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How to Read andUnderstanda ResearchStudy
INTRODUCTION As a student and later in your professional life, you are likely to read research studies conducted by other ...
INTRODUCTION                                          Methods                                                             ...
Every researchpaper has seven         Abstractsections:               Introduction                         MethodsLet’s ex...
Sections of a Research PaperSection 1: The AbstractThe abstract is the first                                        Our fi...
Sections of a Research PaperSection 2: The Introduction   The introduction   provides background   information explaining ...
Sections of a Research PaperSection 2: The IntroductionThe introduction should:                                       This...
Sections of a Research PaperSection 3: MethodsThe methods sectiondescribes the exact            METHODSprocedures performe...
Sections of a Research PaperSection 3: MethodsThe methods sectionshould include adiscussion of:                           ...
Sections of a Research PaperSection 3: MethodsLet’s look more closely atthe participants componentof the methods section.I...
Sections of a Research PaperSection 3: MethodsLet’s look more closely atthe participants componentof the methods section.I...
Sections of a Research PaperSection 3: Methods                               These include:There are a fewdifferent types ...
Sections of a Research PaperSection 3: Methods                               Observational Study
Sections of a Research PaperSection 3: MethodsObservational StudyAn observational study isa descriptive study.There are tw...
Sections of a Research PaperSection 3: MethodsTrue ExperimentsTrue experiments are:                                An expe...
Sections of a Research PaperSection 3: MethodsTrue Experiments  Let’s consider  an example:  If you wish to study the effe...
Sections of a Research PaperSection 3: Methods                                                    CONTROL GROUPTrue Experi...
Sections of a Research PaperSection 3: Methods                                                         CONTROL GROUPTrue E...
Sections of a Research PaperSection 3: MethodsQuasi-Experiments                                 For example…Quasi-experime...
Sections of a Research PaperSection 3: MethodsQuasi-ExperimentsIn quasi-experimentsyou CAN:  Establish consistent  relatio...
Sections of a Research PaperSection 3: MethodsWhen evaluatingthe quality of                                       In explo...
Sections of a Research PaperSection 3: MethodsSample size   A larger sample size decreases the          * Reliability   li...
Sections of a Research PaperSection 3: Methods                                    When reading  An experiment is          ...
Sections of a Research PaperSection 3: Methods                                    When reading An experiment is valid     ...
Sections of a Research PaperSection 3: MethodsThere are                                        When readingthree types of ...
Sections of a Research PaperSection 4: ResultsThe results sectionincludes the data thatis analyzed in the study.          ...
Sections of a Research PaperSection 4: Results  Different statistical tests  are used to determine  whether results are   ...
Sections of a Research PaperSection 5: Discussion                                                              Greater acc...
Sections of a Research PaperSection 5: DiscussionWhen evaluatingthe discussion,you should ask:  Does the discussion explai...
Sections of a Research PaperSection 6: AcknowledgementsThe acknowledgementssection thanks the             ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS...
Sections of a Research PaperSection 7: Literature Cited   The literature cited   section should contain      LITERATURE CI...
Sections of a Research PaperSection 7: Literature Cited Throughout the body of the paper, a researcher should use         ...
Sections of a Research PaperSection 7: Literature Cited Throughout the body of the paper, a researcher should use         ...
Sections of a Research PaperSection 7: Literature Cited Throughout the body of the paper, a researcher should use in-text ...
Sections of a Research PaperSection 7: Literature CitedAppropriate citationshave a referencestructure thatincludes:       ...
SUMMARYEvery research                 Abstractpaper has seven                Introductionsections:                        ...
This presentation is based onInsight Media’s DVDHow to Read and Understanda Research Study.  For further information on th...
800-233-9910                           212-721-6316                           2162 Broadway ● New York ● NY 10024         ...
How read und_research
How read und_research
How read und_research
How read und_research
How read und_research
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    1. 1. How to Read andUnderstanda ResearchStudy
    2. 2. INTRODUCTION As a student and later in your professional life, you are likely to read research studies conducted by other people. A good scientific study builds on and furthers what is already known about a You may particular topic. even conduct your own research study.
