Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”

2,615

Published on

1746 -1984

1746 -1984

Published in: Education
0 Comments
4 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,615
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
4
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1.        ARPANET, “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture,     the Internet, and “Virtual Community”  Trebor Scholz Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 2. The Victorian Internet by Tom Standage (1989) 1746  200 monks  Jean‐Antoine Nollet linked to electrical battery  1797 optical telegraphy telephone, radio, ... Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 3. Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 4. 1945 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 5. "knowledge on call" hyperlinked pages and the “memex” http://tinyurl.com/39mf8l http://tinyurl.com/3b7h9v Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 6. Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 7. In 1949 in his novel Heliopolis, the German Ernst Junger dreams up the  communication medium "Phonophor," which connects everybody to  everybody else, enabling a permanent , technically facilitated forum that  also replaces the passport, watch, newspaper, library, and encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernst_J%C3%BCnger http://tinyurl.com/2s2zn5 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 8. upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5f/Girl_listenin Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 9. [A]ctivation; authorship; community ‐‐ are the most frequently cited motivations for almost all artistic  attempts to encourage participation in art since the 1960s." according to art historian Claire Bishop. Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 10. Blog: http://blog.sfmoma.org/tag/art‐of‐participation/ Flickr set: http://www.Zlickr.com/photos/ari/sets/72157610572023159/ Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 11. 1957 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 12. Excerpts from chapter 2, and 5  “Sputnik: DeclassiZied” (2007)  http://www.netZlix.com/Movie/Sputnik_DeclassiZied/70086393 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 13. http://www.Zlickr.com/photos/nezitic/311892760/sizes/o/ Red Flag Over Reichstag 9th May 1945 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 14. The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 15. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V2QdEj8UjBc Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 16. 1961 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 17. Leonard Kleinrock, MIT "Information Flow in Large Communication Nets"  (May 31, 1961) First paper on packet‐switching http://tinyurl.com/23nbat Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 18. 1962 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 19. Packet Switching, Paul Baran 1962 at RAND, US Airforce All the nodes in the network would be equal in status to all other nodes, each node with its own authority to originate, pass, and receive messages. The messages themselves would be divided into packets, each packet separately addressed. Each packet would begin at some specified source node, and end at some other specified destination node. http://tinyurl.com/2ry3lo Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 20. “On Distributed Communication Networks,” March 1964 c) a network without central authority or single Paul Baran outage point http://tinyurl.com/ywq8nk Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 21. 1965 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 22. Ted Nelson coins the term "Hypertext" in "A File Structure for the  Complex, the Changing, and the Indeterminate". 20th National  Conference, New York, Association for Computing Machinery Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 23. 1965 Already in 1965, Fernando Corbato and his colleagues at MIT developed a program to allow individual users to swap messages on one single computer. Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 24. 1967 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 25. Excerpts from: American Experience | Summer of Love | PBS www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/love/ Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 26. People’s Park ‐‐ Excerpt from “Berkeley in the Sixties” http://akas.imdb.de/media/rm1389337600/tt0099121 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 27. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZQbEjPzfDmc&feature=PlayList&p=C97DC8509C17275A&index=2 Macy conferences 1946‐53, NYC video: 10 mins Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 28. Excerpts from: The Commune (2005) http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0439511/ Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 29. 1968 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 30. "In a few years, men will be able to communicate more effectively through a machine than face to face...We believe that we are entering into a technological age, in which we will be able to interact with the richness of living information -- not merely in the passive way that we have become accustomed to using books and libraries, but as active participants in an ongoing process, bringing something to it through our interaction with it, and not simply receiving something from it by our connection to it. (53)" http://tinyurl.com/2c9uaf Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 31. Louis Pouzin designed and directed the development of the Cyclades network in France, which then stopped in 1974. http://tinyurl.com/22ykun Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 32. 1969 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 33. In 1968, ARPA sent out a Request for Quotation to build a network of four Interface Message Processors. BBN made it. Dave Walden, Bernie Cosell, Severo Ornstein, Will Crowther, Bob Kahn 1969: Advanced Research Projects Agency commissions ARPANET to conduct research on networking. First ARPANET nodes connected UCLA, Stanford, UC Santa Barbara, and University of Utah http://tinyurl.com/yuw6ho http://tinyurl.com/2pxazn http://tinyurl.com/2ujdes Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 34. Norm Abramson wanted to surf - so he moved to Hawaii in 1969. He wanted to network with the other islands and so he built the ALOHAnet in 1970. From the University of Hawaii, Abramson connected computers over a network of radio transmitters using a protocol telling the computers how to share the airwaves. http://tinyurl.com/yvvmdc Trebor Scholz | Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 35. The Internet in 1969 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y0pPfyYtiBc&e Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 36. http://www.wholeearth.com/index.php Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 37. 1970 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 38. Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 39. TCP/IP With TCP/IP, the "global network" was becoming a reality. Universities and government offices were using the network for communicating with colleagues and exchanging data. 1974: Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn publish "A Protocol for Packet Network Interconnection", which specified in detail the design of a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). http://tinyurl.com/3c64vm http://tinyurl.com/yvvmdc Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 40. Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 41. Whose Standards? Proprietary or Open Standards? Also the fax machine is only useful if many other people have it. Later: If the Internet would have just connected supercomputers, it would have not been as significant. Trebor Scholz | http://tinyurl.com/yu7g2m Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 42. http://tinyurl.com/29vvar PowWow Throughout the 1970s Instant Messaging began to appear Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 43. •There was no single inventor of the Internet. •ARPANET, Usenet, BITNET, and BBS  •DARPA was not solely a response to the fear of a nuclear  armageddon. Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 44. 1971 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 45. http://tinyurl.com/34gyk2 1971: Ray Tomlinson of BBN creates email program to send messages across a distributed network. 1972: Tomlinson expands program to ARPANET users, using the "@" sign as part of the address. Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 46. Michael Hart 1971. Project Gutenberg is the first and largest single collection of free electronic books, or eBooks. Project Gutenberg is the "oldest digital library built on volunteer efforts to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works." http://tinyurl.com/26zq8z Trebor Scholz | Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 47. 1977 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 48. http://tinyurl.com/35drka http://tinyurl.com/2n5gvy 1977 Richard Bartle and Roy Trubshaw created the first MUD (Multi-User Dungeon) leading later to MMORPG Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 49. 1978 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 50. CBBS (first BBS) January of 1978, Chicago was hit by Ward Christensen the Great Blizzard of 1978 Many people did not have the Internet. They dialed in to CBSS directly via modem. Users had to take turns accessing the system, each hanging up when done to let someone else have access. Nevertheless, the system was seen as very useful, and ran for many years and inspired the creation of many other bulletin board systems. http://tinyurl.com/38zf8q http://tinyurl.com/3a8wru Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 51. ASCii art on BBS http://tinyurl.com/yukqdk Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 52. 1979 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 53. Emoticons 1979 Kevin MacKenzie e-mailed his fellow subscribers at MsgGroup, an early Internet bulletin board, with a suggestion to put some emotion back into the dry text medium of e-mail. (The eyes came later.) Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 54. USENET established. USENET was a global, decentralized, distributed Internet discussion system that provided mail services and file transfers. Precursor of GoogleGroups and other discussion boards. http://tinyurl.com/2mdk3z Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 55. ARPANET http://echo.gmu.edu/usenet/images/usenet.gif http://www.sri.com/about/timeline/images/map.gi Trebor Scholz | Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 56. 1980s Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 57. What else did it take to make this WWW work? http://tinyurl.com/2km2n9 This was the first IBM PC introduced on Aug 12, 1981 Douglas Engelbart http://tinyurl.com/3c7suu Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 58. The Well members could start discussion boards: Mid-80s the most popular one was dedicated to computer manufacturers push proprietary protocols, The Grateful Dead. which failed US Government pushed for ISO but TCP/IP was free, more viral In the 1980s the PCs entered homes and offices in the United States. Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 59. The Well members could start discussion boards: the most popular one was dedicated to The Grateful Dead. 1981 BITNET release Ira Fuchs (CUNY) and Greydon Freeman (Yale) Main features: email, LISTSERV BITNET set expectations for free access and openness: it charged by bandwidth. Once you paid for the line, how much you use it was up to you. Others tried to establish a pay by byte system. http://tinyurl.com/2vxZbj http://tinyurl.com/2cl3go Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 60. 1985 Stewart Brand & Larry Brilliant one of the first community bulletin board systems The Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link (The Well) Brand used a networked PC on his houseboat in Sasalito, CA, claiming that he did so in order to experience commune living without actually moving into one. http://tinyurl.com/374e2g Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 61. 1985 Stewart Brand & Larry Brilliant one of the first community bulletin board systems The Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link (The Well) Brand used a networked PC on his houseboat in Sasalito, CA, claiming that he did so in order to experience commune living without actually moving into one. http://tinyurl.com/374e2g Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 62. 1985 Stewart Brand & Larry Brilliant one of the first community bulletin board systems The Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link (The Well) Brand used a networked PC on his houseboat in Sasalito, CA, claiming that he did so in order to experience commune living without actually moving into one. http://tinyurl.com/374e2g Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 63. 1985 Stewart Brand & Larry Brilliant one of the first community bulletin board systems The Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link (The Well) Brand used a networked PC on his houseboat in Sasalito, CA, claiming that he did so in order to experience commune living without actually moving into one. http://tinyurl.com/374e2g Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 64. Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 65. Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 66. 1984 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 67. Francois Lyotard  and  Thierry Chaput’s exhibition   "Les Immateriaux”  at the  Centre Georges Pompidou in  Paris.  30 artists collaboratively respond to 50  terms related  the topic of  the  "immaterial."  Lyotard and Chaput pointed out that they were mainly interested in the way, in which this collaborative writing changed the experience of the act of writing itself.  http://tinyurl.com/ynkmby Trebor Scholz | Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 68. Trebor Scholz The New School University scholzt@newschool.edu Twitter: trebors  This presentation is made public using the creative commons attribution, non‐ commercial, share alike license.  This presentation is based on my previous courses on the topic including: http://www.slideshare.net/trebor/how‐the‐social‐web‐came‐to‐be‐part1   Thursday, September 9, 2010
  • 69. Thursday, September 9, 2010

×