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  • 1. Knowledge Management Martin Grossman Department of Management Bridgewater State College Bridgewater, MA USA [email_address]
  • 2. Overview
    • The Knowledge Economy
    • India and the Knowledge Economy
    • Knowledge as a path to development
    • What is Knowledge Management (KM)?
    • Why is KM important?
    • KM concepts
    • Approaches to Knowledge Management
    • Knowledge Management Systems
    • Information Technology in Knowledge Management
    • KM tools
    • KM metrics
    • KM critical success factors / barriers to success
    • KM case studies
    • The KM industry
    • KM in academia
    • Knowledge Management 2.0
  • 3. The Knowledge Economy
    • The new organizational environment
      • Rapid change, complexity and uncertainty
        • Globalization
        • Internet
        • Business ecosystems
        • Faster business cycles
        • Accountability and transparency
        • Anytime, anyplace
        • Outsourcing and strategic alliances
        • Demise of hierarchy
      • Intellectual assets
  • 4. The Knowledge Economy
    • Goals of the new organizational environment
      • Leverage knowledge globally
      • Organize for complexity
      • Work electronically
      • Handle continuous and discontinuous change
  • 5. India and the knowledge economy
  • 6. India and the Knowledge Economy
    • World Bank – Knowledge Assessment Methodology ( www.worldbank.org/kam )
      • Knowledge economy index (KEI) which includes 3 variables for each of the four critical pillars of the knowledge economy.
        • Economic and institutional regime : tariff and non-tariff barriers, rule of law, regulatory quality
        • Education : literacy, secondary and tertiary enrollment rates
        • Innovation : researchers in R&D, scientific and technical scientific publications, and patents in the US
        • ICTs : fixed and mobile phone lines per 1000 people, computer per 1000, internet users per 10,000
  • 7. India and the Knowledge Economy India’s advantages
    • Critical mass of skilled, English speaking knowledge workers
    • Well functioning democracy
    • Large Diaspora creating valuable knowledge linkages and networks
    • Macroeconomic stability
    • Dynamic private sector
    • Broad and diversified science and technology infrastructure
    • Development of ICT sector – global provider of services
  • 8. India and the Knowledge Economy India tops the list in global services
  • 9. India and the Knowledge Economy India - challenges
    • Regulatory environment
    • Widespread government ownership of businesses that have been inhibiting GDP growth
    • Relatively closed economy
      • Low FDI
  • 10. India and the Knowledge Economy India - challenges 2 2.11 3.64 3.11 2.58 2.71   India 97 8.91 8.38 9.42 8.26 8.9 8.74 US 6 9.24 8.78 9.07 8.25 9.03 8.83   Iceland 4 8.84 9.16 9.71 8.79 9.24 9.12   Finland 3 9.77 8.98 9.72 8.41 9.49 9.22   Sweden 2 9.48 9.2 9.42 8.82 9.37 9.23 Denmark 1 ICT Education Innovation Economic Regime KI KEI Country
  • 11. India and the Knowledge Economy India – growth path
    • Total Factor Productivity (TFP) – proxy for nation’s learning capability
    • Different trajectories based on assuming different TFP growth rates
    • Difference between most and least optimistic is about 50%
    • Knowledge can make the difference between poverty and wealth
  • 12. Knowledge as a path to development
    • India
      • India 20/20
      • National Knowledge Commission
    • Other developing countries
      • Taiwan, Korea, China, Malaysia, Ireland, Israel, - all have policies in place to foster innovation, increase knowledge flows and entrepreneurship
        • Science and technology parks, incubators, etc.
  • 13. What is Knowledge Management
    • Hundreds of definitions have emerged
      • KM is getting the right information, to the right person, at the right time to make the right decisions
      • The goal of KM is to capture, store, maintain and deliver useful knowledge in a meaningful form to anyone who needs it, anyplace and anytime within the organization.
      • KM is the deliberate and systematic coordination of an organization’s people, technology and processes and organizational structure in order to add value through reuse and innovation.
  • 14. What is Knowledge Management
    • KM as an independent discipline – mid 90s
    • Multidisciplinary nature of KM
      • Information technology
        • Document and information management, database technologies, decision support, collaborative technologies
      • Organizational behavior
      • Cognitive science
      • Information and library science
      • Linguistics
      • Anthropology and sociology
      • Communications and storytelling
  • 15. What is Knowledge Management
    • In summary:
      • KM is a management philosophy that takes systematic and explicit advantage of knowledge to make the organization act more intelligently
      • KM is part science, part art, part luck
      • KM is not about archiving all existing explicit knowledge
      • KM is not a different name for information management!