    3. 3. INTRODUCTION Methods control groupIn order to help you VARIABLESread and understand Literature citedresearch studies, Quasi-this presentation will: Experiment Abstract hypothesis Explore the components RELIABLILITY random sample of a scientific paper. internal validity procedure Explain what you need to Study Observational know in order to evaluate the quality of a scientific experimental group study. construct validity
    4. 4. Every researchpaper has seven Abstractsections: Introduction MethodsLet’s explore eachsection and consider Resultsthe information that Discussioncan be found in each. Acknowledgements Literature Cited
    5. 5. Sections of a Research PaperSection 1: The AbstractThe abstract is the first Our finding havesection of a research paper. implications _____ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________An abstract should: ____________________ Analysis of our ____________________ ____________________ It contains data indicated ABSTRACT ____________________ that _______________ _____________ a shortwhat is being studied Explain summary ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ and why. (about 250 words). ____________________ ____________________ The methods we ____________________ used ____________________ ______________ Include a brief description ___________________ ____________________ ____________________ of procedures used. ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Offer a brief explanation of This paper will ____________________ study____________________ ______________ ____________ the major results of the study. ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Describe the significance of ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ the results in a larger context. ____________________ ____________________ ________________
    6. 6. Sections of a Research PaperSection 2: The Introduction The introduction provides background information explaining INTRODUCTION the basis of a research study. For example, a research study can be based on other research studies.
    7. 7. Sections of a Research PaperSection 2: The IntroductionThe introduction should: This study adds to our knowledge____ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ State the problem ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ being tested as a We looked at ____________________ ____________________ studies done by___ INTRODUCTION _______________ ____________________ question. ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ We believe that if ____________________ Contain a hypothesis.* ____________________ we treat________ ___ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Citehypothesisliterature other is a prediction ____________________ ____________________ *A What____________________ will be the and studies on the topic. ____________________ effect of__________ about the relationship ____________ ____________________ ____________________ between variables. ____________________ ____________________ Explain why the an It is usually written as ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ “If… then” statement. ____________________ research is important. ____________________ ________________
    8. 8. Sections of a Research PaperSection 3: MethodsThe methods sectiondescribes the exact METHODSprocedures performedin an experiment. It is important that this section provides a lot of detail so that another researcher can repeat the study.
    9. 9. Sections of a Research PaperSection 3: MethodsThe methods sectionshould include adiscussion of: METHODS Protocols for our methodology_____ Research ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ participants. ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ The equipment ____________________ and resources ____________________ needed____________ _____________ Materials, ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ or what was ____________________ The subjects ____________________ who ____________________ took part__________ used in the study. ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ______ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Procedure ____________________ ____________________ _________
    10. 10. Sections of a Research PaperSection 3: MethodsLet’s look more closely atthe participants componentof the methods section.In discussing researchparticipants,a researcher should: Define the overall population.* Explain the type of sample* *A population is the general that was selected for that type of person (or animal) the research. in the study. will participate *A sample is a Show how the sample was selected. subset of that population.
    11. 11. Sections of a Research PaperSection 3: MethodsLet’s look more closely atthe participants componentof the methods section.In a large potentialpopulation, you need tohave a way to select arandom sample. A random sample allows every person (or animal) in the population an equal chance of being selected for the sample. Random assignment places each subject in the sample into either the control or experimental group based entirely on chance.
    12. 12. Sections of a Research PaperSection 3: Methods These include:There are a fewdifferent types of Observational Studies True Experimentsresearch studies. Quasi-Experiments
    13. 13. Sections of a Research PaperSection 3: Methods Observational Study
    14. 14. Sections of a Research PaperSection 3: MethodsObservational StudyAn observational study isa descriptive study.There are two types ofobservational studies Naturalistic, in which the researcher or observer is invisible to what is being studied. Participatory, in which the observer is a participant in the behavior being studied or sometimes the observer’s presence may affect the behavior being studied.
    15. 15. Sections of a Research PaperSection 3: MethodsTrue ExperimentsTrue experiments are: An experimental studyPerformed in a highly controlled allows the researcher toenvironment. control the environmentHave a control group,which is NOT exposed to in order to examine thethe independent variable *and an experimental group, which causal effects of oneIS exposed to the independent variable. variable on another *An independent variable is the component that is being manipulated in a study. variable. A dependent variable is the component that is affected by the independent variable. It is what is being studied in an experiment.
    16. 16. Sections of a Research PaperSection 3: MethodsTrue Experiments Let’s consider an example: If you wish to study the effects of caffeine consumption on blood pressure, the independent variable would be the amount of caffeine consumed during the day. The dependent variable would be the participant’s blood pressure reading.
