1. The Social Web
DMS415/528 SCH, Sociable Web Media
T R, 1300-1450
Department of Media Study
2. Course Description
3. Today, is it feasible to live ethical, meaningful lives in the context of the Social
This course formulates a critique of the Social Web. Based on the rapid growth
of participation in social life online and in mobile space-- from social news,
referral, social search, media sharing, social bookmarking, tagging, virtual
worlds and social networked games, social mapping, IM, social networking,
blogging and dating, this class formulates a critical analysis of the
international Social Web with regard to privacy, intellectual property, and the
utilization of social creation of value through the lens of a small number of
case studies in the areas of education, political activism, and art.
The course starts with a history of computer-facilitated networked sociality.
We’ll discuss the preconditions, motivations, and typologies of participation in
order to then start to debunk the Web 2.0 ideology. The course concludes with
an examination of the future of the Internet (mobile social space, net
neutrality, and the changed nature of the digital divide) in order to then locate
fields of possibility for social change.
4. Key theoretical texts that we study include Yochai Benkler’s Wealth
of Networks, Henry Jenkins’ Convergence Culture, Trebor Scholz’
What the MySpace generation should know about working for free,
Jurgen Habermas on the Internet and the public sphere, Fred
Turner’s Where the Counterculture Met the New Economy, Jeff
Jarvis’ “Who owns the wisdom of the crowd? The crowd.,” Nicholas
Carr’s “Sharecropping the long tail,” Michael Hardt’s “Affective
labor,” Olga Goriunova’s “From Art on Networks to Art on
Platforms“ and Adam Arvidsson’s “The Crisis of Value and the
This is a theory-based course that also teaches you to participate,
discuss and analyze practices on the Social Web (e.g., the use of
Facebook, Twitter, IM, blogs, SecondLife).
5. week 2,3
A History of the Social Web
Social Isolation, the Public Sphere and the WWW
Who Cares? The Social Web in Numbers
week 5 Quality. The Wisdom or Ineptitude of Networked Publics
The Web 2.0 Ideology
Art and the Social Web
week 7,8,9 Education and the Social Web
Political Activism and the Social Web
week 10,11 Preconditions for Participation
Motivations for Participation
Typologies of Participation
The Ethics of Participation. Got ethics? Labor, what?
Fields of Possibilities
The Future of the Social Web
Dystopia In-between Space Utopia
lecture, discussion (online and in-class),
practical immersion in social web media
Getting our terms straight:
Participatory Cultures, Web 2.0, Social Web,
Sociable Web, Read/Write Web, Live Web,
8. Glossary for the semester
Networked Public Sphere
Architecture Of Participation
Commons-Based Peer Production
Cultural Context Provider
User Generated Content
Dating Social Search Social News
Social Mapping Blogging
19. hard blogging
20. source: Flickr
26. source: Flickr
27. A History of the Social Web
28. 16th century- rumor of “sympathetic
needles” Cardinal Richelieu
1746 200 monks Jean-
Antoine Nollet linked to
1797 optical telegraphy
29. A Brief History of the Social Web
History of the Social Web
Virtual Connections: Community Bonding on the Net by Stuart Glogoff
OVERVIEW, REALITIES, POTENTIALS
Platforms, Environments, & Technologies of Cooperation
We Are the Web by Kevin Kelly
A Manifesto for Networked Objects (Why Things Matter) by Julian Bleeker
30. Required Readings:
Kelly, Kevin. quot;Wired 13.08: We Are the Web.quot; Wired News . 1 Jan 2005. 26 Aug 2007 (<http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/13.08/tech.html>.
Sterling, Bruce. quot;A Short History of the Internet by Bruce Sterling .quot; Yale University Library. 1 Jan 1993. 26 Aug 2007
Allen, Christopher. quot;Life With Alacrity: Tracing the Evolution of Social Software.quot; Life With Alacrity. 13 Oct 2004. 12 Jul 2007 <http://
Udell, Jon. quot;Tag mania sweeps the Web | InfoWorld | Column | 2005-07-20 | By Jon Udell.quot; InfoWorld - Information Technology News, Computer
Networking & Security. 2 Jul 2005. 26 Aug 2007 <http://www.infoworld.com/article/05/07/20/30OPstrategic_1.html>.
