The National Search Dog Alliance presents… Canine Health and First Aid
Basic Canine Physiology Basic Canine First Aid Canine CPR Canine First Aid Kits NSDA  K9 First Aid
NSDA  K9 First Aid
NSDA   Canine First Aid  Source: Washington State University Web
NSDA  K9 First Aid <ul><li>What’s Norm </li></ul><ul><li>Capillary refill time – less than two seconds </li></ul><ul><li>M...
NSDA  K9 First Aid <ul><li>Taking a Dog’s Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Use a human rectal thermometer. Lubricate the ther...
NSDA  K9 First Aid <ul><li>Head </li></ul><ul><li>Dogs have 42 teeth. Six pairs of sharp incisor teeth are in front of the...
Head Continued <ul><li>Air breathed in through the dog's nose passes on its way to the lungs through the two nasal cavitie...
Head Continued <ul><li>The fairly thin tongue of the dog is used mainly for guiding food to the throat, for licking the co...
Head Continued <ul><li>The head and body of a dog are connected by its neck. The neck may be long or short, depending on t...
Eye NSDA  K9 First Aid
NSDA  K9 First Aid  <ul><li>EYES CONTINUED </li></ul><ul><li>A dog's eye functions much the same as any mammalian eye. The...
NSDA  K9 First Aid <ul><li>EYE CONTINUED </li></ul><ul><li>Most dogs have a total visual field of 250 degrees. The degree ...
NSDA  K9 First Aid  <ul><li>EYES CONTINUED </li></ul><ul><li>Dogs were once believed to be color blind, but scientists now...
NSDA  K9 First Aid <ul><li>EYES CONTINUED </li></ul><ul><li>·  Dogs with a prominent, visible third eyelid (nictitating me...
NSDA  K9 First Aid At rest – 80 beats per minute Working – 180 beats per minute
NSDA  K9 First Aid <ul><li>Overheated </li></ul><ul><li>As a dog owner, you may be quite used to seeing your dog with its ...
Nutrition <ul><li>Dogs need several different kinds of nutrients to survive:  amino acids from proteins, fatty acids and c...
NSDA  K9 First Aid <ul><li>Nutrition continued </li></ul><ul><li>Because dogs are descended from omnivores, they are not s...
NSDA  K9 First Aid <ul><li>Nutrition continued </li></ul><ul><li>Protein is a very critical part of your dog’s diet. The m...
Household Medications NSDA  K9 First Aid Product Use For Canine Dosage Buffered Aspirin Pain relief, Anti-inflammatory 5mg...
Heat and Dehydration <ul><li>Signs/Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue  </li></ul><ul><li>Circulatory collapse  </li></ul><...
Heat Stroke <ul><li>Signs/Symptom </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive panting </li></ul><ul><li>Rectal temperature above 105-106 d...
Altitude Sickness <ul><li>Signs/Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Lethargic </li></ul><ul><li>Dehydrated </li></ul><ul><li>Treatm...
Hypothermia <ul><li>Signs/Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Weak pulse </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased heart rate </li></ul><ul><li>D...
  Water Borne Illnesses <ul><li>Swimming is an excellent form of exercise and fun for many dogs. However, in some lakes, p...
