Rmm ppt


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Rmm ppt

  1. 1. PRESENTED BY, Bibin s babu S2 MBA
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Research hypotheses are the specific testable predictions made about the independent and dependent variables in the study. Hypotheses are couched in terms of the particular independent and dependent variables that are going to be used in the study.
  3. 3. MEANING A hypothesis is an educated guess or proposition that attempts to explain a set of facts or natural phenomenon. It is used mostly in the field of science, where the scientific method is used to test it. It can be defined as a tentative, yet testable statement, which provides what you want to find in your empirical data.
  4. 4. CHARACTERISTICS Simple, specific, and contextually clear Capable of verification Related to the existing body of knowledge Operationalisable
  5. 5. FUNCTIONS The important functions of hypotheses are as follows: • Bringing clarity to the research problem • provides a study with focus • signifies what specific aspects of a research problem is to investigate
  6. 6. Functions….. what data to be collected and what not to be collected enhancement of objectivity of the study formulate the theory enable to conclude with what is true or what is false
  7. 7. BASICS OF HYPOTHESES The two basic types of hypotheses are scientific and working. A scientific hypothesis is based on experiments and observations from the past that cannot be explained with current theories. A working hypothesis is one that is widely accepted and becomes the basis of further experimentation.
  8. 8. TESTING V/S TESTED HYPOTHESES A hypothesis can be testing a concept or it can be developed as a result of study: A testing hypothesis is one that can be tested, meaning you can measure both what is being done (variables) and the outcome. A tested hypothesis is tested with research, such as in a research study in social science.
  9. 9. GOAL OF HYPOTHESES Regardless of the type of hypothesis, the goal of a hypothesis is to help explain the focus and direction of the experiment or research. As such, a hypothesis will: State the purpose of the research Identify what variables are used
  10. 10. PARAMETERS OF A GOOD HYPOTHESES In order to be a good hypothesis that can be tested or studied, a hypothesis:  Needs to be logical  Must use precise language  Should be testable with research or experimentation  A hypothesis is usually written in a form where it proposes that if something is done, then something else will occur.
  11. 11. TYPOLOGIES Working hypothesis Null hypothesis Alternate hypothesis
  12. 12. Working hypothesis The working or trail hypothesis is provisionally adopted to explain the relationship between some observed facts for guiding a researcher in the investigation of a problem. A Statement constitutes a trail or working hypothesis (which) is to be tested and conformed, modifies or even abandoned as the investigation proceeds.
  13. 13. Null hypothesis A null hypothesis is formulated against the working hypothesis; opposes the statement of the working hypothesis ....it is contrary to the positive statement made in the working hypothesis; formulated to disprove the contrary of a working hypothesis When a researcher rejects a null hypothesis, he/she actually proves a working
  14. 14. In statistics, to mean a null hypothesis usually Ho is used. For example,  Ho Q = O  where Q is the property of the population under investigation  O is hypothetical
  15. 15. Alternate hypothesis An alternate hypothesis is formulated when a researcher totally rejects null hypothesis He/she develops such a hypothesis with adequate reasons The notion used to mean alternate hypothesis is H1 Q>O  i.e., Q is greater than O
  16. 16. EXAMPLES Working hypothesis: Population influences the number of bank branches in a town  Null hypothesis (Ho): Population do not have any influence on the number of bank branches in a town. Alternate hypothesis (H1): Population has significant effect on the number of bank branches in a town. A researcher formulates this hypothesis only after rejecting the null hypothesis.
  17. 17. COMPARING HYPOTHESIS, LAW AND THEORY There are three types of scientific statements: Hypothesis Law Theory A hypothesis will give a plausible explanation that will be tested. It can also explain future phenomenon that will need to be tested.
  18. 18. Once a hypothesis has been widely accepted, it is called a law. This means that it is assumed to be true and will predict the outcome of certain conditions or experiments A scientific theory is broader in scope and explains more events that a law. After hypotheses and laws have been tested many times, with accurate results, they become theories.
  19. 19. CONCLUSION Usually the literature review has given background material that justifies the particular hypotheses that are to be tested. Hypotheses are derived from the theory on which your conceptual model is based and are often relational in nature. Hypotheses are conjectured relationships between two or more variables expressed in the form of testable statements.