Biogeochemical cycles
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  • Figure 3.26 Natural capital: simplified model of the hydrologic cycle.
  • Figure 3.27 Natural capital: simplified model of the global carbon cycle. Carbon moves through both marine ecosystems (left side) and terrestrial ecosystems (right side). Carbon reservoirs are shown as boxes; processes that change one form of carbon to another are shown in unboxed print. QUESTION: What are three ways in which your lifestyle directly or indirectly affects the carbon cycle? (From Cecie Starr, Biology: Concepts and Applications, 4th ed., Pacific Grove, Calif.: Brooks/Cole, © 2000)
  • Figure 3.31 Natural capital: simplified model of the phosphorus cycle. Phosphorus reservoirs are shown as boxes; processes that change one form of phosphorus to another are shown in unboxed print. QUESTION: What are three ways in which your lifestyle directly or indirectly affects the phosphorus cycle? (From Cecie Starr and Ralph Taggart, Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life, 9th ed., Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth © 2001)
  • Figure 3.32 Natural capital: simplified model of the sulfur cycle. The movement of sulfur compounds in living organisms is shown in green, blue in aquatic systems, and orange in the atmosphere. QUESTION: What are three ways in which your lifestyle directly or indirectly affects the sulfur cycle?

Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 4Chapter 4Biogeochemical CyclesBiogeochemical Cycles
  • 2. Objectives:Objectives: Identify and describe the flow of nutrients inIdentify and describe the flow of nutrients ineach biogeochemical cycle.each biogeochemical cycle. Explain the impact that humans have on theExplain the impact that humans have on thebiogeochemical cycles.biogeochemical cycles.
  • 3. Chapter Overview QuestionsChapter Overview Questions What happens to energy in an ecosystem?What happens to energy in an ecosystem? What happens to matter in an ecosystem?What happens to matter in an ecosystem?
  • 4. What Sustains Life on Earth?What Sustains Life on Earth? Solar energy,Solar energy,the cycling ofthe cycling ofmatter, andmatter, andgravity sustaingravity sustainthe earth’s life.the earth’s life.Figure 3-7Figure 3-7
  • 5. Two Secrets of Survival: Energy FlowTwo Secrets of Survival: Energy Flowand Matter Recycleand Matter Recycle An ecosystemAn ecosystemsurvives by asurvives by acombination ofcombination ofenergy flow andenergy flow andmatter recycling.matter recycling.Figure 3-14Figure 3-14
  • 6. MATTER CYCLING INMATTER CYCLING INECOSYSTEMSECOSYSTEMS Nutrient Cycles: Global RecyclingNutrient Cycles: Global RecyclingGlobal Cycles recycle nutrients through theGlobal Cycles recycle nutrients through theearth’s air, land, water, and living organisms.earth’s air, land, water, and living organisms.Nutrients are the elements and compounds thatNutrients are the elements and compounds thatorganisms need to live, grow, and reproduce.organisms need to live, grow, and reproduce.Biogeochemical cycles move these substancesBiogeochemical cycles move these substancesthrough air, water, soil, rock and living organisms.through air, water, soil, rock and living organisms.
  • 7. Objectives:Objectives: Identify and describe the flow of nutrients inIdentify and describe the flow of nutrients ineach biogeochemical cycle.each biogeochemical cycle. Explain the impact that humans have on theExplain the impact that humans have on thebiogeochemical cycles.biogeochemical cycles.
  • 8. Water’ Unique PropertiesWater’ Unique Properties There are strong forces of attraction betweenThere are strong forces of attraction betweenmolecules of water.molecules of water. Water exists as a liquid over a wideWater exists as a liquid over a widetemperature range.temperature range. Liquid water changes temperature slowly.Liquid water changes temperature slowly. It takes a large amount of energy for water toIt takes a large amount of energy for water toevaporate.evaporate. Liquid water can dissolve a variety ofLiquid water can dissolve a variety ofcompounds.compounds. Water expands when it freezes.Water expands when it freezes.
  • 9. Fig. 3-26, p. 72PrecipitationPrecipitationTranspirationCondensationEvaporationOcean storageTranspirationfrom plantsPrecipitationto landGroundwater movement (slow)Evaporationfrom land Evaporationfrom ocean Precipitationto oceanInfiltration andPercolationRain cloudsRunoffSurface runoff(rapid)Surfacerunoff(rapid)
  • 10. Effects of Human ActivitiesEffects of Human Activitieson Water Cycleon Water Cycle We alter the water cycle by:We alter the water cycle by:Withdrawing large amounts of freshwater.Withdrawing large amounts of freshwater.Clearing vegetation and eroding soils.Clearing vegetation and eroding soils.Polluting surface and underground water.Polluting surface and underground water.Contributing to climate change.Contributing to climate change.
  • 11. Objectives:Objectives: Identify and describe the flow of nutrients inIdentify and describe the flow of nutrients ineach biogeochemical cycle.each biogeochemical cycle. Explain the impact that humans have on theExplain the impact that humans have on thebiogeochemical cycles.biogeochemical cycles.
  • 12. What Sustains Life on Earth?What Sustains Life on Earth? Solar energy,Solar energy,the cycling ofthe cycling ofmatter, andmatter, andgravity sustaingravity sustainthe earth’s life.the earth’s life.Figure 3-7Figure 3-7
  • 13. Fig. 3-27, pp. 72-7
  • 14. Effects of Human ActivitiesEffects of Human Activitieson Carbon Cycleon Carbon Cycle We alter theWe alter thecarbon cycle bycarbon cycle byadding excess COadding excess CO22to the atmosphereto the atmospherethrough:through:Burning fossil fuels.Burning fossil fuels.Clearing vegetationClearing vegetationfaster than it isfaster than it isreplaced.replaced.Figure 3-28Figure 3-28
  • 15. Objectives:Objectives: Identify and describe the flow of nutrients inIdentify and describe the flow of nutrients ineach biogeochemical cycle.each biogeochemical cycle. Explain the impact that humans have on theExplain the impact that humans have on thebiogeochemical cycles.biogeochemical cycles.