    17. 17. Sections of a Research PaperSection 3: Methods CONTROL GROUPTrue ExperimentsIn a true experiment,there may be more thanone experimental In any experiment, EXPERIMENTAL GROUP 1group. it is vital to ensure that the only different NOTE! between the control andBy creating experimental group ismore than one the variable. independent EXPERIMENTAL GROUP 2experimental group,you may increase thequality of your study andenhance the value of itsfindings.
    18. 18. Sections of a Research PaperSection 3: Methods CONTROL GROUPTrue ExperimentsPerhaps when designing your studyLet’s revisitof caffeineinto the effects our example.consumption on blood pressure,you decide to create three groups: EXPERIMENTAL GROUP A 1A control group,which receives no coffee.Experimental Group A,which receives 1 cup of coffee per day. EXPERIMENTAL GROUP B 2Experimental Group B,which receives 2 cups of coffee per day.The addition of the second experimentalgroup may enhance your ability to assessthe effects of caffeine on blood pressure.
    19. 19. Sections of a Research PaperSection 3: MethodsQuasi-Experiments For example…Quasi-experiments differ from If you are studying schooltrue experiments in that: segregation, you cannot, for ethical reasons, assign students to Subjects may not be randomly be segregated. assigned to a control or experimental group for either Additionally, if you are ethical or practical reasons. studying a situation involving gender, your subjects are You cannot make true causal either male or female. statements. Practically speaking, you cannot assign someone to be male for a study.
    20. 20. Sections of a Research PaperSection 3: MethodsQuasi-ExperimentsIn quasi-experimentsyou CAN: Establish consistent relational patterns. Manipulate dependent and independent variables.
    21. 21. Sections of a Research PaperSection 3: MethodsWhen evaluatingthe quality of In exploring thethe design of a study, methods used in Let’s take ayou should ask: closer look at a research study, How large was the sample size? these you can determine considerations. How were the subjects selected? the quality of a What did the experiment control for? study’s design. Were the measurements reliable and valid?
    22. 22. Sections of a Research PaperSection 3: MethodsSample size A larger sample size decreases the * Reliability likelihood that the conclusions or refers to the stability of a results are due to chance. Let’s take a measurement.Subject selection The use of random selection and closer look at assignment makes it more likely that a sample represents its theseValidity represents the † greater population. considerations. confidence that the findings of an experiment represent the truth of theReliability * and validity † . situation. The quality of a research study is dependent on its results being reliable and dependable.
    23. 23. Sections of a Research PaperSection 3: Methods When reading An experiment is a research study, reliable when it you must be able will provide the same results if it is to determine that repeated. the experiment is both reliable and valid.
    24. 24. Sections of a Research PaperSection 3: Methods When reading An experiment is valid a research study, if the results correlate to real-world behavior. you must be able to determine that A valid test measures what the experiment is it set out to measure. both reliable and valid.
    25. 25. Sections of a Research PaperSection 3: MethodsThere are When readingthree types of validity: a research study,Internal validity,or the degree to whichthe design of the experiment you must be ableallows the questions to be testedby eliminating outside influences. to determine thatConstruct validity,or how well the test measures the experiment iswhat it is believed to be measuring. both reliableExternal validity,or the degree to which the experiment and valid.actually generalizes to the world outsidethe study.
    26. 26. Sections of a Research PaperSection 4: ResultsThe results sectionincludes the data thatis analyzed in the study. RESULTS Our statistical data showed_____ ____________________This section should: ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Be concise. ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ _____________ Use graphs and charts The findings of to illustrate results. this________________ ____________________ ●_______________ ●_______________ Show quantitatively ●_______________ ●_______________ whether the hypothesis was correct or not.
    27. 27. Sections of a Research PaperSection 4: Results Different statistical tests are used to determine whether results are A result is * The significant. P-value shows the probability that significant when One common statistical test the differences between control and experimental it is most likely calculates the P-value.* groups are due to chance. not due to For most research, a P-value of 0.05 or less is considered to be significant. This means that there random chance. is less than a 5% chance that what you see in the results happened by chance alone.
