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Cross-Cultural Communication           Communication Styles in South America:         Maximize Your Cultural Understanding...
Cross-Cultural Communication                                                  INTRODUCTION        Organization and Trainer...
Cross-Cultural Communication        Program Objectives:           After completing this cross-cultural communication works...
Cross-Cultural Communication                                                  QUESTIONNAIRE        Cross-cultural Communic...
Cross-Cultural Communication        9. Can you briefly describe your overall impression of the performance and        effe...
Cross-Cultural Communication                                                  LOGISTICS CHECKLIST        Cross-cultural Co...
Cross-Cultural Communication                                                  AGENDA        TBO        Cross-cultural Comm...
Cross-Cultural Communication                                                  SUGGESTED READINGS        Blink: The Power o...
Cross-Cultural Communication                   MODULE ONE               Introductions/OverviewCopyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ ...
Cross-Cultural Communication        Start time: 8:00 am        I. MODULE ONE: Introductions/Overview (with Icebreaker) (35...
Cross-Cultural Communication        A Cross-cultural training manual. Virginia State Department of Education, Virginia    ...
Cross-Cultural Communication                         MODULE TWO                       The Latin American                  ...
Cross-Cultural Communication        Start time: 8:35 am        II. MODULE TWO: The Latin American Communication Way (70 mi...
Cross-Cultural Communication        B. Exercise/Activity Title and Description: High Context vs. Low Context Cultures:    ...
Cross-Cultural Communication        Points:           1. To identify participants cultural context.           2. To associ...
Cross-Cultural Communication        Start time: 9:35 am        E. Exercise/Activity Title and Description: Mental Imagery ...
Cross-Cultural Communication                                 MODULE II: LECTURETTE I OUTLINE        -        Through ten y...
Cross-Cultural Communication        (except for Brazil, where Portuguese is spoken instead of Spanish). Albert also notes ...
Cross-Cultural Communication              High Context Cultures                 Low Context Cultures            • Strong c...
Cross-Cultural Communication        relationship and situation. She says that "the rules governing touch are subtle and   ...
Cross-Cultural Communication        Spain. People from Bogotá differ from people in other cities and regions within       ...
Cross-Cultural Communication        Example: Compare the Latin American political news to a political event in North      ...
Cross-Cultural Communication        someone who evidently uses these communication styles.Copyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Li...
Cross-Cultural Communication              MODULE THREE          Cross-cultural Non-verbal               Communication     ...
Cross-Cultural Communication        A. Exercise/Activity Title and Description: Case Study. (20 minutes)        Rationale:...
Cross-Cultural Communication        Rationale: Participants will learn essential differences in non-verbal communication  ...
Cross-Cultural Communication           1. Pick a partner (you should end up with three couples)           2. Turn your bac...
Cross-Cultural Communication        B. Interactive Lecture/Activity: Multitasking vs. Monotasking        Power Point Slide...
Cross-Cultural Communication        conveys feelings, intentions, and reactions. Latin Americans may seem emotional and   ...
Cross-Cultural Communication        check to say hello and to touch or grab each others arms while talking. It is common f...
Cross-Cultural Communication        conveys feelings, intentions, and reactions. Latin Americans may seem emotional and   ...
Cross-Cultural Communication        Native Americans and Southern Europeans on the other hand appear to be more        pol...
Cross-Cultural Communication                 MODULE FOUR            Closing The Gap Between                  Two Cultures ...
Cross-Cultural Communication        Rationale: It is important to highlight some distinct differences between Latino      ...
Cross-Cultural Communication        BREAK: 10 minutes        Start time: 1:55 pm        C. Interactive Lecture/Activity: P...
Cross-Cultural Communication        Points:           1. To practice the concepts learned during the lecture.           2....
Cross-Cultural Communication        Perceptions of men and women: There is much controversy on the importance given       ...
Cross-Cultural Communication        doing activities (such as tennis). This difference has led to the stereotype of the la...