    PEOPLE TECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESSES
  • 16. What is Knowledge Management
    • Intellectual capital
      • T he know-how of an organization. Intellectual capital often includes the knowledge that employees possess
      • Difference between book and market value of a company.
      • Human capital - talent base of the employees
      • Structural capital – organizational processes
      • Relational capital - knowledge embedded in business networks.
  • 17. Why is KM important?
    • Corporate Amnesia
      • “ If we only knew what we know”
      • Baby boomers about to retire
      • Highly mobile work force
      • Employee turnover, layoffs, outsourcing
      • Mergers and acquisitions
    • Not Invented Here (NIH) syndrome
      • ‘ Reinventing the wheel’
      • Knowledge hoarding
  • 18. Why is KM important
    • Increasing complexity – Information overload
      • Today’s work environment is more complex due to an increase in number of items we need to attend to everyday
        • Hundreds of emails, faxes, voicemail messages daily – how to prioritize?
        • Having to think on one’s feet as expected response times have decreased
    • Need to work, adapt, innovate faster
    • Leaner organizations
      • Need to do more with fewer employees
    • Innovation
  • 19. Why is KM important
    • Some KM challenges
      • Managing content
      • Collaborating effectively
      • Finding experts
      • Learning and making decisions based on vast amounts of information
  • 20. Definitions - Data, Information, and Knowledge
    • Data : Unorganized and unprocessed facts; static; a set of discrete facts about events
    • Information : Aggregation of data that makes decision making easier
    • Knowledge is derived from information in the same way information is derived from data; it is a person’s range of information
    Knowledge Management concepts
  • 21. From data processing to knowledge-based systems Knowledge Management concepts Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom
  • 22. Knowledge Management concepts
      • Explicit
        • Objective
        • Easily codified
        • IS predominantly deals with explicit
      • Tacit
        • Difficult to articulate (put into words, text, drawings)
        • Expertise, know-how
        • Transferred through coaching, mentoring, life experience
        • First described by Polanyi (1966)
          • “ We know more than we can tell”
    • Tacit vs. Explicit
  • 23. Knowledge Management concepts
      • Structured
        • Database
        • Directory of names
        • Minutes of meetings
        • Threaded emails
      • Unstructured
        • Hallway meetings
        • Telephone calls
        • Post-it notes
    • Structured vs. Unstructured
  • 24. Knowledge Management concepts Knowledge Management concepts KM life cycle
    • Create knowledge
      • Determining new ways of doing things; developing ‘know-how’
    • Capture knowledge
      • Identified as valuable and represented in an accessible way.
    • Refine knowledge
      • Placed in context so that is actionable. Human insights must be captured along with explicit facts.
    • Store knowledge
      • Stored in a reasonable format in a knowledge repository so that others can access it
    • Manage knowledge
      • Must be kept current; frequently reviewed to verify that is relevant and accurate
    • Disseminate knowledge
      • Must be made available in a useful format to anyone in the organization who needs it, anywhere and anytime
  • 25. Approaches to Knowledge Management
    • Process approach
      • Attempts to codify organizational knowledge through formalized controls, processes and technologies
        • Data warehousing, knowledge repositories, etc.
        • Disadvantages
          • Fails to capture much tacit knowledge embedded in firms
          • Forces individuals into fixed patterns of thinking
  • 26. Approaches to Knowledge Management
    • Practice approach
      • Assumes that most organizational knowledge is tacit in nature and that formal processes are not suitable for transmitting this type of understanding
      • Focuses on building the social environments
        • Communities of Practice – groups of individuals with a common professional interest who work together informally.
        • Collaborative computing platforms – Lotus Notes/Domino Server, email, videoconferencing.
    • Hybrid approach
      • Most KMS are incorporating elements of both
  • 27. Knowledge Management Systems (KMS)
    • The use of modern information technology (IT) to systematize, enhance and expedite knowledge management inside and outside a firm.