    28. 28. Sections of a Research PaperSection 5: Discussion Greater accuracy could be attained_ ____________________ ____________________The discussion: sectionThe discussion ____________________ ____________________ ____________________summarizes, in a more The inconsistent ____________________ results weakened ____________________ Does NOT simply ____________________ our________________ _______________global way, the meaning ____________________ reiterate the results. ____________________ ____________________ DISCUSSION ____________________ ____________________our Comparing results with Tries to connect the information ____________________ previous__________ ____________________ofpresented to the theory and the results. research. ____________________ ____________________ _________ ____________________ findings from previous ____________________ ____________________ Our results ____________________ strengthen prior ____________________ attempts__________ ____________________ Notes consistencies and ____________________ ____________________ ___ ____________________ inconsistencies between what was ____________________ ____________________ found in the study and what has been What we____________________ found to be interesting ____________________ found in other studies. was_______________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________ ____________________ ____________________ Discusses the weaknesses of the study. ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Offers suggestions for further research _______ based on the study.
    29. 29. Sections of a Research PaperSection 5: DiscussionWhen evaluatingthe discussion,you should ask: Does the discussion explain the results, or does it just restate them? Does the author spend adequate time discussing the implications of all of the results, or does she just focus on some of the results? Are the implications from the study appropriate? Is the author drawing conclusions from the study that are too general?
    30. 30. Sections of a Research PaperSection 6: AcknowledgementsThe acknowledgementssection thanks the ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Funding waspeople or institutions generously provided_________ ____________________that helped with the ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________research, or who ____________________ We would like to thank the____________________ ____________________ University of _____provided financial or ________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________academic support ____________________ This study would ____________________ ____________________ not be possiblethroughout the course ____________________ but for____________ ___________ ____________________ ____________________of the study. ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ _________
    31. 31. Sections of a Research PaperSection 7: Literature Cited The literature cited section should contain LITERATURE CITED STUDIES CITED IN THIS STUDY ____________________ a comprehensive ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ list of all the articles ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ JOURNALS ____________________ and studies referenced REFERENCED IN ____________________ THIS STUDY ____ ____________________ in the study. ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________
    32. 32. Sections of a Research PaperSection 7: Literature Cited Throughout the body of the paper, a researcher should use LITERATURE CITED STUDIES CITED IN THIS STUDY in-text citations to ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ acknowledge any ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ outside article, JOURNALS ____________________ REFERENCED IN ____________________ THIS STUDY ____ paper, or study ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ referenced. ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________
    33. 33. Sections of a Research PaperSection 7: Literature Cited Throughout the body of the paper, a researcher should use but we didn’t encounter any o in-text citations to in comparison to the variation acknowledge any ter. This difference can be att 2002) nly once. (Jones, 2002). Furth outside article, every two days to see if the tr paper, or study space. Twice during the first referenced. jects rejected the association An in-text citation should look like this.
    34. 34. Sections of a Research PaperSection 7: Literature Cited Throughout the body of the paper, a researcher should use in-text citations to acknowledge any outside article, paper, or study referenced. At the end of the paper, he or she should compile a list of all citations found throughout the text.
    35. 35. Sections of a Research PaperSection 7: Literature CitedAppropriate citationshave a referencestructure thatincludes: Jones, Sarah (2002). “The effects of exercise on The author. academic performance.” The title of the article. Journal of Exercise Science. 81: 154-162. The journal title. The page number where the cited information can be found. The year the article was published.
    36. 36. SUMMARYEvery research Abstractpaper has seven Introductionsections: MethodsUnderstanding each Resultscomponent, includingthe information it Discussionprovides, will make you Acknowledgementsbetter able to read andevaluate any research study. Literature Cited
    37. 37. This presentation is based onInsight Media’s DVDHow to Read and Understanda Research Study. For further information on the topic, please order How to Read and Understand 800-233-9910 a Research Study on DVD. 212-721-6316 2162 Broadway ● New York ● NY 10024 www. insight-media.com Or ask about other PowerPoint cs@insight-media.com presentations in Insight Media’s Research series: The Research Process: Research Design Experimentation: Types of Designs and Interpretation of Data Quasi-Experiments and Small-N Designs Measurement Methods: Reliability and Validity of Participants’ Responses Research Ethics
    38. 38. 800-233-9910 212-721-6316 2162 Broadway ● New York ● NY 10024 www. insight-media.com cs@insight-media.comWritten and Edited by:Kristin Thieling-Di RicoPresentation by:Paul Aljian
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