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  1. 1. The National Search Dog Alliance presents… Canine Health and First Aid
  2. 2. Basic Canine Physiology Basic Canine First Aid Canine CPR Canine First Aid Kits NSDA K9 First Aid
  3. 3. NSDA K9 First Aid
  4. 4. NSDA Canine First Aid Source: Washington State University Web
  5. 5. NSDA K9 First Aid <ul><li>What’s Norm </li></ul><ul><li>Capillary refill time – less than two seconds </li></ul><ul><li>Mucous membrane color – generally pink </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature – 101 to 102 degrees F </li></ul><ul><li>Pulse rate at rest – young dogs 110 - 120 bpm large breed adult 60 - 80 bpm small breed adult 80 - 120 bpm </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory rate – young 20 – 25, adult 14 – 16 </li></ul><ul><li>Hydration – pick up skin and release, it should return within 1 second </li></ul><ul><li>Canines have 35-40 ml of blood per pound of body weight </li></ul><ul><li>Canine normal blood sugar is from 75 to 100 mg per 100ml of blood </li></ul><ul><li>Canine normal urine volume is 20 to 100 ml per kg of body weight </li></ul>
  6. 6. NSDA K9 First Aid <ul><li>Taking a Dog’s Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Use a human rectal thermometer. Lubricate the thermometer with petroleum jelly, KY jelly or other water-soluble lubricant Insert the thermometer about one inch into the rectum is located just below the base of the tail and keep in place for 2 minutes . </li></ul>
  7. 7. NSDA K9 First Aid <ul><li>Head </li></ul><ul><li>Dogs have 42 teeth. Six pairs of sharp incisor teeth are in front of the mouth, flanked by two pairs of large canine (&quot;dog&quot;) teeth. The other teeth are premolars and . The incisors and the canines are very important because the dog bites and tears at its food with these teeth . </li></ul>
  8. 8. Head Continued <ul><li>Air breathed in through the dog's nose passes on its way to the lungs through the two nasal cavities behind the nose. These cavities are lined by a mucous membrane containing many nerve endings stimulated by odors. Smell is the dog's most acute sense. A dog continually sniffs the air, the ground, and nearby objects to learn what is happening around it. The indentation in the dog's forehead just above eye level is called the stop. The stop in some dogs is deeper than that in others. </li></ul>NSDA K9First Aid
  9. 9. Head Continued <ul><li>The fairly thin tongue of the dog is used mainly for guiding food to the throat, for licking the coat clean, and for perspiration. When a dog is overheated, it cools off by hanging its tongue out and panting. As it pants, the evaporation of perspiration from its tongue cools the animal. The dog also sweats through the pads on its paws and--slightly--through its skin. </li></ul><ul><li>A dog's ears either stick up or hang down. The earliest dogs probably had erect ears, but the ears began to droop in smaller, later breeds because of excessive ear skin. Dogs have a fine sense of hearing. They can hear sounds at frequencies too high for people to hear. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>NSDA K9 First Aid
  10. 10. Head Continued <ul><li>The head and body of a dog are connected by its neck. The neck may be long or short, depending on the size of the seven bones that support it. The length of the vocal cords in the neck is a factor influencing the pitch and loudness of a dog's voice--its barks, grunts, and howls </li></ul>NSDA K9 First Aid
  11. 11. Eye NSDA K9 First Aid
  12. 12. NSDA K9 First Aid <ul><li>EYES CONTINUED </li></ul><ul><li>A dog's eye functions much the same as any mammalian eye. The eyeball is round in shape with a light sensitive membrane, called the retina, lining the rear of the eyeball. Incoming light is focused and information is transmitted to the brain via the optic nerve. The dog's eye has a reflecting layer, called the tapetum lucidum, which intensifies available light, giving the dog an advantage during dusk or dawn, the prime time for hunting. </li></ul><ul><li>Because dogs have two eyes, they have binocular vision. Binocular vision is the area within a dog's total vision field that overlaps, providing it with the depth of perception needed to pursue prey. The exact degree of binocular vision within a dog's total visual field depends on the shape of the dog's head and the exact placement of the eyes. </li></ul>