    • KMS capabilities include :
      • capturing knowledge
      • storing it
      • allowing users to search the system for relevant knowledge
      • making knowledge available to them
      • communication, collaboration, storage and retrieval
  • 28. Knowledge Management Systems (Assorted KM technologies, tools and techniques )
      • Content management
      • Electronic Document management
      • Cognitive mapping tools
      • Intranets/Extranets
      • Taxonomies/Ontologies
      • Groupware (Lotus Notes)
      • Communities of Practice
      • Enterprise Portals
      • Social Network Analysis
      • Inter-organizational systems
    • E-Learning
    • Data mining
    • Search engines
    • Yellow pages
    • Expert systems
    • Innovation management tools
    • Intelligent agents
    • Integrated knowledge management suites
    • Web 2.0 (blogs and wikis)
  • 29. Information Technology in Knowledge Management
    • Components of KMS
      • KMS are developed using three sets of technologies:
        • Communication
        • Collaboration
        • Storage and retrieval
  • 30. KM Tools
    • Collaborative computing tools
      • For transferring knowledge within an organization
        • Lotus Notes/Domino – enterprise-wide collaborative environment
        • MeetingPlace
        • Groove Networks
        • Microsoft Live Meeting
    • Knowledge servers
      • For storing and providing access to a knowledge repository
        • Hummingbird Knowledge Server
        • Hyperware Information Server
  • 31. KM Tools
    • Electronic document management
      • Use the document in electronic form as the collaborative focus of work.
      • Generally works via web browser over a corporate intranet
      • Enable organizations to better manage documents and workflow
      • Collaborative creation and revision of documents
      • Xerox DocuShare, Documentum
    • Content Management Systems
      • Produces dynamic versions of documents and automatically maintains the current set for use at enterprise level
    • Search engines
      • Locating and retrieving documents from corporate knowledge repositories
      • Google, Verity, Inktomi
  • 32. KM Tools
    • Enterprise knowledge portals (EKP)
      • Combine data integration, reporting mechanisms, and collaboration while a server handles document and knowledge management.
      • Virtual place on network of online users.
      • Aggregates each user’s total information needs
        • Data and documents, e-mail, Web link, shared calendars, etc.
      • Leading vendors : Vignette, Autonomy, OpenText
  • 33. KM Tools
    • Knowledge management suites
      • Complete KM solutions out-of-the-box
      • Integrate the communications, collaboration, and storage technologies into a single package
        • Automony Knowledge Management Suite, Dataware Knowledge Management Suite
  • 34. KM Tools - Hyperwave
  • 35. KM Tools - Hummingbird
  • 36. KM tools
    • Rule 1 – Critical role of IT is to provide the infrastructure and to enable KM
    • Rule 2 – A system that is not used is a waste of money
    • Rule 3 - KM is primarily about organizational culture, NOT just about technology
      • ‘ ..highest bandwidth of all is found between the water fountain and the coffee machine’
  • 37. Information Technology in Knowledge Management
    • Some other important technologies supporting knowledge management
      • Artificial intelligence / intelligent agents
      • Extensible Markup Language (XML)
  • 38. Information Technology in Knowledge Management
    • Artificial intelligence
      • AI methods used in KMS:
        • Assist in and enhance searching knowledge
        • Help establish knowledge profiles of individuals and groups
        • Help determine the relative importance of knowledge when it is contributed to and accessed from the knowledge repository
  • 39. Information Technology in Knowledge Management
      • AI methods used in KMS:
        • Scan e-mail, documents, and databases to perform knowledge discovery, determine meaningful relationships, glean knowledge, or induce rules for expert systems
        • Identify patterns in data (usually through neural networks)
        • Forecast future results by using existing knowledge
        • Provide advice directly from knowledge by using neural networks or expert systems
        • Provide a natural language or voice command–driven user interface for a KMS
  • 40. Information Technology in Knowledge Management
      • Extensible Markup Language (XML)
        • XML enables standardized representations of data structures so that data can be processed appropriately by heterogeneous systems without case-by-case programming
        • ‘lingua franca’ – universal language
        • Used as underlying protocol in web services (e.g. SOAP, UDDI) and syndication (RSS, Atom)
  • 41. Why measure? KM Metrics ‘ You can’t manage what you can’t measure’
    • Identify and map intangible assets
    • Recognize the knowledge flow patterns within the organization
    • Prioritize the critical knowledge issues
    • Accelerate learning patterns within the organization
    • Identify and diffuse best practices
    • Understand how knowledge creates interrelationships
    • Understand organizational social networks and identify change agents
    • Increase innovation
    • Increase collaborative activities and a knowledge sharing culture as a result of increased awareness of the benefits of knowledge management
    • Increase motivation
    • Create a performance-oriented culture
  • 42. KM Metrics
    • Approaches to measurement
      • Traditional Accounting-based models
        • Direct intellectual capital methods
          • estimates the dollar value of intangible assets by identifying its various components (Technology Broker, Intellectual Asset Valuation)
        • Market capitalization methods
          • computes IC as the difference between the firm’s market capitalization and stockholder equity (Tobin’s Q)
        • Return on Assets (ROA)
          • uses formula including pre-tax earnings and other measures to derive a quantifiable value for the company’s IC (Economic Value Added)
  • 43. KM Metrics
      • Scorecard models
        • Components of intellectual capital (e.g. human, structural, and customer) are identified and indices are reported in scorecards or graphs.
