ARPANET, “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture,
    the Internet, and “Virtual Community” 



                   ...
The Victorian Internet
                                      by Tom Standage (1989)




              1746  200 monks
    ...
Thursday, September 9, 2010
1945



Thursday, September 9, 2010
"knowledge on call"

                                    hyperlinked pages and the “memex”




                           ...
Thursday, September 9, 2010
In 1949 in his novel Heliopolis, the German Ernst Junger dreams up the 
                              communication medium...
upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5f/Girl_listenin




Thursday, September 9, 2010
[A]ctivation; authorship; community ‐‐ are the most frequently cited motivations for almost all artistic 
                ...
Blog: http://blog.sfmoma.org/tag/art‐of‐participation/
                              Flickr set: http://www.Zlickr.com/pho...
1957



Thursday, September 9, 2010
Excerpts from chapter 2, and 5  “Sputnik: DeclassiZied” (2007) 
                              http://www.netZlix.com/Movie...
http://www.Zlickr.com/photos/nezitic/311892760/sizes/o/
                                        Red Flag Over Reichstag 9t...
The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)




Thursday, September 9, 2010
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V2QdEj8UjBc




Thursday, September 9, 2010
1961



Thursday, September 9, 2010
Leonard Kleinrock, MIT
                              "Information Flow in Large
                              Communicatio...
1962



Thursday, September 9, 2010
Packet Switching, Paul Baran 1962 at RAND, US Airforce

             All the nodes in the network would be equal in status...
“On Distributed Communication Networks,” March 1964
                                  c) a network without central authori...
1965



Thursday, September 9, 2010
Ted Nelson coins the term "Hypertext" in "A File Structure for the 
            Complex, the Changing, and the Indetermina...
1965




                  Already in 1965, Fernando Corbato and his colleagues at
                  MIT developed a progr...
1967



Thursday, September 9, 2010
Excerpts from: American Experience | Summer of Love | PBS
                                           www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex...
People’s Park ‐‐ Excerpt from “Berkeley in the Sixties”
                                        http://akas.imdb.de/media/...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZQbEjPzfDmc&feature=PlayList&p=C97DC8509C17275A&index=2


                              Mac...
Excerpts from: The Commune (2005)
                                        http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0439511/




Thursda...
1968



Thursday, September 9, 2010
"In a few years, men will be able to communicate more effectively through a machine
             than face to face...We be...
Louis Pouzin designed and directed the development of
            the Cyclades network in France, which then stopped in
  ...
1969



Thursday, September 9, 2010
In 1968, ARPA sent out a Request for
                              Quotation to build a network of
                       ...
Norm Abramson wanted to surf - so he moved to Hawaii in
          1969. He wanted to network with the other islands and so...
The Internet in 1969
                               http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y0pPfyYtiBc&e




Thursday, September 9...
http://www.wholeearth.com/index.php




Thursday, September 9, 2010
1970



Thursday, September 9, 2010
Thursday, September 9, 2010
TCP/IP

    With TCP/IP, the "global network" was
   becoming a reality. Universities and
   government offices were using...
Thursday, September 9, 2010
Whose Standards? Proprietary or Open Standards?




        Also the fax machine is only useful if many other people have ...
http://tinyurl.com/29vvar
         PowWow

        Throughout the 1970s Instant Messaging began to appear




Thursday, Se...
•There was no single inventor of the Internet.
        •ARPANET, Usenet, BITNET, and BBS 
        •DARPA was not solely a ...
1971



Thursday, September 9, 2010
http://tinyurl.com/34gyk2


              1971: Ray Tomlinson of BBN creates email program to send
              messages ...
Michael Hart

                                      1971. Project Gutenberg is the first and largest
                     ...
1977



Thursday, September 9, 2010
http://tinyurl.com/35drka




      http://tinyurl.com/2n5gvy

            1977 Richard Bartle and Roy Trubshaw created th...
1978



Thursday, September 9, 2010
CBBS (first BBS)             January of 1978, Chicago was hit by
     Ward Christensen             the Great Blizzard of 1...
ASCii art on BBS




                                                 http://tinyurl.com/yukqdk
Thursday, September 9, 2010
1979



Thursday, September 9, 2010
Emoticons

                              1979 Kevin MacKenzie e-mailed his
                              fellow subscriber...
USENET established. USENET was a global, decentralized,
        distributed Internet discussion system that provided mail
...
ARPANET
                                http://echo.gmu.edu/usenet/images/usenet.gif

                              http:/...
1980s



Thursday, September 9, 2010
What else did it take to make this WWW work?




