The Ineptitude and Affordances of the Crowd


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The Ineptitude and Affordances of the Crowd

  1. 1. The Participatory Turn in Social Life Online Trebor Scholz Department of Media Study Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 1
  2. 2. •part 2 The Ineptitude and Affordances of the Crowd 2
  3. 3. The networked public sphere enables anyone to go through her practical life observing the social environment through new eyes -- the eyes of someone who could inject a thought, a criticism, a concern into public debate. Empowerment p 11 3
  4. 4. Milieus of Influence Blogs LiveJournal, Blogger, Typepad, WordPress Wikis JotSpot (Google), Wikispaces Tagging & Social Bookmarks Social Filtering Digg, Reddit, StumbledUpon XML Syndication (e.g., RSS) Bloglines, Technorati Social Networks Facebook, Twitter, Xing 4
  5. 5. Peer production Immersive entertainment Encyclopedias News & commentary Production used to be constrained to large (physical) capital (i.e. steel production) (WoN) p 5 5
  6. 6. CI & the Blogosphere Comments Tags Feeds Feeds Bookmarks Blogs 6
  7. 7. CI & the Blogosphere Comments Tags Feeds Feeds Bookmarks Blogs 6
  8. 8. CI & the Blogosphere Comments Tags Feeds Feeds Bookmarks Blogs 6
  9. 9. 8 days after a video was posted showing how to pick the lock in 30 seconds using a pen, Kryptonite recalled 380,000 locks Businesses can’t stop the conversation... so they try to harness it for your benefit 7
  10. 10. •Collective Intelligence 8
  11. 11. The full impact of such technology on collective intelligence and political effort has yet to be felt, but the anti-globalization movement relies heavily on e-mail, cell phones, pagers, SMS, and other means of organizing before, during, and after events. illustration edited by TS 9
  12. 12. Collective intelligence is the capacity of human communities to evolve towards higher order complexity and harmony, through such innovation mechanisms as differentiation and integration, competition and collaboration. 10
  13. 13. Google uses the knowledge millions of people have stored in the World Wide Web to provide remarkably useful answers to users' questions Wikipedia motivates thousands of volunteers around the world to create the world's largest encyclopedia 11
  14. 14. 12
  15. 15. When you run SETI@home on your computer, it will use part of the computer's CPU power, disk space, and network bandwidth. You can control how much of your resources are used by SETI@home, and when it uses them. 13
  16. 16. Collective intelligence changes the role of expert knowledge as sole authority 14
  17. 17. 15
  18. 18. Motivations Social connectedness Psychological well-being Gratification Material gain WoN p 6 16
  19. 19. EDUCATION Opening up of Open Educational Mass Collaboration Classrooms Resources 17
  20. 20. 18
  21. 21. •Effects 19
  22. 22. The networked public sphere is a fact, not a fad Reality rather than utopia Autonomy here is not so much a philosophical concept but an actual individual experience WoN p 9 20
  23. 23. Enhanced Autonomy 1) Improves capacity to do more for and by themselves 2) Enhances capacity to do more in loose commonality with others (without the hierarchies of traditional organizations) 3) Improves capacity of individuals to do more in organizations that are outside the market sphere WoN p 8 21
  24. 24. Method When evaluating democratization we need to compare the actualities of the networked public sphere to the reality of commercial mass media. Forget the idealized projections of the early and mid-90s. WoN p 10 22
  25. 25. Information overload Filtration, relevance, and accreditation Mutual pointing, peer review, pointing to original sources of claim Local clusters, peer-review-like qualities WoN p 12/13 23
  26. 26. Novel Forms of Publishing and Research From writing to a limited audience to authoring for a broad audience 24
  27. 27. Commercial Mass Media What are the failures of commercial mass media as platforms for public discourse? 25
  28. 28. Objections Babel Objection You can speak but who listens WoN p 10 26
  29. 29. Individuals are less susceptible to manipulation by a class and/or owners of mass communication media They are more likely to author their own lives, perhaps perceive a broader range of possibilities Influence of mass media decreases 27
  30. 30. Limits of Mass Media Small cadre of commercial journalists Commercial journalists are given inordinate power to shape opinion and information This power is for sale 28
  31. 31. Enhanced Individual Autonomy Newly expanded practical freedom: to act and cooperate to improve the experience of democracy, justice, development, critical culture, and community WoN p 9 29
  32. 32. Critical and self-reflective practice 200 million members on Myspace 100 million blogs-- people with a writing practice 30
  33. 33. Cost of becoming a speaker lowered For authoritarian countries it is harder and more expensive to maintain control over public spheres (China, Singapore, Vietnam) Cost of sending an email, setting up a web page is low 31
  34. 34. From Copyright to Creative Commons Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 32
  35. 35. The Creative Commons (CC) is a non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative work available for others legally to build upon and share. The organization has released several copyright licenses known as Creative Commons licenses. These licenses, depending on the one chosen, restrict only certain rights (or none) of the work. 33
  36. 36. From taxonomy to folksonomy 34
  37. 37. Folksonomy (also known as collaborative tagging , social classification, social indexing, social tagging, and other names) is the practice and method of collaboratively creating and managing tags to annotate and categorize content. In contrast to traditional subject indexing, metadata is not only generated by experts but also by creators and consumers of the content. Usually, freely chosen keywords are used instead of a controlled vocabulary.[1] 35
  38. 38. People come back to because of the community 36
  39. 39. ? As much as 28% of Americans have tagged Pew Internet Life Project: Report on Tagging 37
  40. 40. ? ?? ? 38
  41. 41. The Heavy Metal Umlaut, Jon Udell 39
  42. 42. •Crowdsourcing 40
  43. 43. •Crowdsourcing Crowdsourcing is a neologism for the act of taking a job traditionally performed by an employee or contractor, and outsourcing it to an undefined, generally large group of people, in the form of an open call. For example, the public may be invited to develop a new technology, carry out a design task, refine an algorithm or help analyze large amounts of data. Below-market wages, or no wages at all. No written contracts, non-disclosure agreements, or employee agreements or agreeable terms with crowdsourced employees. 41
  44. 44. 42
  45. 45. The company prints T-shirts with designs submitted to its Web site (for free). Expected revenue in 2007: $20 million 43
  46. 46. 44
  47. 47. Lego asks inclined costumers to design new Lego sets. 44
  48. 48. The “Consumption” of a Service Increases Its Value Over 1 Billion User Reviews Over 1 Million User Reviews per Day 3.5 Million Paying Users 45
  49. 49. - end - please direct comments, additions, etc to 46
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