        • These models are more holistic than strictly financial approaches and incorporate such concepts as human, structural, customer and organizational capital.
        • It is this last category that is most promising, as it addresses the non-financial aspects of business and offers a more balanced approach which takes into consideration a broader conception of intellectual capital.
        • Balanced Scorecard (Kaplan and Norton, 1996), Intangible Assets Monitor (Sveiby, 1997), Skandia Navigator (Edvinson and Malone, 1997), Intellectual Capital Index (Roos, Roos, Edvinsson and Dragonetti, 1997)
  • 44. KM Metrics
    • The Balanced Scorecard (Kaplan and Norton, 1996)
      • Four perspectives, three of which are non-financial and intangible in nature.
      • Financial – centering on profitability and including such measures as operating income, return on capital employed and economic value added,
      • Customers – the goal is to identify desired outcomes of business strategy, including such things as customer satisfaction, retention and market share,
      • Internal business processes – what the company needs to do well to succeed, such as innovation processes, operations, and post-sale service, and
      • Learning and growth – including such factors as employee capabilities and organizational alignment
  • 45. KM Metrics Qualitative approaches from the European IC community
    • Intellectual Capital Statements
      • originally commissioned by the Danish Agency for Trade and Industry
      • MERITUM project- a European Commission funded initiative which incorporated inputs from IC researchers in Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland, France and Spain
    • Intellectual Capital Self-Account
      • Builds on the narrative approaches of the DATI and MERITUM initiatives
      • Self-narratives
      • University of Stirling , UK
    • One component is the knowledge narrative
        • expresses how knowledge should lead to increases in value to the customer.
        • includes descriptions of
          • the product or service provided by the company
          • what makes a difference for the customer
          • what knowledge resources are necessary to supply the product or service
          • what is the relationship between value and knowledge resources.
  • 46. KM Case studies
    • MAKE Framework – Drivers of wealth creation
      • Developing knowledge workers through senior management leadership
      • Delivering knowledge-based products/services/solutions
      • Maximizing enterprise intellectual capital
      • Creating an environment for collaborative knowledge sharing
      • Creating a learning organization
      • Delivering value based on customer knowledge
      • Transforming enterprise knowledge into shareholder value
  • 47. 2006 Indian MAKE Awards
    • India – winners of the 2006 Asian MAKE study
      • Infosys Technologies
      • Satyam Computer Services
      • Tata Consultancy Services
      • Tata Steel
      • Wipro Technologies
  • 48. Recent North American MAKE winners
    • Buckman Laboratories
    • Dell
    • General Electric
    • SAIC
    • Southwest Airlines
  • 49. Siemens
    • Background
      • $73 billion electronics company (products include light bulbs, x-ray machines, power generation equipment, high-speed trains)
      • In business for over 160 years – known for engineering brilliance
  • 50. Siemens
    • Problem
      • Much of the internal knowledge was locked an inaccessible
      • Needed to leverage the knowledge and expertise of its 460,000 employees worldwide
  • 51. Siemens
    • Solution
      • 1996 – a number of employees interested in KM created a ‘community of interest’ – preliminary research, learned what others were doing.
        • Without top-down mandate, mid-level employees began creating repositories, communities of practice, and informal techniques of sharing knowledge.
      • 1999 – central board of Siemens confirmed importance of KM to entire company and created an organizational unit responsible for worldwide deployment of KM.
  • 52. Siemens
    • Solution
      • ‘ ShareNet’
        • Web-based
        • Combined elements of a database repository, a chat room, and a search engine.
        • Contained online entry forms to allow employees to store information they thought was useful to employees.
        • Browse by topic ; contact authors for more information
        • Allowed employees to post alerts when they had urgent questions.