  • 16. What Sustains Life on Earth?• Solar energy,the cycling ofmatter, andgravity sustainthe earth’s life.Figure 3-7Figure 3-7
  • 17. Effects of Human ActivitiesEffects of Human Activitieson the Nitrogen Cycleon the Nitrogen Cycle We alter the nitrogen cycle by:We alter the nitrogen cycle by:Adding gases that contribute to acid rain.Adding gases that contribute to acid rain.Adding nitrous oxide to the atmosphere throughAdding nitrous oxide to the atmosphere throughfarming practices which can warm thefarming practices which can warm theatmosphere and deplete ozone.atmosphere and deplete ozone.Contaminating ground water from nitrate ions inContaminating ground water from nitrate ions ininorganic fertilizers.inorganic fertilizers.Releasing nitrogen into the troposphere throughReleasing nitrogen into the troposphere throughdeforestation.deforestation.
  • 18. Effects of Human ActivitiesEffects of Human Activitieson the Nitrogen Cycleon the Nitrogen Cycle Human activitiesHuman activitiessuch assuch asproduction ofproduction offertilizers now fixfertilizers now fixmore nitrogenmore nitrogenthan all naturalthan all naturalsourcessourcescombined.combined.Figure 3-30Figure 3-30
  • 19. Objectives:Objectives: Identify and describe the flow of nutrients inIdentify and describe the flow of nutrients ineach biogeochemical cycle.each biogeochemical cycle. Explain the impact that humans have on theExplain the impact that humans have on thebiogeochemical cycles.biogeochemical cycles.
  • 20. What Sustains Life on Earth?• Solar energy,the cycling ofmatter, andgravity sustainthe earth’s life.Figure 3-7Figure 3-7
  • 21. Fig. 3-31, p. 77Dissolvedin OceanWaterMarine Sediments Rocksuplifting overgeologic timesettling out weatheringsedimentationLandFoodWebsDissolvedin Soil Water,Lakes, Riversdeath,decompositionuptake byautotrophsagricultureleaching, runoffuptake byautotrophsexcretiondeath,decompositionmining FertilizerweatheringGuanoMarineFoodWebs
  • 22. Effects of Human ActivitiesEffects of Human Activitieson the Phosphorous Cycleon the Phosphorous Cycle We remove large amounts of phosphate fromWe remove large amounts of phosphate fromthe earth to make fertilizer.the earth to make fertilizer. We reduce phosphorous in tropical soils byWe reduce phosphorous in tropical soils byclearing forests.clearing forests. We add excess phosphates to aquaticWe add excess phosphates to aquaticsystems from runoff of animal wastes andsystems from runoff of animal wastes andfertilizers.fertilizers.
  • 23. Objectives:Objectives: Identify and describe the flow of nutrients inIdentify and describe the flow of nutrients ineach biogeochemical cycle.each biogeochemical cycle. Explain the impact that humans have on theExplain the impact that humans have on thebiogeochemical cycles.biogeochemical cycles.
  • 24. What Sustains Life on Earth?What Sustains Life on Earth? Solar energy,Solar energy,the cycling ofthe cycling ofmatter, andmatter, andgravity sustaingravity sustainthe earth’s life.the earth’s life.Figure 3-7Figure 3-7
  • 25. Fig. 3-32, p. 78Hydrogen sulfideSulfurSulfate saltsDecaying matterAnimalsPlantsOceanIndustriesVolcanoHydrogen sulfideOxygenDimethylsulfideAmmoniumsulfateAmmoniaAcidic fog andprecipitationSulfuric acidWaterSulfurtrioxideSulfur dioxideMetallicsulfidedeposits
  • 26. Effects of Human ActivitiesEffects of Human Activitieson the Sulfur Cycleon the Sulfur Cycle We add sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere by:We add sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere by:Burning coal and oilBurning coal and oilRefining sulfur containing petroleum.Refining sulfur containing petroleum.Convert sulfur-containing metallic ores into freeConvert sulfur-containing metallic ores into freemetals such as copper, lead, and zinc releasingmetals such as copper, lead, and zinc releasingsulfur dioxide into the environment.sulfur dioxide into the environment.
  • 27. The Gaia Hypothesis:The Gaia Hypothesis:Is the Earth Alive?Is the Earth Alive? Some have proposed that the earth’s variousSome have proposed that the earth’s variousforms of life control or at least influence itsforms of life control or at least influence itschemical cycles and other earth-sustainingchemical cycles and other earth-sustainingprocesses.processes.The strong Gaia hypothesis: lifeThe strong Gaia hypothesis: life controlscontrols thetheearth’s life-sustaining processes.earth’s life-sustaining processes.The weak Gaia hypothesis: lifeThe weak Gaia hypothesis: life influencesinfluences thetheearth’s life-sustaining processes.earth’s life-sustaining processes.
  • 28. What do you think?What do you think? Does life on earth control earth’s life-Does life on earth control earth’s life-sustaining processes or does life merelysustaining processes or does life merelyinfluence these life-sustaining process?influence these life-sustaining process?FRQ Format.FRQ Format.
  • 29. Objectives:Objectives: Identify and describe the flow of nutrients inIdentify and describe the flow of nutrients ineach biogeochemical cycle.each biogeochemical cycle. Explain the impact that humans have on theExplain the impact that humans have on thebiogeochemical cycles.biogeochemical cycles.