TYPES OF TRA I N I NG IN ORGANIZATIONS J.MICHAEL SAMMANASU JIM
TRA I N I NG
Training is typically part of the Human Resource Development .
The role of Human Resource department is to improve the organization’s effectiveness by providing employees with the knowledge, skills and attitudes that will improve their current or future job performance.
Training is an “opportunity” for learning
Described as” providing the conditions in which people can learn effectively”. To learn is “ to gain knowledge, skill and ability”
Training cause learning, as a result of learning development occurs.
Objectives of Training
Training activities and businesses objectives are related each other as links. With the effective training program, organization easily catches their objectives. Training activities has some general objectives. They are;
Orienting new employee to the organization and their job
Helping employees perform their current jobs well
Helping employees qualify for the future jobs
Keeping employees informed
Providing opportunities for personal development
Effective training produces many benefits for both employees and organization overall.
For the employees training creates;
Greater job satisfaction and morale among employees: employees take more satisfaction in a job when they know how to do it well. If they are not sure what to do or how to do it properly, they can become frustrated and dissatisfied with their work.
Improved self-esteem: the combination of job satisfaction and peer acceptance leads to improved self-esteem.
Opportunity to advance in the organization: employees who demonstrate excellent performance at one level in an organization often have the opportunity to advance to other levels of responsibility.
Increased employee motivation
For the organization, training causes;
Increased productivity: employees who know how to perform their jobs are more effective and more productive than those who learn through error and trial are.
Higher levels of customer satisfaction: employees are able to take care of customers properly and have better skills for solving customer-related problems.
Improved quality: standards are met when people know what the organization expects from them
Increased innovation in strategies and products
Reduced employee turnover.
Enhanced company image
TRAINING NEED ANALYSIS
WHY conducting training need analysis ?
Increases the chances that the time and money spent on training would be spent wisely
Determines the benchmark for evaluation of training
Increases the motivation of participants
Provides an essential component in the implementation of the strategic plan
Allows trainer to present logical explanation, at the start of training about what is not happening now( but should be) on the job, and how the training will be useful
For most types of training, need analysis will increase the relevance effectiveness of training.
Methods of Conducting Need Analysis
Job Description and Job Specification
TRAINING METHODS TRAINING COGNITIVE METHODS OFF THE JOB TRAINING BEHAVIOURAL METHODS ON THE JOB TRAINING
Cognitive methods provide verbal or written information, demonstrate relationships among concepts, or provide the rules for how to do something. These stimulate learning through their impact on cognitive processes and are associated most closely with changes in knowledge and attitudes. These types of methods can also be called as off-the-job training methods.
Behavioral methods allow trainee to practice behaviour in real or simulated fashion. They stimulate learning through behaviour an are best for skill development and attitude change. These methods can be called as on-the-job training methods.
Thus either behavioural or cognitive learning methods can effectively be used to change attitudes, though they do so through different means.
Cognitive methods are best for knowledge development and behavioural methods for skill development . The decision about what approach to take to training depend on several factors that include
the amount of funding available for training,
specificity and complexity of the knowledge and skills needed,
timeliness of training needed, and the capacity and
motivation of the learner.
To be effective, training method should
Motivate the trainee to improve performance
Provide for active participation by the trainee
Encourage positive transfer from training to job
Provide timely feedback on the trainee’s performance
Be structured from simple to specific problems
Orientation is the formal introduction of the new employees to the organization and to the job. Orientation answers “what” questions new employees have on the first day of the work.
Orientation is a specific type of training which is given to the new employee
Why Orientation Is Important
Orientation explains basics – often provided in an employee handbook
Rules and policies are often discussed
Makes new employee feel at ease
Describes the organization – the big picture
Defines expected work behavior
Socializes new employee in company’s ways
COGNITIVE METHODS OFF THE JOB TRAINING METHODS
Computer Based Training
Vestibule Training: Simulation
The lecture is best used to create a general understanding of a topic or to influence attitudes through education about a topic.
T he most common form of off-the-job training is the oral presentation of information to an audience
Computer Based Training
Computer based training can be defined as that any training that occurs through the use of computer.