  • 53. Siemens
    • Results
      • ShareNet has evolved into a state of the art web-based KMS.
      • Numerous companies (e.g. Intel, Philips, Volkswagen) have patterned their own initiatives after ShareNet.
      • Quantifiable benefits, i.e. millions of dollars in additional sales
      • Winner of the MAKE award for 5 years in a row.
  • 54. U. S. Dept. of Commerce
    • Problem
      • DOC has 100 offices in the U.S. and another 150 in 80 countries around the world
      • Approx. 1,700 U.S. trade specialists with expertise on what it takes to success abroad (e.g. trade shows to attend, papers to file, local laws, competition in a particular area).
      • No way to organize what the experts knew or how to get in touch with them once they were identified.
  • 55. U. S. Dept. of Commerce
    • Solution
      • AskMe Knowledge Management System ( www.askme.com )
        • Automated best practices
        • Automated experts’ profile creation
        • Addition of numerous methods for accessing and delivering knowledge
        • Integrated real-time collaborative services
        • Comprehensive analytic capabilities
  • 56. U. S. Dept. of Commerce
    • Benefits
    • Experts’ knowledge is organized
    • Experts’ are more easily contacted
    • Information is reusable saving hours of repetitive work
    • Return on investment is tracked
    • Popular topics are identified so DOC can beef up its expertise in those areas
    • In first 9 months, the system saved over 1,000 labor-hours.
  • 57. DOC’s solution – AskMe
  • 58. Barriers to KM
    • Belief that knowledge is power
      • Job security
    • Lack of trust
    • Feeling that the effort is just too hard
    • “ What’s in it for me?”
    • Management must be actively involved with breaking down these barriers
  • 59. The KM Industry
    • Recent Monster.com job search for KM professionals
    • Companies
      • Ernst & Young, PricewaterhouseCoopers, Computer Sciences Corporation, IBM and General Dynamics.
      • Large number of smaller consulting and recruiting firms were advertising open positions.
  • 60. The KM Industry
    • Knowledge Management Manager – Serves as an internal consultant to the organization leading the active sharing of knowledge and managing the collection, sanitization, and organization of that knowledge (case studies, pitch materials, industry overviews, etc.) to support the development and efficiency of the organization.
    • Knowledge Management Specialist – Design, develop, market and manage the knowledge resources that help the firms litigators deliver effective and efficient work product for our clients. Work closely with our litigation attorneys, legal support staff, software programmers and financial analysts to manage a variety of KM projects.
  • 61. The KM Industry
    • Knowledge Specialist – Responsible for managing the build of the Common Repository. Recommend and design methods and processes for maintaining and updating the knowledge capital resources. Investigate and monitor other project knowledge bases and any sharing as appropriate. Ensure the quality and integrity of documents published. Provide management reporting on knowledgebase content (updates, participation etc.). Develop and enhance the processes for collecting and organizing content.
    • National Knowledge Management Project Manager - Manage multiple project teams to identify KM needs throughout the US firm and to explore process-based solutions to address those KM needs. Work closely with designated project sponsors and other stakeholders to define approach and scope of desired capabilities. Provide significant input to or create documented business requirements to capture requested capabilities.
  • 62. The Chief Knowledge Officer (CKO)
    • Responsible for all knowledge management-related activities that go on in an organization.
      • Set knowledge management strategic priorities
      • Establish a knowledge repository of best practices
      • Gain a commitment from senior executives to support a learning environment
      • Teach information seekers how to ask better and smarter questions
      • Establish a process for managing intellectual assets
      • Obtain customer satisfaction information in near real-time
      • Globalize knowledge management
  • 63. KM as Academic Discipline
    • Growing number of jobs for KM professionals
    • Proliferation of KM certifications
    • Slow adoption at undergraduate level
    • Graduate courses and as advanced undergraduate elective – U.S., Europe, Australia
    • Slow recognition of KM in IT curriculum guidelines (IS-2002)
    • Becoming more popular as topic for doctoral research
      • Sharp increase in dissertations starting in 1998
        • Mainly IT and business but crossing into a wider array of disciplines and topics
  • 64. KM as Academic Discipline KM Dissertations/Year
  • 65. KM Certifications
    • (1) International KM Institute ( http://www.kminstitute.org/index.php ) - Certified Knowledge Manager (CKM) certification
    • (2) Knowledge Management Professional Society ( http:// kmpro.org ) -Certified Knowledge Manager (CKM) and the Master Certified Knowledge Management Professional (MKMP) certification
    • (3) Global Knowledge Economics Council ( http://www.eknowledgecenter.com/certificationcourses/CertTracks.htm ) - Certified Knowledge Manager (CKM), Certified Knowledge Environment Engineer (CKEE), and Certified Knowledge Economics (CKE) certifications
    • (4) Knowledge Management Consortium International ( www.kmci.org ) Certificate in Knowledge and Innovation Management (CKIM) and the KMCI Advanced Certificate Program.
