Unit 11 Science In Medicine Evolution Of Medicine


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Unit 11 Science In Medicine Evolution Of Medicine

  1. 1. BTEC First Applied Science Unit 11 Science in Medicine Evolution of Medicine Start date: April 20th 2008 Deadline Date: June 6th 2008 Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to allow learners to: 1. Look at the ways diseases are diagnosed and treated 2. Examine the difference between treatment and technique 3. Look at how a medicine is evolved from idea to marketing 4. Consider some of the factors surrounding the distribution of drugs Scenario You are on the board of a medical education facility. Your role is to inform students in secondary schools across Haringey about medicine and dis- ease. You want to give them a broad knowledge in how diseases are di- agnosed, the types of treatment there are, how treatments are developed and who gets them. You will be discussing some of the scientific and so- cial issues surrounding medical developments. Task A This provides evidence for P1 M1 and D1 There are a number of ways in which a person with a disease or disorder can be diagnosed by doctors and medical staff. Broadly speaking they fall into two main categories 1. Physical Diagnosis 2. Biological Diagnosis Create an open mind mind-map about diagnosing illness. There should be two main branches (Physical and Biological) and two examples for each branch. Write a description for Physical and Biological diagnosis. For each diagnostic technique that you describe you should add the fol- lowing sub-branches and relevant information 1. What the technique is and how it works 2. The scientific principle behind the technique 3. An evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of using this tech- nique Hand in date: 30th April Unit 11 Science in Medicine 1
  2. 2. Unit 11 Evolution of Medicine Task B This provides evidence for P2 M2 and D2 In treating illness sometimes therapeutic drugs are the absolute best rem- edy. For this task you will need to identify three therapeutic drugs for three given illnesses. Write a fact sheet for three therapeutic drugs. Start each with an introduc- tion about the disorder and the treatment you will be discussing. (P2) Underneath this add a couple of paragraphs about how the therapeutic drugs are used to treat the conditions identified. (M2) Finally in conclusion for your fact-sheet and for D2 you need to explain what it is the drugs do that help the given disease or disorder. How the action of that drug affects one of, or many of the symptoms of the dis- ease. Use images as necessary. Hand in date May 1st Task C This provides evidence for P3 and M3 In some illnesses a therapeutic technique is used as well as or instead of a therapeutic drug. For this task you will need to identify two therapeutic treatments for two given diseases. Create two fact-sheets about two techniques for two diseases or disor- ders. Introduce your fact sheet by discussing the disease you have chosen to write. Talk about how it presents itself, the symptoms and the people who suffer from it. Then go on to describe the technique itself. What are the features? How often do patients need it? This should take a couple of paragraphs. (P3) Your conclusion should then discuss how each technique functions within the treatment process. What symptoms does the technique cure/alleviate and how? How often do the patients have to have the treatment? Does it work alongside any other treatments? (M3) Hand in date May 7th Unit 11 Science In Medicine 2
  3. 3. Unit 11 Evolution of Medicine Task D This provides evidence for D3 There is a wide range of treatments for a wide range of illnesses, but sometimes when people get ill they will refuse the treatment options that are available to them. Your task is to investigate some of the ethical, moral and religious reasons why people refuse the treatment options available. Use your research to make a 3 minute video discussing this using powerpoint and windows movie maker Hand in date May 14th Task E This provides evidence for P4 Historically scientists like Edward Jenner or William Withering had an idea for a therapeutic drug or technique and would go straight ahead and trial them. Nowadays the process from idea to marketable drug is a long and complicated process. We will review the process using this board game produced by Pfizer http://www.pfizerlearninglab.co.uk/resources/Game1.pdf Your task is to produce and annotate (with diagrams where appropriate) a living time line of the development of a drug, making sure to mention at least the following stages 1.Clinical Trial 2.Primary compound research 3.Hypothesis 4.Testing of new potential drug 5.Development and marketing 6.Manufacture of new drug Write your own description of what each stage involves. Hand in date May 14th Task F This provides evidence for M4 Nowadays of all the medicines that scientists begin to investigate in the laboratory only a very small percentage make it through to a marketable product. Use the information you have learned throughout your study of medical development to create a second time line. It should include all the same stages as the first time line, but this time you should annotate it with all the things that can go wrong at each stage of a drugs development. Unit 11 Science In Medicine 3