                                      http://tinyurl.com/2km2n9



      ...
The Well members could start discussion boards:
                                  Mid-80s
       the most popular one was ...
The Well members could start discussion boards:
       the most popular one was dedicated to
       The Grateful Dead.



...
1985
       Stewart Brand & Larry Brilliant
       one of the first community bulletin board systems
       The Whole Eart...
1985
       Stewart Brand & Larry Brilliant
       one of the first community bulletin board systems
       The Whole Eart...
1985
       Stewart Brand & Larry Brilliant
       one of the first community bulletin board systems
       The Whole Eart...
1985
       Stewart Brand & Larry Brilliant
       one of the first community bulletin board systems
       The Whole Eart...
Thursday, September 9, 2010
Thursday, September 9, 2010
1984



Thursday, September 9, 2010
Francois Lyotard  and  Thierry Chaput’s exhibition   "Les Immateriaux”  at the  Centre Georges Pompidou in  Paris.  30 art...
Trebor Scholz
         The New School University

         scholzt@newschool.edu

         Twitter: trebors 




         ...
Thursday, September 9, 2010
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From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”

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1746 -1984

Published in: Education

From the Telegraph to ARPANET. “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture, the Internet, and “Virtual Community.”

  1. 1.        ARPANET, “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture,     the Internet, and “Virtual Community”  Trebor Scholz Thursday, September 9, 2010
  2. 2. The Victorian Internet by Tom Standage (1989) 1746  200 monks  Jean‐Antoine Nollet linked to electrical battery  1797 optical telegraphy telephone, radio, ... Thursday, September 9, 2010
  3. 3. Thursday, September 9, 2010
  4. 4. 1945 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  5. 5. "knowledge on call" hyperlinked pages and the “memex” http://tinyurl.com/39mf8l http://tinyurl.com/3b7h9v Thursday, September 9, 2010
  6. 6. Thursday, September 9, 2010
  7. 7. In 1949 in his novel Heliopolis, the German Ernst Junger dreams up the  communication medium "Phonophor," which connects everybody to  everybody else, enabling a permanent , technically facilitated forum that  also replaces the passport, watch, newspaper, library, and encyclopedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernst_J%C3%BCnger http://tinyurl.com/2s2zn5 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  8. 8. upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5f/Girl_listenin Thursday, September 9, 2010
  9. 9. [A]ctivation; authorship; community ‐‐ are the most frequently cited motivations for almost all artistic  attempts to encourage participation in art since the 1960s." according to art historian Claire Bishop. Thursday, September 9, 2010
  10. 10. Blog: http://blog.sfmoma.org/tag/art‐of‐participation/ Flickr set: http://www.Zlickr.com/photos/ari/sets/72157610572023159/ Thursday, September 9, 2010
  11. 11. 1957 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  12. 12. Excerpts from chapter 2, and 5  “Sputnik: DeclassiZied” (2007)  http://www.netZlix.com/Movie/Sputnik_DeclassiZied/70086393 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  13. 13. http://www.Zlickr.com/photos/nezitic/311892760/sizes/o/ Red Flag Over Reichstag 9th May 1945 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  14. 14. The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) Thursday, September 9, 2010
  15. 15. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V2QdEj8UjBc Thursday, September 9, 2010
  16. 16. 1961 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  17. 17. Leonard Kleinrock, MIT "Information Flow in Large Communication Nets"  (May 31, 1961) First paper on packet‐switching http://tinyurl.com/23nbat Thursday, September 9, 2010
  18. 18. 1962 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  19. 19. Packet Switching, Paul Baran 1962 at RAND, US Airforce All the nodes in the network would be equal in status to all other nodes, each node with its own authority to originate, pass, and receive messages. The messages themselves would be divided into packets, each packet separately addressed. Each packet would begin at some specified source node, and end at some other specified destination node. http://tinyurl.com/2ry3lo Thursday, September 9, 2010
  20. 20. “On Distributed Communication Networks,” March 1964 c) a network without central authority or single Paul Baran outage point http://tinyurl.com/ywq8nk Thursday, September 9, 2010
  21. 21. 1965 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  22. 22. Ted Nelson coins the term "Hypertext" in "A File Structure for the  Complex, the Changing, and the Indeterminate". 20th National  Conference, New York, Association for Computing Machinery Thursday, September 9, 2010