  • 66. Knowledge Management 2.0
    • Bottom up
    • Participatory
    • Rapid innovation
    • Mixing and mashing of information
  • 67. What is Web 2.0
    • And what it’s not
      • Internet 2.0
      • the Semantic Web
    • Web 2.0 ( Tim O’Reilly, 2005 )
      • “ Web 2.0 is the network as platform , spanning all connected devices; Web 2.0 applications are those that make the most of the intrinsic advantages of that platform: delivering software as a continually-updated service that gets better the more people use it, consuming and remixing data from multiple sources, including individual users, while providing their own data and services in a form that allows remixing by others, creating network effects through an " architecture of participation ," and going beyond the page metaphor of Web 1.0 to deliver rich user experiences ”
  • 68. Web 2.0 fundamentals
    • Network as platform
      • making web applications act like desktop applications
      • the network is the computer; the suite of IP protocols the OS
  • 69. ThinkFree online word processing
  • 70. Web 2.0 fundamentals
    • Continually updated service
      • Shift away from traditional and rigid software adoption cycle
      • Versioning, installations, and upgrades transparent to user
      • Software as a Service (SaaS); web services
  • 71. Web 2.0 fundamentals
    • Consuming and remixing data
      • meshing content from disparate sources
      • ‘ mashups’ - are lightweight and built on the fly
        • AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) -
          • Evolved from DHTML ; allows for incremental refreshes
      • Syndication
        • XML based feeds –
          • Really Simple Syndication (RSS) and ATOM
  • 72.  
  • 73. Syndication
    • Really Simple Syndication
      • RSS is a family of web feed formats used to publish frequently updated pages, such as blogs or news feeds. Consumers of RSS content use special browsers called aggregators to watch for new content in dozens or even hundreds of web feeds.
  • 74. Using RSS
    • Grab RSS feeds and use internally
    • Publish RSS feeds
      • Events, calendars, to-dos
      • News
      • Content changes
      • Announcements
  • 75. Blogs Wikis Social Bookmarking (folksonomies) – Podcasts Wiki updates New blog entries Newly tagged sites RSS Aggregator
  • 76.  
  • 77. Web 2.0 fundamentals
    • Architecture of participation
      • Social networking
        • Facebook, mySpace, LinkedIn
      • User generated content
        • Wikis, blogs
      • Tagging (folksonomies)
        • The ‘wisdom of the crowd’
      • Open-source – APIs allow for ‘hackability’
      • Collaboration; knowledge sharing
  • 78. Sharing
    • Flickr – photos ( www.flickr.com )
    • YouTube – video clips ( www.youtube.com )
    • Del.ic.ious – bookmarks ( http://del.icio.us )
    • Slideshare – slide shows ( http:// www.slideshare.net )
  • 79. Del.icio.us is Bookmark-Sharing Social Network
  • 80. Blogs
      • In 1997 didn’t exist; in 1999 – a few hundred
      • As of November 2006, blog search engine Technorati was tracking nearly 60 million blogs
      • Updated by one or more set authors
      • Regularly updated
      • Used for journal-like content
      • Made up of posts
      • Posts sorted reverse chronologically
      • Sometimes allows for comments
      • Updates delivered via RSS.
      • www.blogger.com
  • 81. Blogs
  • 82. Wikis
      • Anyone can edit
      • Updated as needed
      • Used for collaboration on a single project
      • Made of up of linked pages
      • Little or no structure
      • Sometimes allows for comments
      • Updates delivered via RSS
  • 83. Wikipedia A Collaborative Encyclopedia being edited in real time by anyone. Everyone becomes an author, an editor, and a publisher.
  • 84. Web 2.0 fundamentals
    • Rich user experiences
      • Rich Internet Applications (RIA)
      • Mashups; underlying technologies such as Ajax, REST, Ruby on Rails
  • 85. Grassroots KM
    • Wagner (2004)
      • Conversational technologies
        • best fit for distributed and ad-hoc tasks where knowledge must be gathered quickly.
