster. She was concerned as to whether theguest house contained a WC. In England, a bathroom iscommonly called a WC which stands for "Water Closet".She wrote to the schoolmaster inquiring of the facilitiesabout the WC. The school master, not fluent in Englishasked the local priest if he knew the meaning of WC.Together they pondered possible meanings of the lettersand concluded that the lady wanted to know if there was a“Wayside Chapel" near the house. A bathroom neverentered their minds. So the schoolmaster wrote thefollowing reply: ‐ 10
  • 12. contd…  contd… Dear Madam, I take great pleasure in informing you that the WC is located 9 miles from the house. It is located in the middle of a grove of pine trees, surrounded by lovely grounds. It is capable of holding 229 people and is open on Sundays and Thursdays. As there are many people expected in the summer months, I suggest you arrive early. There is, however, plenty of standing room. This is an unfortunate situation especially if you are in the habit of going regularly. It may be of some interest to you that my daughter was married in the WC, since she met her husband there. It was a wonderful event. There were 10 people in every seat. It was wonderful to see the expressions on their faces. My wife, sadly, has been ill and unable to go recently. It has been almost a year since she went last, which pains her greatly. You will be pleased to know that many people bring their lunch and make a day of it. 11
  • 13. contd…  contd… Others prefer to wait till the last minute and arrive just intime! I would recommend that your ladyship plan to go ona Thursday, as there is an organ accompaniment. Theacoustics are excellent and even the most delicate soundscan be heard everywhere. The newest addition is a bell whichrings every time a person enters. We are holding a bazaar toprovide plush seats for all since many feel it is long needed.I look forward to escorting you there myself and seating youin a place where you can be seen by all.With deepest regards,The Schoolmaster.The woman never visited India !!! 12
  • 14. The Genesis:  Sulabh Sanitation MovementSulabh Sanitation Movement was started in theyear 1970 by me.To end the inhumane practice, technology wasnecessary so I developed two sustainabletechnologies:o Conversion of dry latrines into Sulabh twin‐ pit, pour‐flush, compost toilets.o Public toilet complexes with biogas plants. 13
  • 15. Technological Solution to a Social ProblemTo solve the social problem and provide sustainablesanitation options, I developed a technology of Sulabhtwo‐pit, pour‐flush, compost toilet which isappropriate, affordable, indigenous, eco‐friendly,socially and culturally acceptable and an on‐sitesolution for recycling of human waste. 14
  • 16. SULABH TWO-PIT POUR-FLUSH, COMPOST TOILETS TWO- POUR- Sulabh Twin Pit , Pour Flush  Sulabh Toilet with Rectangular  Compost Toilet Technology Pits 15
  • 17. Sulabh Two‐pit, pour‐Sulabh Two‐pit, pour‐flush, compost Toilet (Sulabh Shauchalaya) This technology does not need vent pipe, gases are absorbed in the soil and it requires 1.5 litre of water to flush. There are two pits – one is used at a time and the other is kept as standby. 16
  • 18. Ceramic Pan with 25° to 28° slope – it needs only 1.5 litre of water per flushing due to slope and P ‐ trap PVC P – trap having 20 mm water seal which does not allow the smell from the pit to enter the toiletOnly a small quantity of water (about1.5 litres) is enough to flush the excretafrom the pan into the pit, whereasconventional flush latrine needs about12‐14 litres of water for flushing. Thus,it saves a lot of water. 17
  • 19. Different designs of twin‐pit, pour flush,Different designs of twin‐compost toilet: It is flexible in design and affordable. It can be constructed for the poor US $15, 20, 50, dependingon the choice of design and materials used by the householder. 18
  • 20. contd....Cost – US $32 Cost – US $50 Cost – US $53 Cost – US $152 19
  • 21. contd.... Cost – US $145 Cost – US $160Cost – US $185 Cost – US $190 20
  • 22. Cost – US $1100 21
  • 23. Panormic View – Different Designs of Sulabh Two‐Pit Pour Flush Compost Toilets  22
  • 24. contd….The Sulabh Shauchalaya can be constructed in the minimum possible space – in a narrow lane, courtyard of a house or in the bedroom.  23
  • 25. contd...The Sulabh toilet can be constructed in areas where the watertable is high and even in upper floors of buildings. 24
  • 26. contd....Sulabh pit platforms can be used for variety of purposes like cooking ,chopping fish, chaffing grains. 25
  • 27. contd....Sulabh pit platforms can be used for offering prayers Sulabh pit platforms can be used for  running small shops  26
  • 28. After a rest period of two years, the excreta is converted intomanure. almost dry and becomes a rich organic manure andsoil conditioner that can conveniently be used in the fieldsand gardens. 27
  • 29. Human excreta manure is rich in Nitrogen, Phosphate and Potassium andprovides good nutrients to plants, fruits, vegetables, flowers, etc.It is a good fertilizer to raise productivity of field. High yielding variety of fruits High yielding variety of crops 28