  13. 13. NSDA K9 First Aid <ul><li>EYE CONTINUED </li></ul><ul><li>Most dogs have a total visual field of 250 degrees. The degree of binocular overlap is about 75 degrees for long-nosed dogs to 85 degrees for short nosed breeds. Humans have about 120 degrees of binocular vision, but since their eyes are set directly on the front of the face (and not the side of the head) a human's total visual field is only 190 degrees, giving dogs the advantage of 60 degrees more peripheral vision. There are dog breeds, such as the Chow chow , however, that have such deep set eyes that their peripheral vision is reduced-- a factor that should be kept in mind when approaching such breeds from the rear. </li></ul><ul><li>Although dogs have greater peripheral vision, they cannot perceive detail as well as humans. Objects that are stationary can elude their notice. When undecided about what they are seeing, dogs depend on their sense of smell to confirm any doubts. Although motionless objects can be missed, a dog's sight is very sensitive to moving objects. They can perceive direction, speed and may even be able to recognize an animal or human by their pattern of movement. </li></ul>
  14. 14. NSDA K9 First Aid <ul><li>EYES CONTINUED </li></ul><ul><li>Dogs were once believed to be color blind, but scientists now agree that dogs have enough color preceptor cones in their eyes to perceive a limited palate of colors. </li></ul><ul><li>Most dogs have brown eyes, but there are breeds with pale blue, speckled, golden or hazel colored eyes. Some dogs are odd-eyed, having one eye that is blue and another eye brown. The shape of the eye and its placement on the head varies with different breeds. Most are oval and placed midway between the side and front of their faces. </li></ul><ul><li>· An eye that is clear blue but flecked with a white or lighter blue is known as a China Eye. </li></ul>
  15. 15. NSDA K9 First Aid <ul><li>EYES CONTINUED </li></ul><ul><li>· Dogs with a prominent, visible third eyelid (nictitating membrane) are said to have Haw Eyes. Haw eyes are seen in such breeds as the St. Bernard and Bloodhound . </li></ul><ul><li>· Triangular eyes have a three cornered, tent shaped appearance and are seen in Afghan Hounds . </li></ul><ul><li>· Wall eyes, characterized by a pale bluish-white iris with flecks of brown, are seen in some Harlequin Great Danes . </li></ul><ul><li>· Prominent eyes are big, round projecting eyes such as seen on Pugs . </li></ul><ul><li>· Other eye shapes include Almond, Circular and Oval. </li></ul>
  16. 16. NSDA K9 First Aid At rest – 80 beats per minute Working – 180 beats per minute
  17. 17. NSDA K9 First Aid <ul><li>Overheated </li></ul><ul><li>As a dog owner, you may be quite used to seeing your dog with its tongue sticking out while breathing rapidly and panting. This is a quite normal occurrence, especially if your dog has been running around and about on a quite warm day. </li></ul><ul><li>Panting after all, is the dog's evaporative cooling system. Because dogs do not sweat as humans, they cool down when their mouth is open and their shallow, rapid breathing increases the air flow to the mucous membranes of the mouth and respiratory tract. This effectively cools the dog down and lowers its temperature. The salivary glands further help in the cooling process. </li></ul><ul><li>While it is quite normal for a dog to pant after exertion, exposure to heat, excitement, anxiety or following a stressful event, it can be quite abnormal for a dog to pant in absence of any of the above triggering events. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Nutrition <ul><li>Dogs need several different kinds of nutrients to survive: amino acids from proteins, fatty acids and carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and water. </li></ul><ul><li>Dogs cannot survive without protein in their diets. Dietary protein contains 10 specific amino acids that dogs cannot make on their own. Known as essential amino acids, they provide the building blocks for many important biologically active compounds and proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>Essential fatty acids are necessary to keep your dog’s skin and coat healthy. Dogs need a certain amount of energy to sustain the normal activities of their daily lives. Growth, pregnancy, lactation, and exercise all increase these normal energy requirements. Generally measured in terms of calories, energy comes from three major dietary components: carbohydrates, protein, and fats. Calcium and phosphorus are crucial to strong bones and teeth. Dogs need magnesium, potassium, and sodium for nerve impulse transmission, Muscle contraction, and cell signaling. Many minerals that are present only in minute amounts in the body, including selenium, copper, and molybdenum, act as helpers in a wide variety of enzymatic reactions. </li></ul>NSDA K9 First Aid
  19. 19. NSDA K9 First Aid <ul><li>Nutrition continued </li></ul><ul><li>Because dogs are descended from omnivores, they are not strict meat eaters. They are remarkably adaptable to a wide range of ingredients, texture, and form in terms of what they will eat. Though many dogs may prefer animal-based protein, they can thrive on a vegetarian diet. Regardless of whether the protein comes from plant or animal sources, normal adult dogs should get at least 10% of their total calories from protein. Older dogs appear to require somewhat more protein to maintain their protein reserves, perhaps as much as 50% more. </li></ul>