E- Learning new ways of delivering training programs are constantly being developed in the attempts to match the high speed at which businesses are moving. One of the new methods of delivering training programs is with online .
Vestibule Training : Simulation
Vestibule Training involves the virtual duplication of work environment in an off-site setting.
Simulation exercises place the trainee in an artificial environment that closely imitates actual working conditions where the trainer demonstrates on the same kind of machine and using the same procedures that trainees will use on the job.
B usiness games are another form of simulations that attempt to indicate the way in an industry, company, or subunit of company functions. Generally, they are based on a set of relationships, rules, and principles derived from the theory or research.
In this type of training, participants learn how to deal with a variety of issues in a simulated business environment. Trainees are provided with information describing a situation and are asked to make decisions about what to do. (e.g., develop leadership skills , strengthen executive and upper management skills )
D etail s of series of events, either real or hypothetical, which take place in a business environment.
When this method of training used, participants asked to sort through data provided in the case to identify the principal issues and then propose solutions to these issues
The purpose of this method is to give participants a chance to experience such situations in a controlled setting.
Trainees are provided with a description of the context usually a topic area, a general description of a situation, a description of their roles, and the problem they each face.
Each of the formats has particular types of skills for, which is most appropriate.
Vestibule training obviously is best at teaching people how to work with equipment.
Business games are best for developing business decision-making skills and for exploring and solving complex problems
Case studies are most appropriate for developing analytic skills, higher-level principles, and complex problem-solving strategies.its focus is more on the “what to do”(strategic knowledge) than on the “how to get it done”(skills)
Role plays provide a good vehicle for developing interpersonal skills and personal insight, allowing trainees to practice interacting with others and receiving feedback
BEHAVIOURAL METHODS ON THE JOB TRAINING
On-the-job training places employees in actual work situation and makes them immediately productive.
On-the-job training involve learning by doing, relies on demonstration and coaching.
This form helps particularly to develop the occupational skills necessary to manage an organization, to fully understand the organization’s products and services and how they are developed and carried out.
BEHAVIOURAL METHODS ON THE JOB TRAINING
Job rotation is the systematic movement of employees from job to job or project to project within an organization, as a way to achieve many different human resources objectives.
Excellent job rotation program can decrease the training cost while also increasing the impact of training, because job rotation is a hands on experience. Make individuals more self-motivated, flexible, adaptable, innovative, eager to learn and able to communicate effectively and better understanding of strategic issues.
One of the possible problems with the rotation programs will be the cost, because job rotation increase amount of management time to spent on lower level employees.
Coaching is the process of one-on-one guidance and instruction to improve knowledge, skills and work performance.
Coaching is becoming a very popular means of development, and often includes working one-on-one with the learner to conduct a needs assessment, set major goals to accomplish, develop an action plan, and support the learner to accomplish the plan.
Apprenticeship is another form of on-the-job training, is one of the oldest forms of training. Apprenticeship are designed to provide planned, practical instruction over a significant time span. Apprenticeship were the major approach to learning a craft.
Internship are opportunities for students to get real world experience, often during summer vacations as a part of fulfilling requirements for degree programs. Internship are offered usually by organization to college students wanting to find work experience. The internship offer precious, real life job experience and the organization often get skilled, highly dedicated service.
On-the-job training is clearly useful method for skill development, since trainees implementing their knowledge in the actual job conditions. Transfer of training naturally occurs. Because employees getting on-the-job training are actually working, not being trained in classroom, it has clear cost advantages, if it is done effectively.
Productivity will be lower during the training, because neither the trainee nor the trainer will be producing full capacity. But it is real that on-the-job training method is really cost effective method over simulations, games and computer based training modules.
Training For Special Purposes
Global business training samples include:
Executive etiquette for global transactions
Cross-cultural technology transfer
International protocol and presentation
Business basics for the foreign executive
Training For Special Purposes
Better cross-cultural sensitivity
Improving technical skills
Lifelong learning provides continuing training from basic remedial skills to advanced decision-making techniques throughout an employee’s career
New & old skills alike are learned & updated continuously
Management development is any attempt to improve managerial performance by imparting knowledge, changing attitudes, or increasing skills with an aim to enhance the future performance of the company itself