  • 30. Methodology and Delivery System adopted by Sulabh forConstruction of Toilets: Toilets: Contacting the house‐owners to convince and persuade them to agree to the conversion of dry latrines into Sulabh Shauchalayas (toilets). Beneficiaries were given directory of the list of materials required. 29
  • 31. Methodology and Delivery System adopted by Sulabh for  Construction of Toilets:                                                contd…Construction of Toilets:                                                contd… Sulabh Directory – Explaining the details of Sulabh Shauchayala to the beneficiaries. Filling of forms by house‐owners for construction of toilets. Processing of forms by Urban Local Bodies. Amount for construction of toilets received from ULB by Sulabh volunteers. Certificate of completion is given by the beneficiaries. To avoid human error ‐ the beneficiaries are also sent post‐cards to certify satisfactory completion of work through mail. Thereafter, Guarantee Card is issued with Sulabh accepting the responsibility of rectifying defects free‐of‐cost for a period of five years. Further, it also ensures that if any complaint is received, it will be attended to within seven days. 30
  • 32. Energy from Human WasteTo ensure recycling of human excreta in public toilets, I developedthe technology of biogas production.Sulabh by now has installed 200 biogas plants attached to publictoilets. 31
  • 33. Diagram of Public Toilet Based Biogas Plant 32
  • 34. Use of BiogasBiogas used for lighting of  Biogas used for cooking mantle lamps 33
  • 35. Use of BiogasBiogas used to warm oneself in winter Biogas used for electricity generation 34
  • 36. Sulabh Effluent Treatment  Technology 35
  • 37. Sulabh pay and use Sulabh pay and use Public Toilets     In 1974, Sulabh introduced theconcept of pay and use public toilets.Sulabh has built more than 7,500public toilets at all important placesin the country.Alongwith the toilet facility, they areequipped with the provision ofdrinking water, telephones, laundry,health centers, lockers, cyber cafe,first – aid box, etc. It is in a way, aHappy Home. Largest Sulabh Toilet Complex in the world at  Shirdi (Nasik), Maharashtra, India. Funded by SHIRDI TRUST, constructed and maintained by Sulabh  International Social Service Organisation, it has 148 toilets cloak  International Social Service Organisation, it has 148 toilets cloak  rooms, 108 bathrooms and 5,000 lockers for keeping the belongings  of pilgrims. The complex is lit by the electricity from the biogas  generated from human excreta. 30,000 persons can use these  facilities daily. 36
  • 38. contd....•Both individual and public toilets are being used bymore than ten million people daily.•Millions of scavengers have been relieved from theirinhuman occupation.•Sulabh has also constructed and maintainedCommunity Toilet Complexes in countries likeAfghanistan, Bhutan and recently signed MoU withEthiopia. 37
  • 39. Quality Education to wards of scavengersSulabh Public School: Premier English medium school. Recognised by CBSE. Tuition fee is waived and free uniforms, books are provided to children of scavenger community. There is a 60:40 ratio of children from scavenger community to other sections of society. Students share lunch with one another. Messages of proper hygiene behaviour spread from children to parents and community. 38
  • 40. REHABILITATION OF SCAVENGERSThe scavengers were then weaned away from thedemeaning practice of manual cleaning of humanexcreta and brought on a par with others –realization of a dream of Mahatma Gandhi.Rehabilitation programme through training invarious trades was then initated for them to beingthem into the mainstream of society. 39
  • 41. NAI DISHA: An Initiative towards Rehabilitation of Scavengers‘Nai Disha’ Vocational TrainingCentre was set up at Alwar, inApril 2003, to liberate andrehabilitate women hithertoengaged in the profession ofscavenging till end March 2003. 40
  • 42. contd…A comprehensive 2‐year training is being provided to56 women scavengers in food‐processing, beauty‐care,tailoring and embroidery, with a three yearrehabilitation programme. 41
  • 43. contd…Economic Sustainability and Social TransformationThe social transformation brought about can be gauged by theincredible fact that the same society that was averse even to thetouch of a scavenger, today readily purchases products (eveneatables) prepared by the hands of these very scavengers. Thissymbolises a fundamental change in the attitude nursed forcenturies by the people. 42
  • 44. contd…Adult literacy classes are held to teach themEnglish and Hindi. 43
  • 45. SOCIAL INTERACTIONA monthly stipend of Rs. 2000 is paid to ensure that they donot return to their earlier profession. The stipend is directlyput into their bank accounts which they operate themselves. 44
  • 46. Social Interaction Taken to the best restaurants in town 45
  • 47. Social TransformationThe Hon’ble President of India, Smt. Pratibha Devisingh Patil crowning Smt.Usha Chaumar in the Rashtrapati Bhawan. 46
  • 48. Social AcceptabilityHon’ble Prime Minister of India, Dr. Manmohan Singh, giving audience to the erstwhilescavengers of Alwar Rajasthan, who used to clean nightsoil earlier: and now after 47education and training have become self‐employed and lead a life of dignity.