Turner, Fred. quot;Where the Counterculture Met the New Economy .quot; Stanford. 1 Jan 2007. 26 Aug 2007 <http://www.stanford.edu/~fturner/Turner%20Tech
Scholz, Trebor. A History of the Social Web.
quot;List of social networking websites - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.quot; Main Page - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 16 Jul 2007. 16 Jul 2007 <http://
Donath, Judith. quot;Sociable Media.quot; Sociable Media Group - MIT Media Lab. 15 Apr 2004. 9 Jul 2007 <http://smg.media.mit.edu/papers/Donath/
Glickman, Matt, and Mark Horton. quot;Netnews History - Usenet Server, Jim Ellis, Tom Truscott, Steve Bellovin.quot; Internet history, design, web, email.... 1
Jan 1996. 17 Jul 2007 <http://www.livinginternet.com/u/ui_netnews.htm>.
quot;History of the Internet.quot; the history of computing project. 19 Mar 2001. 17 Jul 2007 <http://www.thocp.net/reference/internet/internet1.htm>.
quot;Social search - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.quot; Main Page - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 5 Jul 2007. 16 Jul 2007 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
quot;Social media - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.quot; Main Page - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 10 Jul 2007. 11 Jul 2007 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
31. Social Isolation, the Public Sphere
and the WWW
32. urban sprawl, the culture of fear, parental culture of control, a lost sense of place and the nature of the job market (people
moving for work more in the US than in Europe), American individualism, and the described move toward public spaces that
are less and less places of encounter but are rather becoming locations of commerce.
33. Required Reading:
Boeder, Piter. quot;Habermas' heritage.quot; First Monday. 21 Aug 2005. 26 Aug 2007 <http://ﬁrstmonday.org/issues/
Kluge, Alexander, Peter Labanyi, and Oskar Negt. Public Sphere and Experience: Toward an Analysis of the
Bourgeois and Proletarian Public Sphere (Theory and History of Literature). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota
Kellner, Douglas. quot;Habermas, the Public Sphere, and Democracy: A Critical Intervention.quot; Graduate School of
Education and Information Studies. 1 Aug 2007. 26 Aug 2007 <http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/faculty/kellner/papers/
34. Who Cares?
The Social Web in Numbers
35. YouTube # 2 Avril Lavigne - Girlfriend
36. 10 million blog page views
(+ 789 comments) on January 9th, 2007
170 million entries in
English version (2007)
Consumers and users become producers: “produsers”
Peer-to-peer Music, video
38. 600 billion web pages (100 pages per person alive)
100 million blogs
73 percent of American adults are
currently Internet users (Pew institute)
20% of Americans say that the Internet has made it
easier for them to obtain health care
32% say that it has improved their ability to shop
84 million American adults report that they have
broadband connections at home
39. MySpace: 170 million unique users
Blogger: 18.5 million unique users
Classmates: 12.9 million unique users
YouTube: 12.5 million unique users (65.000 uploads a day)
MSN Groups: 10.6 million unique users
55% of US teenagers use social networking sites
40. Users making a living o the Social Web
41. Age Online
88 % of people from 18 to 29
84 % of people 30 to 49 years old
71 % for those 50 to 64 years
32 % for those over 65
More women than men (08/2007)
42. The emergence of the
43. Required Reading:
Rosen, Jay. quot;PressThink: The People Formerly Known as the Audience.quot; Department of
Journalism at New York University. 27 Jun 2006. 16 Jul 2007 <http://journalism.nyu.edu/
Heuer, Chris. quot;Social Media Club- The Importance of Social Media.quot; Social Media Club. 19
Sep 2006. 11 Jul 2007 <http://www.socialmediaclub.org/2006/09/19/the-importance-of-social-
quot;Top 10 highest trafﬁc websites.quot; Canadian Content Forums. 27 Jan 2007. 12 Jun 2007
quot;Nielsen BuzzMetrics - Bloggers' Top-Cited Wikipedia 2006 Entries: quot;Web 2.0,quot; quot;Steve
Irwinquot; and quot;Mark Foley Scandal,quot; Says Nielsen BuzzMetrics.quot; MarketWire. 13 Dec 2006. 9
Jul 2007 <http://www.marketwire.com/2.0/release.do?id=709391&sourceType=1>.
