Welcome to Chemistry I – Day VIIIPortland Evening ScholarsMr. Treothe Bullock - Instructor Radioactive Chemistry Discussion of Labs Half Life Problems Isotopes Chapter 3 Review – Section 2 & 3 Have out work to be signed Review Unit 3 Math – Converting from Massto Moles to # of Particles Practice Problems Guided Sign off Problems Take Home Quiz Problems Mid Term Grades Interpreting marks Individual check-ins duringEmission Spectrum Lab Contracting repair of any below Cwork Introduction to Quantum Numbers Wave vs. particle Heisenberg’s UncertaintyParadox The modern atom & EmissionSpectrum’s Lab – Models of the Hydrogen Atom -Emission Spectrum Lab
Mathematical Philosophy inChemistry’s Quantum Model The Heisenberg UncertaintyPrinciple Werner Heisenberg “It is impossible to determinesimultaneously both the positionand velocity of an electron orparticle.” Schrödinger Wave Equation Solutions to this equation are knownas wave functions. Based on theHeisenberg uncertainty principlequantum theory determined that wavefunctions give only the probability offinding an electron at a given placearound the nucleus Electron are located in 3 dimensionalprobability clouds or orbitals centeredaround the nucleus. Erwin Schrödinger
Quantum numbers – specify the properties ofatomic orbitals and the properties of electronsin the orbitals Quantum theory describesmathematically the waveproperties of electrons and othervery small particles. Principal Quantum Number –symbolized by n, indicates themain energy level occupied by theelectron Total number of orbitals at a levelis n2 Angular Momentum QuantumNumber – At all but the firstsublevel multiple orbital shapesexist. Angular momentumquantum number symbolized by lindicates the shape of the orbital s, spherical p, dumbbell d, four are double dumbbell one isa donut around a dumbbell shape f etc. correspond to l levels 0,1,2,3
Quantum numbers Magnetic QuantumNumber – symbolized bym, indicates theorientation of an orbitalaround the nucleus s m=0 p m=-1,0 or +1 d m= -2,-1,0,+1,+2 Etc. Spin Quantum Number –has only two possiblevalues +1/2 , -1/2 whichindicate the twofundamental spin states ofan electron in an orbital
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