  • 49. World Toilet Summit 2007, October 31‐ World Toilet Summit 2007, October 31‐ November 2, 2007 at New DelhiMrs. Sushila Chauhan, shared the dais with former President of India,Hon’ble Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam and addressed the gathering at theInaugural Session of the World Toilet Summit at Vigyan Bhawan, NewDelhi 48
  • 50. World Toilet Summit 2007, October 31‐ World Toilet Summit 2007, October 31‐ November 2, 2007 at New DelhiThe erstwhile woman scavengers walked the ramp withthe top models who showcased their handiwork at theWorld Toilet Summit 2007 in New Delhi 49
  • 51. Mission SanitationHRH the Prince of Orange of the Netherlands felicitating erstwhile woman scavengers, whowere liberated and rehabilitated by Sulabh, with bouquets of flowers, lending prestige tothe scavengers who cleaned human excreta manually till March, 2003. 50
  • 52. Mission Sanitation Flying in the Sky – A journey to United Nations Head Quarters, New York, U.S.A. 51
  • 53. Mission SanitationThe erstwhile woman scavengers walked the ramp with themodels who showcased their handiwork at the United Nationsin New York on July 2, 2008. Their social status went up. 52
  • 54. Fulfilling Mahatma Gandhi’s DreamH.E. Mr. Vijay Nambiar, Chef de Cabinet of the Executive Office of the Secretary General ofthe United Nations, crowning Mrs. Usha Chaumar, an erstwhile woman scavenger of Alwar,Rajasthan on July 2, 2008 at the event “Sanitation for Sustainable Development” in theUnited Nations at New York. 53
  • 55. Fulfilling Mahatma Gandhi’s DreamThe liberated woman scavengers showing the sign of ‘V’ for Victory as a sign of triumph, in frontof the Statue of Liberty in New York, USA to show their liberation from the demeaningprofession of cleaning dry privies and carrying human excreta (nightsoil) of others, to eke aliving for their families. 54
  • 56. Erstwhile Scavengers Gain Entry in TemplePuja and hawan being performed outside the Jagannath Temple in Alwar, Rajasthanon Decemeber 21, 2008 by Dr. and Mrs. Bindeshwar Pathak, Mrs. Usha Chaumarand her husband and other erstwhile scavengers of Alwar and Tonk, Rajasthan 55
  • 57. Dining With Mahatma Gandhi’s GrandsonProf. RajmohanProf. Rajmohan Gandhi, Sulabh Gram, New Delhi A unique lunch and an amazing experience when Mr. Rajmohan Gandhi dined with the liberated scavengers and the families where they did scavenging, along with priests, in the lawns of the Sulabh Campus, New Delhi on January 5, 2009. 56
  • 58. Training & Research  Sulabh International in collaboration with UN‐HABITAT, Nairobi has trained professionals from 14 African countries for their capacity development towards achieving the MDG for sustainable development in water and sanitation. Sulabh has recently signed a MoU with Ethiopia to provide its expertise to improve sanitation, health and hygiene. It has trained more than 50,000 people to work in the construction & maintenance of community toilets in India. 57
  • 59. Millennium Development Goals Apart from the problem, solution, people’s participation,  replication of sustainable technologies is more important. To meet the UN Millennium Development Goals,  especially target 7 on water and sanitation, for ensuring  environmental sustainability, Sulabh’s affordable  technologies for on‐site sanitation should be replicated  throughout the world with some modifications if  necessary. 58
  • 60. contd....Sulabh has explored new pathways in itsjourney of over for decades for providingsustainable sanitation technologies, notonly for the urban poor but for the 2.5billion people in the world who lackimproved sanitation facilities. 59
  • 61. THANK YOUSulabh International Social Service Organisation Sulabh Gram, Mahavir Enclave Palam-Dabri Road, New Delhi-110 045 Tel. No. : 011-25031518, 25031519; Fax : 011-25034014 Email : / Website : / 60