Hamman, Robin. quot;cybersoc.com: quot;nearly 50%quot; of US users visit social networking sites...sort
of.quot; cybersoc.com. 15 May 2006. 27 Jun 2007 <http://www.cybersoc.com/2006/05/
The Wisdom or Ineptitude of
45. Required Reading:
Lanier, Jaron. quot;Edge; DIGITAL MAOISM: The Hazards of the New Online Collectivism By
Jaron Lanier.quot; Edge. 30 May 2006. 31 Jul 2007
quot;Reactions to Digital Maoism. Many-to-Many:.quot; Many-to-Many:. 3 Feb 2006. 27 Jun 2007
quot;Crowdsourcing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.quot; Main Page - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
6 Jul 2007. 10 Jul 2007 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crowdsourcing>.
quot;Crowdsourcing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.quot; Main Page - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
6 Jul 2007. 10 Jul 2007 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crowdsourcing>.
quot;Folksonomy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.quot; Main Page - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
9 Jul 2007. 16 Jul 2007 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Folksonomy>.
46. The Web 2.0 Ideology
What is the problem with the discussion around
What is missing from the following illustrations/
graphs of Web2.0?
50. Required Reading;
Arvidsson, Adam. quot;Crisis of Value and the Ethical Economy - P2P Foundation.quot; The Foundation for P2P Alternatives - P2P Foundation. 26
Jun 2007. 26 Aug 2007 <http://www.p2pfoundation.net/Crisis_of_Value_and_the_Ethical_Economy#Text>.
O'Reilly, Tim. quot;Not 2.0?.quot; O'Reilly Radar. 5 Aug 2005. 9 Jul 2007 <http://radar.oreilly.com/archives/2005/08/not_20.html>.
O'Reilly, Tim. quot;O'Reilly -- What Is Web 2.0.quot; O'Reilly Network -- Developers' Hub -- web development, open source development, open
and emerging technologies. 30 Sep 2005. 9 Jul 2007 <http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what-is-
Hiram Soltren, Jose, and Harvey Jones. quot;Facebook: Threats to Privacy.quot; MIT. 1 Jan 2005. 26 Aug 2007 <http://www-swiss.ai.mit.edu/
Scharmen, Fred (2006, May). quot;You Must Be Logged In To Do That!quot; Yale Arch 752b
Barnes, Susan. quot;A privacy paradox: Social networking in the United States.quot; First Monday. 1 Jan 2006. 26 Aug 2007 <http://
Carr, Nicholas. quot;Nicholas Carr: The net is being carved up into information plantations | Technology | The Guardian.quot; Guardian Unlimited
home | Guardian Unlimited. 17 May 2007. 26 Aug 2007 <http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2007/may/17/media.newmedia>.
Best, David. quot;Web 2.0Next Big Thing or Next Big Internet Bubble?.quot; Lecture Web Information Systems. 11 Jan 2006. 9 Jul 2007 <http://
quot;Web Worker Daily » Blog Archive The Two-Edged Sword of Web 2.0 «.quot; Web Worker Daily . 29 Mar 2007. 26 Aug 2007
quot;Web 2.0 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.quot; Main Page - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 9 Jul 2007. 9 Jul 2007 <http://
51. Preconditions for Participation
What does it take for
people to contribute to the
Web? Are those who do
participate “elite users”?
53. http://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/larrythebiker/212325747/ http://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/socw324/479224536/
The Haves and the Very Much Have Nots
54. Distribution of the Users of Social Networking Sites
55. Motivations for Participation
What motivates people on the Social Web to engage?
58. Required Reading:
Gefen, David, and Catherine M. Ridings. quot; Virtual Community Attraction:Why People
Hang Out Online.quot; Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication. 1 Nov 2004. 31
Jul 2007 <http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol10/issue1/ridings_gefen.html#s2>.
