Ontology-Based Analyze of Chat Conversations. An Urban Development Case

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Ontology-Based Analyze of Chat Conversations. An Urban Development Case

  1. 1. Ontology-Based Analyze of Chat Conversations. An Urban Development Case Stefan Trausan-Matu “ Politehnica" University of Bucharest and Romanian Academy Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence Bucharest, Romania stefan.trausan@cs.pub.ro http://www.racai.ro/~trausan
  2. 2. <ul><li>ontologies in use form social groups </li></ul><ul><li>social groups form ontologies in use </li></ul><ul><li>(Chris Tweed) </li></ul>10 March 2009 Towntology Final Conference, Liege
  3. 3. Philosophical paradigms in knowledge construction <ul><li>Cognitive science : “ knowledge is in the mind of individual persons ” (Cyc, WordNet, FrameNet, Mikrokosmos, Sowa … ) - ontologies </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-cultural : “ knowledge is social, is in communities where people enter in dialogs ” (Vygotsky, Engestr ö m , Stahl … ) – folksonomies – social groups </li></ul>10 March 2009 Towntology Final Conference, Liege
  4. 4. Examples of paradigm change <ul><li>From Intelligent Tutoring Systems to Computer Supported Collaborative Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Web2.0 is the Social Web, not the Semantic Web </li></ul>10 March 2009 Towntology Final Conference, Liege
  5. 5. Why a socio-cultural paradigm? <ul><li>Cognitive science and artificial intelligence problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural language understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Considering socio-cultural issues (including urbanism) </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting dialogism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group knowledge construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict resolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaching common meaning through dialog </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A theoretical foundation for the Social Web </li></ul>10 March 2009 Towntology Final Conference, Liege
  6. 6. Natural language understanding <ul><li>Rhetorics – the systematic usage of synonyms </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. (WordNet): car, auto, automobile, machine, motorcar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>or closely related words </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. (WordNet): car => cruiser, police cruiser, patrol car, police car, prowl car, squad car </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ambiguity </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. (WordNet): car, railcar, railway car, railroad car </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Word senses depend on context, evolve in time and differ geographically </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphors – “stocks are very sensitive creatures” </li></ul>10 March 2009 Towntology Final Conference, Liege
  7. 7. The Social Web <ul><li>Folksonomies </li></ul><ul><li>Social Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion forums </li></ul><ul><li>Chat conferences </li></ul>10 March 2009 Towntology Final Conference, Liege
  8. 8. 10 March 2009 Towntology Final Conference, Liege
  9. 9. Knowledge building in (small) groups <ul><li>Start from a common ground: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General ontology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domain ontology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistic practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rhetoric </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pragmatics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Debate, negotiation – dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>New concepts are build </li></ul>10 March 2009 Towntology Final Conference, Liege
  10. 10. Dialogism – Mikhail Bakhtin <ul><li>“… Any true understanding is dialogic in nature” (Voloshinov-Bakhtin, 1973) </li></ul><ul><li>Real life dialog should be the considered, not only written text (as Saussure recommended) </li></ul><ul><li>Utterances (not sentences) should be the unit of analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Carnivalesque </li></ul><ul><li>Speech genres </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-animation of voices </li></ul><ul><li>Polyphony </li></ul>10 March 2009 Towntology Final Conference, Liege
  11. 11. Polyphony – a system for the analysis of chat logs <ul><li>Used in several CSCL projects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual Math Teams – NSF project, Drexel University, US (Trausan-Matu & Rebedea, 2009) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>K-Teams – Romanian CNSIS project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LTfLL – FP7 IST project </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It may be used for any domain </li></ul>10 March 2009 Towntology Final Conference, Liege
  12. 12. Language Technology for Lifelong Learning (LTfLL) <ul><li>EU FP7 Project, 2008-2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Netherlands, France, United Kingdom, Germany, Romania, Bulgaria </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies considered: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chat (conversation) analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latent Semantic Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ontologies (semantics) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Folksonomies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic Social Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corpus linguistics </li></ul></ul>10 March 2009 Towntology Final Conference, Liege
  13. 13. Polyphony <ul><li>Topic identification </li></ul><ul><li>Based on WordNet+domain ontology </li></ul><ul><li>New concepts may be added in the domain ontology </li></ul><ul><li>Discourse identification – polyphonic model (Trausan-Matu, Stahl & Sarmiento, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Graphical visualization of the chat </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of the contributions of the participants </li></ul>10 March 2009 Towntology Final Conference, Liege
  14. 14. Identification of Chat Topics <ul><li>XML or HTML chat logs </li></ul><ul><li>Tokenization </li></ul><ul><li>Stop-words, emoticons and usual abbreviations ( :) , :D , brb, thx, …) are eliminated </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic distances identified using WordNet and the domain ontology </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern (cue phrases) analysis </li></ul>10 March 2009 Towntology Final Conference, Liege
  15. 15. 10 March 2009 Towntology Final Conference, Liege
  16. 16. Addition of new concepts in the domain ontology 10 March 2009 Towntology Final Conference, Liege
  17. 17. Discourse identification 10 March 2009 Towntology Final Conference, Liege
  18. 18. Implicit Links Discovering <ul><li>Text mining techniques: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pattern (cue phrases) analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Co - reference analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lexical chains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heuristics </li></ul></ul>10 March 2009 Towntology Final Conference, Liege
  19. 19. Graphical Representation of the Conversation <ul><li>For each participant in the chat, there is a separate horizontal line in the representation </li></ul><ul><li>Each utterance is placed in the line corresponding to the issuer of that utterance, according to the emission time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The explicit references among utterances are depicted using blue connecting lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The implicit references (deduced by the system) are represented using other colour (red or green). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>T he strength of each utterance is represented as a b a r chart. </li></ul>10 March 2009 Towntology Final Conference, Liege
  20. 20. 10 March 2009 Towntology Final Conference, Liege
  21. 21. 10 March 2009 Towntology Final Conference, Liege
  22. 22. Identification of participants’ contributions <ul><li>Oy axis – Value of contributions </li></ul><ul><li>Ox axis – The number of the utterance </li></ul>10 March 2009 Towntology Final Conference, Liege
  23. 23. Conclusions and future directions <ul><li>There are a need and a possibility for the integration of ontologies with social knowledge building </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of context and negotiation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usage of perspectives in ontologies </li></ul></ul>10 March 2009 Towntology Final Conference, Liege

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