  23. 23. 1965 Already in 1965, Fernando Corbato and his colleagues at MIT developed a program to allow individual users to swap messages on one single computer. Thursday, September 9, 2010
  24. 24. 1967 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  25. 25. Excerpts from: American Experience | Summer of Love | PBS www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/love/ Thursday, September 9, 2010
  26. 26. People’s Park ‐‐ Excerpt from “Berkeley in the Sixties” http://akas.imdb.de/media/rm1389337600/tt0099121 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  27. 27. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZQbEjPzfDmc&feature=PlayList&p=C97DC8509C17275A&index=2 Macy conferences 1946‐53, NYC video: 10 mins Thursday, September 9, 2010
  28. 28. Excerpts from: The Commune (2005) http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0439511/ Thursday, September 9, 2010
  29. 29. 1968 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  30. 30. "In a few years, men will be able to communicate more effectively through a machine than face to face...We believe that we are entering into a technological age, in which we will be able to interact with the richness of living information -- not merely in the passive way that we have become accustomed to using books and libraries, but as active participants in an ongoing process, bringing something to it through our interaction with it, and not simply receiving something from it by our connection to it. (53)" http://tinyurl.com/2c9uaf Thursday, September 9, 2010
  31. 31. Louis Pouzin designed and directed the development of the Cyclades network in France, which then stopped in 1974. http://tinyurl.com/22ykun Thursday, September 9, 2010
  32. 32. 1969 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  33. 33. In 1968, ARPA sent out a Request for Quotation to build a network of four Interface Message Processors. BBN made it. Dave Walden, Bernie Cosell, Severo Ornstein, Will Crowther, Bob Kahn 1969: Advanced Research Projects Agency commissions ARPANET to conduct research on networking. First ARPANET nodes connected UCLA, Stanford, UC Santa Barbara, and University of Utah http://tinyurl.com/yuw6ho http://tinyurl.com/2pxazn http://tinyurl.com/2ujdes Thursday, September 9, 2010
  34. 34. Norm Abramson wanted to surf - so he moved to Hawaii in 1969. He wanted to network with the other islands and so he built the ALOHAnet in 1970. From the University of Hawaii, Abramson connected computers over a network of radio transmitters using a protocol telling the computers how to share the airwaves. http://tinyurl.com/yvvmdc Trebor Scholz | Thursday, September 9, 2010
  35. 35. The Internet in 1969 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y0pPfyYtiBc&e Thursday, September 9, 2010
  36. 36. http://www.wholeearth.com/index.php Thursday, September 9, 2010
  37. 37. 1970 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  38. 38. Thursday, September 9, 2010
  39. 39. TCP/IP With TCP/IP, the "global network" was becoming a reality. Universities and government offices were using the network for communicating with colleagues and exchanging data. 1974: Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn publish "A Protocol for Packet Network Interconnection", which specified in detail the design of a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). http://tinyurl.com/3c64vm http://tinyurl.com/yvvmdc Thursday, September 9, 2010
  40. 40. Thursday, September 9, 2010
  41. 41. Whose Standards? Proprietary or Open Standards? Also the fax machine is only useful if many other people have it. Later: If the Internet would have just connected supercomputers, it would have not been as significant. Trebor Scholz | http://tinyurl.com/yu7g2m Thursday, September 9, 2010
  42. 42. http://tinyurl.com/29vvar PowWow Throughout the 1970s Instant Messaging began to appear Thursday, September 9, 2010
  43. 43. •There was no single inventor of the Internet. •ARPANET, Usenet, BITNET, and BBS  •DARPA was not solely a response to the fear of a nuclear  armageddon. Thursday, September 9, 2010
  44. 44. 1971 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  45. 45. http://tinyurl.com/34gyk2 1971: Ray Tomlinson of BBN creates email program to send messages across a distributed network. 1972: Tomlinson expands program to ARPANET users, using the "@" sign as part of the address. Thursday, September 9, 2010
  46. 46. Michael Hart 1971. Project Gutenberg is the first and largest single collection of free electronic books, or eBooks. Project Gutenberg is the "oldest digital library built on volunteer efforts to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works." http://tinyurl.com/26zq8z Trebor Scholz | Thursday, September 9, 2010
  47. 47. 1977 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  48. 48. http://tinyurl.com/35drka http://tinyurl.com/2n5gvy 1977 Richard Bartle and Roy Trubshaw created the first MUD (Multi-User Dungeon) leading later to MMORPG Thursday, September 9, 2010