  4. 4. Unit 11 Evolution of Medicine Conclude this task with a summary paragraph saying why you think not all drugs succeed to become licensed drugs. Hand in date May 20th Task G This provides evidence for D4 This may also provide evidence for key skills There are very tight legal controls over the way in which new drugs are reasearched and produced. As you have seen in the previous two tasks the drug makign process is long with many checkpoints. Failure at any of these checkpoints usually means starting again. In order for a new drug to be declared fit for the market there has to be a series of clinical trials. Review each of the articles below - summarising the key information with a conclusion at the end in your own words of what you think of the process. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/medical_notes/4872918.stm http://www.upd8.org.uk/download.php?id=327 http://www.cancerhelp.org.uk/help/default.asp?page=51&order=4133 The information you should aim to get out of each article is 1. What is a clinical trial? 2. Why do a clinical trial? 3. How does a clinical trial work? 4. Are clinical trials important? Hand in date May 27th Task H This provides evidence for P5 There has been a number of news stories in recent years that relate to people suffering from diseases and conditions who have not been given access to the medicine they need to treat them. Thereʼs a number of rea- sons for this. Use bbc.co.uk/news to look up a few of these reasons and brainstorm a list of at least 5 in pairs. Create a table that states what pre- vents someone from having access to a medicine, how this factor prevents access and a final column stating what you think of this. Hand in date May 27th Unit 11 Science In Medicine 4
  5. 5. Unit 11 Evolution of Medicine Task I This provides evidence for M5 Whenever you buy a packet of tablets from the pharmacy it comes with a leaflet that outlines the potential side effects of the medicine. There is a general risk involved in taking all types of medicine. For each of the following risks write a paragraph saying what it is and how serious the risk associated with it is. Write a conclusion based on what you have written at the end. Side Effects http://www.clinical-depression.co.uk/Treating_Depression/side_effects.htm http://www.bupa.co.uk/health_information/html/medicine/understanding.ht ml http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/mksg/all/2003/00000058/0000000 8/art00002 Addiction http://www.beatingaddictions.co.uk/ http://www.addictions.co.uk/ http://www.thesite.org/drinkanddrugs/drugsafety/addiction/addictionbasics http://www.actiononaddiction.org.uk/ Allergies http://www.theallergysite.co.uk/medicine.html http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/conditions/allergies/allergicconditions_drug.sh tml http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-wellbeing/health-az/pen icillin-do-allergies-run-in-the-family-762729.html Hand in date Jun 6th Task J This provides evidence for D5 We looked earlier at the reasons some people are not given access to the drug treatment that they need. When this happens this is always controversial - some people can see the reasons for it and others think there should be no reason. We have looked specifically at the NHS withholding access to Herceptin - a powerful can- cer medicine that is very expensive. Use your table that you created for Task H and write a newspaper article discussing why it is often controversial to withhold medicine from certain people. Hand in date June 6th Unit 11 Science In Medicine 5
  6. 6. Unit 11 Evolution of Medicine Grading Criteria To achieve a pass grade the To achieve a merit grade the To achieve a distinction grade evidence must show that evidence must show that the evidence must show that the learner is able to: the learner is able to: the learner is able to: P1 M1 D1 Identify and describe two Explain the scientific princi- Evaluate the disadvantages and biological and two physical ple underlying the two bio- advantages of using the two procedures used to diag- logical and two physical pro- biological and two physical pro- nose illness cedures cedures P2 M2 D2 Identify the therapeutic Describe how the therapeu- Explain why the actions of drugs used to treat three tic drugs are used to treat therapeutic drugs treat given given illnesses the illnesses illnesses P3 M3 D3 describe two therapeutic Explain the functions of Evaluate the reasons why some techniques that are avail- each of the techniques in individuals, religions and cul- able to treat given examples given treatment processes tures choose not to take advan- of illnesses tage of all types of available treatments P4 M4 D4 describe how a new drug is Explain why very few of the Review the legal requirements identified and developed to compounds which start the for the introduction of a new production and marketing process of development ever rug into the UK market stages of development succeed through to become licensed drugs P5 M5 D5 describe the factors affect- Explain the general risks Explain the reasons why deci- ing availability of drugs and involved in all types of drug sions to give prescription drugs treatments to patients. treatments to some and not to others are always controversial Assessor: Teresa Greer Due Date: June 6th 2008 Unit 11 Science In Medicine 6