59. Typologies of Participation
Which different types (and intensities) of
participation can you identify?
61. Typologies of Participation
Which different types (and intensities) of participation
can you identify?
62. re-insertion of historical figures
as friends (Cage, Derrida)
65. The Ethics of Participation
Got ethics? Labor, what?
The production of value on the Social Web
What are ethical standards on both, the side
of the users and the corporate platform
What’s the difference between moralistic
posturing and discussions about
Does talk about ethics mean that we
can’t have any more fun?
Do the activities on the Social Web qualify
as immaterial labor?
67. Becoming a Speaker
68. The Social Web moves speaking
from an act close to the bodies of
others to an often anonymous
Images: Rosa Luxemburg, Speaker’s Corner, teen on Youtube
NewsCorp Myspace $580 million | 15 bio (2008)
Why do people work for free?
Is labor the correct term?
71. The Promise of Free Service
72. Affective Economy
73. How to describe what Activities on Social Web
happens on the Social Web?
voluntary participation involuntary participation
•tweak design of MySpace page •filling in profiles
presence •enter status on Facebook (FB)
•data mining (social control)
work •respond to FB Wall posts
creativity •create and upload videos •breach of social contract
•and updating profiles (most people don’t know that
they are creating wealth)
•create, update FB galleries
•watch videos of others • society of control (Deleuze)
•embed videos •content (advertising)
•install applications (400 on FB)
•chat (IM, contacting/messaging on FB)
Production of value through utilization/exploitation.
Example Myspace: $580 Mio to $15 Billion
Pleasure of creation Intrusion into the Personal
they gain friendships
share their life experience
Commodification of intimacy (dating sites)
archive their memories Spam
Breach of social contract
they are getting jobs
Society of control (Deleuze)
find dates and contribute to
Amazon.com helps people to find books and music but
the greater good may erode valuable processes by which people discover
new authors or artists.
Constraints and accidents of everyday life are the
basis for enjoyable and meaningful activities, even if
they are less efficient.
quot;The debate keeps getting framed as if the only true alternative were to opt out of
media altogether and live in the woods, eating acorns and lizards and reading only
books published on recycled paper by small alternative pressesquot; (Jenkins, p 248-9).
75. Surveillance on the Social Web
is many-to-many, one-to-many,
76. Mobility/ Captivity on the Social Web
77. The trouble with centralization
78. Life Caching & the Outsourcing of Memory
79. Amazon.com UK warehouse http://cache.gizmodo.com/assets/resources/2006/12/amazonukbig.jpg
80. Required Reading:
Scholz, Trebor. quot; What the MySpace generation should know about working for free - Trebor Scholz 'journalisms' -
Collectivate.net.quot; home - Collectivate.net. 3 Apr 2007. 26 Aug 2007 <http://www.collectivate.net/journalisms/2007/4/3/
Pollard, Dave. quot;Finding People to Make a Living With.quot; Recently Changed Weblogs. 7 Feb 2007. 26 Aug 2007 <http://
Roush, Wade. quot;Technology Review: The Moral Panic over Social-Networking Sites.quot; Technology Review: The Authority
on the Future of Technology. 7 Aug 2006. 26 Aug 2007 <http://www.technologyreview.com/read_article.aspx?
Jarvis, Jeff. quot;BuzzMachine Blog Archive Who owns the wisdom of the crowd? The crowd..quot; BuzzMachine. 26 Oct 2005.
12 Jun 2007 <http://www.buzzmachine.com/2005/10/26/who-owns-the-wisdom-of-the-crowd-the-crowd/>.
Terranova, Tiziana. quot;Free Labor.quot; Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC. 15 Aug 2000. 12 Jun 2007 <http://www.uoc.edu/
Rauch, Peter. quot;Confessions of an Aca/Fan: The Ofﬁcial Weblog of Henry Jenkins: Fable and Other Moral Tales: A Study
in Game Ethics (Part One).quot; Confessions of an Aca-Fan: The Ofﬁcial Weblog of Henry Jenkins. 1 Aug 2007. 26 Aug 2007
Wyrick, Brian, and Dmytri Kleiner. quot;Infoenclosure 2.0.quot; Mute magazine - Culture and politics after the net. 29 Jan 2007.
