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Hinduism

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  • 1. Type I:
    • Do you believe that good things come to those who do good? Do you believe that bad things happen to those who do bad? Why or why not? Do you have any examples?
    • 5 lines minimum, 5 words per line minimum
  • 2.  
  • 3. HINDUISM Introduction to the culture and the religion
  • 4. Origins
    • No real founder.
    • Approx 2000-3000B.C. the Aryan Invasion happened (maybe)
    • Introduced the ideas of written language and created the first caste system.
  • 5. Sanskrit
    • Sanskrit is the written language of ancient India
    • Sanskrit is related to English as an Indo-European language.
  • 6. Founder of Hinduism
    • Unlike Judaism (Abraham), Christianity (Jesus of Nazareth), Islam (Mohammed), Buddhism (Siddhartha Gautama), Daoism (Laozi), and Confucianism (Kong Fu Zi), Hinduism has no founder, origin myth, or church.
    • One of the theories is that the English needed to explain the culture and applied western ideas to Indian culture.
  • 7. Mishra’s God of New Things
    • When the English arrived they understood Christianity and wanted to find something similar so when they couldn’t find it they created it.
    • Hinduism defies regular understanding when it comes to the ideas of religion.
    • Hinduism contradicts itself all of the time if we try to understand it as a religion.
    • But at the same time it is essential to understand if we want to understand anything about India.
  • 8. Poly or Mono-theistic?
    • Monotheistic religions believe in one supreme god.
    • Polytheistic religions believe in multiple gods.
    • Hinduism is neither of these.
    • Max Muller was a German orientalist who invented the idea of comparitive religion and he coined a new word for Hinduism
  • 9. Henotheistic
    • Devotion to one god while accepting the idea of other gods. Monotheism in principle, polythisim in fact.
    • By last count there were over 330,000,000 different gods in Hinduism.
    • Technically there is only one and the rest are versions of that one.
  • 10. Brahman (note the spelling)
    • The supreme force in Hindu belief is one called Brahman.
    • Brahman is nameless, formless, infinite, and everything (and nothing) at the same time.
    • Humans are too stupid to understand such a large concept. (Blind men and an elephant)
    • To combat human ignorance lesser gods were created that we can understand. The Vedic Triad is the best known example.
  • 11. VEDIC TRIAD
    • Brahma (note the spelling)
    • Vishnu
    • Shiva
  • 12. Brahma
    • Brahma is known as the creator force.
    • Usually shown with four faces (originally had five)
    • Self-born in some legends.
  • 13. Vishnu
    • Vishnu is the ‘preserver’ of the Triad.
    • He maintains order in the world.
    • He reincarnates to help us keep the world going.
    • My favorite reincarnation…
  • 14. VAMANA
    • The dwarf that comes to earth to help the king learn about ignorance.
    • He is often shown with blue skin (as all incarnations of Vishnu are).
    • This could be the original Smurf
  • 15. Vishnu
    • Vishnu’s most known incarnations are Rama and Krishna.
    • Rama is the ideal man and star of the epic Ramayana.
    • Krishna is the star of the Bhagavad Gita
  • 16. SHIVA
    • Shiva is the ‘destroyer’ god who end the universe.
    • But in a positive way.
    • Shiva is more supreme than the other gods.
  • 17. Trimurti
    • Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva are all part of Brahman (the supreme force).
    • Humans possess Atman which is also part of Brahman.
    • But of course there are multiple other gods as well.
  • 18. Ganesha and Kali
  • 19. Four Main Ideas of Hinduism
    • Dharma
    • Karma
    • Samsara
    • Moksha
  • 20. Key Concept of Hinduism
    • Dharma: which means job, duty, responsibility, etc. It also means ‘law’.
    • This is the idea that your life has meaning and you need to figure out what that meaning is. If you don’t figure it out, don’t worry.
  • 21. Samsara
    • Samsara is the idea of reincarnation. If you don’t figure out your dharma in this life you get many more to work it out.
    • Many, many, many more.
    • “ you” don’t come back, your atman returns. You have no memory of prior lives, etc.
    • You don’t have to be human (or animal).
  • 22. Karma
    • Karma means “action” and it implies that all actions have consequences. Some good and some bad.
    • Karma is the idea that everything you do has some universal consequence to it and your goal is to escape this.
    • Karma is a zero-sum game.
  • 23. Moksha
    • Moksha means release.
    • It is kind of like heaven in a non-heaven sort of way.
    • It is what happens when you no longer get reincarnated.
    • You return to being one with Brahman and you become everything.
  • 24. How long? Long!
    • The Vedas say that it takes 10 to the 46 th power to achieve Moksha. That looks like this:
    • 100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 years!
  • 25. The Four Aims
    • Kama: Pleasure
    • Artha: Power
    • Dharma: Responsibility
    • Mukti: Release
  • 26. The Four Stages
    • Student: dharma
    • Householder: dharma, artha, kama
    • Forest Hermit: dharma, mukti
    • Wandering Ascetic: mukti
    • Different goals for each stage of life
  • 27. Sat Chit and Ananda
    • Sat: Being
    • Chit: Consciousness
    • Ananda: Joy
    • When all limitations are removed all the needs have been met.
    • Achieved through Yoga (work)
  • 28. Yoga
    • Karma Yoga: Way of Action
    • Jnana Yoga: Way of Knowledge
    • Bhakti Yoga: Way of Love
    • Raja Yoga: Way of the Kings
  • 29. Please sit with the groups you were with yesterday. Thank you
  • 30. In Groups
    • You will be asked to do the following
      • One Person will summarize the moral dilemma
      • One Person will provide their opinion on the right choice
      • Any dissenting voices will be allowed to speak next.
  • 31. Type I: Do as you enter class
    • Do you believe that people can improve their status in life or are people ‘stuck’ where they were born? Explain
    • 5 lines/5 words per line minimum
  • 32. Main ideas of Hinduism
    • You have a Dharma
    • You work towards your dharma and your work has consequenses. This is known as karma
    • Your karma determines your samsara
    • Your goal is to be released into Moksha
  • 33. Results
    • The major result of these ideas is that of the caste system.
    • The caste system is a class structure that you are born into and can not leave.
    • This isn’t as important today as it was in traditional India. Only in the country-side does it matter anymore at all.
  • 34. CASTE
    • Brahmins (note spelling)
    • Kshatriya
    • Vaishya
    • Shudra
    • Dalit (not an official caste)
  • 35. Brahmins
    • Brahmins are the priestly class
    • They are in charge of religion and they are wealthy.
    • They are the ‘head’ in the body analogy
  • 36. Kshatriya
    • This is the warrior/politician caste.
    • They are the arms in the body metaphor.
  • 37. Vaishya
    • This is the merchant class and the last of the ‘twice born’ castes.
    • They are the legs of the metaphor
  • 38. Shudra
    • These are the lowest class workers.
    • They are the feet of the body.
  • 39. Dalits
    • The ‘untouchable’ caste isn’t considered human.
    • They do the stuff that no self-respecting human would do.
    • The president of India was a dalit in 2002.
  • 40. A confusing chart
  • 41. Texts
    • Vedas are the original texts that explain how the world works. The Rig Veda is the most famous.
    • The Upanishads (or secret teachings) are the second most famous.
    • The Mahabharata or the epic of the great war.
    • The Bhagavad Gita story of the archer Arjuna.

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