  20. 20. NSDA K9 First Aid <ul><li>Nutrition continued </li></ul><ul><li>Protein is a very critical part of your dog’s diet. The majority of premium foods do a good job of providing adequate protein sources for the different life cycles of your pet. There are different protein needs for different species and life cycles so feed the correct one. Large breed dogs may have special protein needs but read the labels carefully and make sure you are getting what you pay for. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Household Medications NSDA K9 First Aid Product Use For Canine Dosage Buffered Aspirin Pain relief, Anti-inflammatory 5mg per/lb every 12 hours Vitamin B Appetite Stimulant ½ to 2 ml subcutaneously every 24 hours Benadryl Allergies, itching, insect stings, bites ½ mg per/lb every hours, 2mg per/lb maximum Dramamine Reduces motion sickness Up to 50 mg every 8 hours Hydrogen Peroxide Induce vomiting after accidental poison indigestion 10 ml by mouth every 15 minutes Epinephrine Reaction to medication, insect stings and bites 1/10 to ½ ml intramuscular or subcutaneously Pepto Bismol For diarrhea, vomiting and anti- gas 1 tsp per 5 lbs every 6 hours Di Gel Liquid Anti-gas Up to 4 Tablespoons every 8 hours Mineral Oil Eliminates constipation Up too 4 Tablespoons daily
  22. 22. Heat and Dehydration <ul><li>Signs/Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Circulatory collapse </li></ul><ul><li>Red mucous membrane (gums) </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive panting </li></ul><ul><li>Shaking </li></ul><ul><li>Dehydration – Check for dehydration by pulling straight up on the skin on the back of the neck and release the skin. If the skin does not immediately fall back into place, chances are your dog is dehydrated. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Seek shade, rest the dog, offer small amounts of water. Needs to see a vet if condition does not improve. </li></ul>NSDA K9 First Aid
  23. 23. Heat Stroke <ul><li>Signs/Symptom </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive panting </li></ul><ul><li>Rectal temperature above 105-106 degrees F </li></ul><ul><li>Disorientation </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid pulse/breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Brick red mucous membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Get the dog into shade, into a creek if available. Slowly cool down the body temperature, immerse in a cool water bath. Don't use ice water bath. Ice can be placed, with caution, under armpits, head, neck, and groin area, being sure to wrap in cloth first. Monitor temperature, avoiding cooling too much. Transport to veterinary hospital ASAP </li></ul>NSDA K9 First Aid
  24. 24. Altitude Sickness <ul><li>Signs/Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Lethargic </li></ul><ul><li>Dehydrated </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Allow dog to acclimate to the elevation </li></ul><ul><li>Drink plenty of water </li></ul>NSDA K9 First Aid
  25. 25. Hypothermia <ul><li>Signs/Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Weak pulse </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased heart rate </li></ul><ul><li>Dilated pupils </li></ul><ul><li>Shivering </li></ul><ul><li>Blue mucous membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Stupor </li></ul><ul><li>Unconsciousness or coma </li></ul><ul><li>Frostbite </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>If your dog is seeking shelter from the cold, take the dog to a warm place and let them warm up. Give them plenty of water. </li></ul>NSDA K9 First Aid
  26. 26. Water Borne Illnesses <ul><li>Swimming is an excellent form of exercise and fun for many dogs. However, in some lakes, ponds, and streams there are water-borne pathogens of potential concern. In general, the organisms found in outdoor water sources that can cause illness in dogs are the same ones that can potentially make humans sick. With only a few notable exceptions, most of these illnesses are not life-threatening, but they can cause gastrointestinal upset (typically vomiting and diarrhea) and other health problems. Guardia and Cryptosporidium are two microscopic organisms that are commonly found in fresh water throughout the United States. Both of these parasites can cause inflammation of the intestinal tract and diarrhea when ingested by dogs (or people) even in small numbers. Most dogs with healthy immune systems are able to recover from this infection but severe diarrhea may, in some cases, lead to dehydration and significant illness . </li></ul>NSDA K9 First Aid

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