26 Aug 2007 <http://www.metamute.org/en/InfoEnclosure-2.0>.
Jarvis, Jeff. quot;Being used.quot; BuzzMachine . 14 Jun 2007. 26 Aug 2007 <http://www.buzzmachine.com/2007/06/14/2873/>.
81. Education and the Social Web
82. Web applications for students
Guidelines for Web Credibility
83. Political Activism and the Social Web
84. March 27, 2006
Students organize 15000 people for immigration protest
through MySpace and SMS
86. Fundraising on widgets
87. Required Reading:
Spouse, Ea. quot;ea_spouse: EA: The Human Story.quot; ea_spouse. 10 Nov 2004. 20 Jun 2007
quot;Hello Garci scandal - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.quot; Main Page - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 24
Jun 2005. 20 Jun 2007 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hello_Garci_scandal#_note-10>.
Zuckerman, Ethan. quot;My heart is in Accra “; Mapping land distribution in Bahrain.quot; Ethan Zuckerman. 31
Oct 2006. 20 Jun 2007 <http://ethanzuckerman.com/blog/?p=1085ap/>.
The Internet and youth political participation
quot;Bush/Blair Love Song.quot; Archive.org. 19 Dec 2003. 20 Jun 2007 <http://ia300131.us.archive.org/0/items/
quot;Kiva.org - Loans that change lives.quot; Kiva.org - Loans that change lives. 1 Jan 2004. 20 Jun 2007
Dale, Michael, and Warren Sack. quot;Metavid.quot; Metavid. 27 Apr 2007. 20 Jun 2007
quot;FAQ.quot; wikileaks.org. 1 Jan 2007. 20 Jun 2007 <http://wikileaks.org/faq>.
88. Art and the Social Web
89. Artists as Cultural Context Providers
90. Douglas Davis «The World's First Collaborative Sentence» 1994
quot;Medien Kunst Netz | Les Immatériaux – Epreuves d’ écriture.quot; Medien Kunst
Netz | Homepage. 1 Jan 2005. 17 Jul 2007 <http://www.medienkunstnetz.de/ausstellungen/lesimmateriaux/>.
From Art on Networks to Art on Platforms (Casestudies: Runme.org, Micromusic.net and Udaff.com) by Olga
Goriunova, Alexei Shulgin
Heavy Industries, Y0ung-Hae Chang. quot;THE_STRUGGLE_CONTINUES.quot; Y0UNG-HAE CHANG HEAVY
INDUSTRIES PRESENTS. 1 Nov 2003. 20 Jun 2007
92. Fields of Possibilities
What are the core characteristics of the Social Web?
How can networked publics fight back?
Today, is it practical to live ethical lives in the context of the
Social Web and mobile social space? If so, tactics could be
learned and shared with others.
94. Fields of possibilities:
•communal negotiating power FB •ethical business (Craigslist)
(741.000 join group)
•public social networking media (e.g., NPR)
•hybrid tools & environments
•making money on the Social Web
(e.g., apps in FB)
95. Is there a way out? “Resistance”?
New genre of literature:
Kevin Killian: 1525 reviews (as of January
He writes autobiographical fiction in the
form of reviews that range from sweet
potato baby food to Pasternak's Doctor
96. Users making a living on the Social Web
97. Non-profit and FLOSS alternatives: Archive.org
98. The Future of the Social Web
99. The Digital Divide Is Not
What It Used To Be
100. Ford, MS unveil in-car software
Facebook Mobile Daisuke Wakabayashi in Las Vegas
JANUARY 08, 2007
FORD has unveiled a new entertainment and
communication system running on software from
Microsoft that aims to bring the connectivity of a
computer to the car.
networked sociality in meet-space and in traffic
101. Required Reading:
Cascio, Jamais. quot;WorldChanging: Tools, Models and Ideas for Building a Bright Green Future: The
Rise of the Participatory Panopticon.quot; WorldChanging: Tools, Models and Ideas for Building a Bright
Green Future. 4 May 2005. 12 Jul 2007 <http://www.worldchanging.com/archives/002651.html>.