Cross-Cultural Communication        brand names for longer periods of time than people in the United States. For Latinos, ...
Cross-Cultural CommunicationCopyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
Cross-Cultural Communication                                 MODULE FIVE            Addressing Cross-cultural Conflict    ...
Cross-Cultural Communication        Points:           1. To provide a general framework of reference as a resource for cro...
Cross-Cultural Communication           International Peace Research Association (IRPA). , UNESCO. (1994). Handbook        ...
Cross-Cultural Communication        active and attentive. Assure participants that the knowledge gained will contribute   ...
Cross-Cultural Communication        resolve. This could be complete avoidance Avoiding conflict does not deal with the    ...
Cross-Cultural Communication             Forms a team plan, implements and evaluates the outcomes.        According to Th...
Cross-Cultural Communication        Respect:        The Latino concept of respect has played an important role in numerous...
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Crosscultural Comunication

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This training program is targeted to supervisors and management personnel at UNMC who interact frequently with Latin American employees. Work supervisors are influential to the development and integral success of employees. By training work supervisors in cross-cultural communication topics, UNMC will not only see a positive shift in Latin American employee's recruitment and retention, but also these employees will be more productive, efficient and willing to adapt to a new culture that offers great opportunities.

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  1. 1. Cross-Cultural Communication Communication Styles in South America: Maximize Your Cultural Understanding Potential Presented by: Andrés Traslaviña October, 2009.Copyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  2. 2. Cross-Cultural Communication INTRODUCTION Organization and Trainer: It has been eight years since the catastrophic events of September 11th. Organizations across the United States have experienced a steady decline in the number of international employees coming especially from Latin America. Latinos who are here and were surveyed have shown discontent with limited opportunities for employment, and if they do obtain a job, dissatisfaction with their supervisors’ communication skills. Latino employees have suggested that cultural misunderstandings when communicating were the main source of challenges, followed by low enthusiasm and poor productivity. This is a proposal to conduct an intensive cross-cultural communication training program to prepare supervisors and hiring managers to communicate effectively with Latino employees. Because of my experience working with cross-cultural communication issues and my understanding of the Latin culture, I was asked by the Human Resource office to develop a comprehensive training program to improve the overall communication between Latin employees and supervisors. I have spent many years working with international affair issues and with employees coming from Latin America, and have done extensive research on the impact of the Latino culture in the United States. I grew up in Bogotá, Colombia and moved to the United States at the age of sixteen. Since then, I completed my B.S. degree in Business Administration and a M.A degree in Education. Currently, I serve as the Director of Latin American Operations at talent Plus Inc. According to Albert (1996) (1), for someone to understand and teach cultural differences, a person must be bilingual, must have extensive experience living in two cultures, and must be able to read and critique social science research. The goal is to be aware of specific cultural differences and as a trainer, I can understand these differences from the perspective of an "insider." Training Program: Cross-Cultural Communication in Higher Education is a two-hour workshop for supervisors working with Latin American employees at UNMC. During the workshop, participants will have an opportunity to learn and practice the following cross-cultural communication topics: Defining Cross-cultural Communication High Context vs. Low Context Cultures Latin American Communication Styles Cross-cultural Non-verbal CommunicationCopyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  3. 