  49. 49. 1978 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  50. 50. CBBS (first BBS) January of 1978, Chicago was hit by Ward Christensen the Great Blizzard of 1978 Many people did not have the Internet. They dialed in to CBSS directly via modem. Users had to take turns accessing the system, each hanging up when done to let someone else have access. Nevertheless, the system was seen as very useful, and ran for many years and inspired the creation of many other bulletin board systems. http://tinyurl.com/38zf8q http://tinyurl.com/3a8wru Thursday, September 9, 2010
  51. 51. ASCii art on BBS http://tinyurl.com/yukqdk Thursday, September 9, 2010
  52. 52. 1979 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  53. 53. Emoticons 1979 Kevin MacKenzie e-mailed his fellow subscribers at MsgGroup, an early Internet bulletin board, with a suggestion to put some emotion back into the dry text medium of e-mail. (The eyes came later.) Thursday, September 9, 2010
  54. 54. USENET established. USENET was a global, decentralized, distributed Internet discussion system that provided mail services and file transfers. Precursor of GoogleGroups and other discussion boards. http://tinyurl.com/2mdk3z Thursday, September 9, 2010
  55. 55. ARPANET http://echo.gmu.edu/usenet/images/usenet.gif http://www.sri.com/about/timeline/images/map.gi Trebor Scholz | Thursday, September 9, 2010
  56. 56. 1980s Thursday, September 9, 2010
  57. 57. What else did it take to make this WWW work? http://tinyurl.com/2km2n9 This was the first IBM PC introduced on Aug 12, 1981 Douglas Engelbart http://tinyurl.com/3c7suu Thursday, September 9, 2010
  58. 58. The Well members could start discussion boards: Mid-80s the most popular one was dedicated to computer manufacturers push proprietary protocols, The Grateful Dead. which failed US Government pushed for ISO but TCP/IP was free, more viral In the 1980s the PCs entered homes and offices in the United States. Thursday, September 9, 2010
  59. 59. The Well members could start discussion boards: the most popular one was dedicated to The Grateful Dead. 1981 BITNET release Ira Fuchs (CUNY) and Greydon Freeman (Yale) Main features: email, LISTSERV BITNET set expectations for free access and openness: it charged by bandwidth. Once you paid for the line, how much you use it was up to you. Others tried to establish a pay by byte system. http://tinyurl.com/2vxZbj http://tinyurl.com/2cl3go Thursday, September 9, 2010
  60. 60. 1985 Stewart Brand & Larry Brilliant one of the first community bulletin board systems The Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link (The Well) Brand used a networked PC on his houseboat in Sasalito, CA, claiming that he did so in order to experience commune living without actually moving into one. http://tinyurl.com/374e2g Thursday, September 9, 2010
  61. 61. 1985 Stewart Brand & Larry Brilliant one of the first community bulletin board systems The Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link (The Well) Brand used a networked PC on his houseboat in Sasalito, CA, claiming that he did so in order to experience commune living without actually moving into one. http://tinyurl.com/374e2g Thursday, September 9, 2010
  62. 62. 1985 Stewart Brand & Larry Brilliant one of the first community bulletin board systems The Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link (The Well) Brand used a networked PC on his houseboat in Sasalito, CA, claiming that he did so in order to experience commune living without actually moving into one. http://tinyurl.com/374e2g Thursday, September 9, 2010
  63. 63. 1985 Stewart Brand & Larry Brilliant one of the first community bulletin board systems The Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link (The Well) Brand used a networked PC on his houseboat in Sasalito, CA, claiming that he did so in order to experience commune living without actually moving into one. http://tinyurl.com/374e2g Thursday, September 9, 2010
  64. 64. Thursday, September 9, 2010
  65. 65. Thursday, September 9, 2010
  66. 66. 1984 Thursday, September 9, 2010
  67. 67. Francois Lyotard  and  Thierry Chaput’s exhibition   "Les Immateriaux”  at the  Centre Georges Pompidou in  Paris.  30 artists collaboratively respond to 50  terms related  the topic of  the  "immaterial."  Lyotard and Chaput pointed out that they were mainly interested in the way, in which this collaborative writing changed the experience of the act of writing itself.  http://tinyurl.com/ynkmby Trebor Scholz | Thursday, September 9, 2010
  68. 68. Trebor Scholz The New School University scholzt@newschool.edu Twitter: trebors  This presentation is made public using the creative commons attribution, non‐ commercial, share alike license.  This presentation is based on my previous courses on the topic including: http://www.slideshare.net/trebor/how‐the‐social‐web‐came‐to‐be‐part1   Thursday, September 9, 2010
  69. 69. Thursday, September 9, 2010

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