        • E-mail
        • Discussion forums
        • Chat / IM
        • Video / audio
        • Blogs
        • Wikis
  • 86. Enterprise 1.0 / Enterprise 2.0
    • Hierarchy
    • Friction
    • Bureaucracy
    • Inflexibility
    • IT-driven
    • Top down
    • Centralized
    • Teams are in one building
    • Silos and boundaries
    • Need to know
    • Structured information systems
    • Taxonomies
    • Overly complex
    • Closed/ proprietary standards
    • Scheduled
    • Long time-to-market cycles
    • Flat Organization
    • Ease of Organization Flow
    • Agility
    • Flexibility
    • User-driven technology
    • Bottom up
    • Distributed
    • Teams are global
    • Fuzzy boundaries, open borders
    • Transparency
    • Information systems are emergent
    • Folksonomies
    • Simple
    • Open
    • On demand
    • Short time-to-market cycles
  • 87. Enterprise 2.0 proposition
    • Changing the way business interact with their customers, employees and partners.
    • Potential benefits
      • Gather feedback
      • Allow users to help each other
      • Get input into new product developments
      • Lower support costs and increase customer satisfaction
    • Makes accessible the collective intelligence of many, translating to a competitive advantage in the form of
      • Increased innovation
      • Increased productivity
      • Greater agility.
  • 88. McAfee (2006)
    • Andrew McAfee of the Harvard Business School in the Spring 2006 issue of MIT Sloan Management Review coins the term ‘Enterprise 2.0’.
      • “ Current technologies are not doing a good job of capturing knowledge. New platforms focus not on capturing knowledge itself, but rather on the practices and outputs of knowledge workers”
      • “ Most current platforms, such as knowledge management systems, information portals, intranets and workflow applications, are highly structured from the start, and users have little opportunity to influence this structure.”
  • 89. McAfee (2006)
    • Enterprise 2.0 SLATES framework
      • S earch – to enable users to find what they are looking for.
      • Links – to provide users with a guide which indicates what is important and structures online content. The best pages are the ones most frequently linked to and which reflect the opinions of many people
      • Authoring – to allow users to contribute, whether it is knowledge, insight, experience, comments, etc.
      • Tags – to let users dictate the way content is categorized (one word descriptions; e.g. Flickr, de.licio.us, Technorati)
      • Extensions – use algorithms to automate some of the categorization and pattern matching (e.g. Amazon’s recommendation system)
      • Signals – to alert users when new content of interest appears.
  • 90. Tapscott (2006)
    • ‘ Wikinomics’ – mass collaboration represents a major paradigm shift
      • Many mature firms are benefiting from this new business paradigm (e.g. Boeing, BMW, and Procter & Gamble) to:
        • cut costs
        • innovate faster
        • co-create with customers and partners
        • do whatever it takes to usher their organizations into the twenty-first century business environment.
  • 91. Tapscott (2006)
  • 92. Adoption of Enterprise 2.0 for knowledge sharing and collaboration
    • Web 2.0 Summit in Dec. 2006
    • Enterprise 2.0 conference – June, 2007 in Boston
    • Most major enterprise software vendors are getting into the act
      • integration of blogs and wikis into mainstream offerings; mashup toolkits
    • Active venture capital involvement in new Web 2.0 startups
  • 93. Research study on Enterprise 2.0 awareness and adoption
    • Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) - White paper to be published this month.
  • 94. Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) survey
  • 95. EIU results
    • Executives plan to use Web 2.0 to increase revenues and to drive down costs for their companies.
    • 79 percent felt that Web 2.0 technologies would add to their companies' bottom lines.
    • More than half recognized a trio of Web 2.0 tools: consumer-generated content, collaboration, and social networking.
    • 68% felt that Web 2.0 would make a difference is in the way their companies interact with customers—attracting, meeting, educating, and supporting
  • 96. EIU - Enterprise 2.0 adoption
  • 97. Examples of corporate use
    • Motorola
      • Wikis, blogging and FAQ introduced in 2004 in Open Text collaboration software
      • Currently 3200 wikis in Motorola
      • Collaboration infrastructure contains 17 TB of searchable data.
      • Use of ‘knowledge champions’ who take responsibility for different subject areas within the Open Text collaboration infrastructure
      • Also using TWiki
  • 98. Examples of corporate use
    • Novell
      • Corporate wiki for all employees
      • Three kinds of wikis at Novell
        • Enterprise – (Mediawiki)
        • Engineering – ( TWiki)
          • For disseminating ideas
        • Renegade – (TWiki)
      • Estimate is that 20% of Novell employees (~1200 people) read the enterprise wiki every month. Of those maybe 250 edit content monthly.
  • 99. Examples of corporate use
    • Chordiant (California software developer)
      • Developer’s wiki opened up to customers
        • Gain valuable access to feedback regarding customer requirements
        • Using JotSpot – the company has reinvented the entire software design process to be a continuous conversation with their customers.
        • Generated new business; reduced overall IT spending on infrastructure for software development
  • 100. Enterprise 2.0 Systems Development
    • Software development packages:
      • Nexaweb ( www.nexaweb.com )
      • JackBe ( www.jackbe.com )
      • ActiveGrid ( www.activegrid.com
  • 101. Business software vendors
    • Many business software vendors are also incorporating Web 2.0 ideas, such as blogging and file sharing, into their offerings.
      • iUpload’s Customer Conversation System ( http:// www.iupload.com ), for example, incorporates corporate blogging and wiki platforms, and also includes security, workflow and regulatory compliance tools.
      • Tacit Software's Illumio ( http:// www.ilumio.com ) is a web-based information broker that matches end user information requests with users in the company who might know the answer.
      • Koral ( www.koral.com ) is a web-based document collaboration and sharing tool which also categorizes documents automatically and notifies users of updates and new documents published by authors or topics to which they have subscribed.
  • 102. Concerns
    • Losing control of communication within organizations
    • ‘ Dumbing down’ the corporate conversation
    • Determining accuracy of the information captured and shared by employees using Enterprise 2.0 tools; legal issues
    • Concerns over productivity, i.e. will users spend their time socializing on non-work related topics.
    • Security concerns - mashups inherently unreliable as content is fused from invalidated sources
    • No real standards have emerged; interoperability; enterprise architecture issues
  • 103. Enterprise 2.0 in 2007?
    • The Enterprise 2.0 space will broaden as new products emerge and as IT departments start to incorporate tools.
    • Enterprise 2.0 will continue to get more attention with more case studies appearing in the literature, trade press and blogosphere.
    • Enterprise 2.0 should be considered another tool in the KM toolkit.
    • Many tricky areas. Proceed with caution.
    • Start experimenting with the tools to connect with employees, customers, and partners.
  • 104. References
    • Gibson, S. (2006, Nov. 20). Veni, vidi, wiki. eWeek . 22-28.
    • McAfee, A. P. (2006). Enterprise 2.0: The Dawn of Emergent Collaboration. MIT Sloan Management Review , 21-28.
    • Reynolds, H. (2007). Taking the pulse of 2.0 enterprise adoption. Available at: http://fastforwardblog.com/2007/02/06/taking-the-pulse-of-20-enterprise-adoption/
    • Spanbauer, S. (2006). Knowledge Management 2.0. CIO Magazine . December 1, 2006. Available at: : http://www.cio.com/archive/120106/fea_tec.html
    • Tapscott, D. (2006). Winning with the Enterprise 2.0. New Paradigm Learning Corp.
    • Available at: http://newparadigm.com/media/Winning_with_the_Enterprise_2.0.pdf
    • Tapscott, D. and Williams, D. W. (2006). Wikinomics: How mass collaboration changes everything.
    • Wagner, C. (2004). Wiki: A technology for conversational knowledge management and group collaboration. Communications of the Association for Information Systems . 13. 265-289.
    • White, C. (2007, Feb. 28). Web 2.0, BPM 2.0, BI 2.0: How many 2.0s do we need? Available at : http://www.b-eye-network.com/view/3958
  • 105. Blogs relating to Web 2.0 in India
    • India Tech –
      • http://www.podtech.net/indiatech/india/1051/india-technology-20the-charge-of-the-indian-web-20-brigade
    • Scribez –
      • http://scribez.wordpress.com/2006/10/08/web-20-the-great-indian-update /
    • Kamla Bhatt –
      • http://kamlabhatt.wordpress.com/2006/06/15/web-20-companies-in-india/
    • Rajlogs-
      • http://www.rajlogs.com/2006/04/web_20_activities_in_india.html
  • 106. Thank you Questions? Comments?