3. Cross-Cultural Communication Program Objectives: After completing this cross-cultural communication workshop, participants will be able to: A. Explain the difference between high context and low context cultures. B. Apply learned communication styles to cultures similar in context. C. List five different non-verbal communication techniques used to effectively communicate with Latin American employees. D. Demonstrate the use of non-verbal cross-cultural techniques. E. Identify and explain sources of conflict; One of the favorable aspects of diversity in the workplace is the learning opportunity it fosters between people of different backgrounds with various perspectives. Institutions recognize this value and wish to attract a diverse body of employees. With more personnel training in understanding cross-cultural communication, organizations will benefit from improved relations with employees coming from Latin countries. My extensive travel experiences, Latin American background, desire to learn more about this area, and professional interests, are all reason why I am interested in this topic. Training Audience: This training program is targeted to supervisors and management personnel at UNMC who interact frequently with Latin American employees. Work supervisors are influential to the development and integral success of employees. By training work supervisors in cross-cultural communication topics, UNMC will not only see a positive shift in Latin American employees recruitment and retention, but also these employees will be more productive, efficient and willing to adapt to a new culture that offers great opportunities. Supervisors will benefit from this workshop as these interactions with Latin American employees will keep increasing steadily, as indicated in the most current demographic.Copyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  4. 4. Cross-Cultural Communication QUESTIONNAIRE Cross-cultural Communication in Higher Education UNMC participants: Please read and answer the following questions. Your feedback will be extremely helpful in planning your Cross-cultural Communication workshop. The answers will help us to develop appropriate training needs for your future interactions with Latino employees. All the answers are confidential and will remain anonymous. 1. How long have you been interacting with Latino employees? Less than 1 year ( ) 1-2 Years ( ) 5-10 Years ( ) More than 10 years ( ) 2. Have you ever traveled outside of the United States? If yes, please indicate in what capacity. NO ( ) YES ( ) If yes in what capacity? Tourism () Exchange program abroad ( ) Business ( ) Other ( ) 3. Are you fluent in Spanish or Portuguese? NO ( ) YES ( ) 4. I believe people who are not on time are lazy. NO ( ) YES ( ) 5. Do you agree with the following statement: All countries in South America speak Spanish. NO ( ) YES ( ) 6. Have you ever worked under a Latin American supervisor? NO ( ) YES ( ) 7. In your department, what is the largest group of multicultural employees? Eastern Asian ( ) Western Asian () Central or South American ( ) Middle Eastern () African ( ) Western European ( ) Eastern European ( ) Other () Not sure ( ) 8. In your opinion, how would rate your ability to communicate with Latino employees? Excellent ( ) Satisfactory ( ) Poor ( ) Unknown ( )Copyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  5. 5. Cross-Cultural Communication 9. Can you briefly describe your overall impression of the performance and effectiveness of Latino employees in your department? 10. What areas do you feel are most important when communicating with Latino employees? (Check all that apply.) Learning other languages _____________________________________________ ( ) Non-verbal interaction skills __________________________________________ ( ) Experience role-playing as an international supervisor in a different country _____ ( ) Understanding the students’ cultural backgrounds __________________________ ( ) Working with employees who have limited English skills ____________________ ( ) Conflict prevention skills_______________________________________________ ( ) Other ______________________________________________________________ ( )Copyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  6. 6. Cross-Cultural Communication LOGISTICS CHECKLIST Cross-cultural Communication in Higher Education. Location: UNMC Furniture Arrangements: The room will be arranged for twenty five people distributed in five tables of five. Once people are registered, the table on the southwest will be used as the water and coffee station. In addition, there also will be a basket where participants can drop questions anytime during the program. During the wrap up module, the trainer and the participants will reviewed the questions asked. Available at participant’s seats: Participants Packet & Pens. Location and temperature controls: Temperature is regulated by the buildings main thermostat. Registration Information: RSVP should be sent to: Audiovisual Aids: Overhead projector, multimedia cart, screen, easel and speakers Trainer Brings: USB Flash drive with the content of the power point. Participants packet. Participants Bring: Enthusiasm and willingness to step out of their "comfort zone.Copyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  7. 7. Cross-Cultural Communication AGENDA TBO Cross-cultural Communication in Higher Education. 8:30 Workshop Introduction Check-In Ice Breaker Introduction to Cross-cultural Communication 8:45 The Latin American Communication Way Statistical Review of UNMC Demographics High Context vs. Low Context Cultures Latin American Communication Styles 9:10 Cross-cultural Non-verbal Communication Differences Between Non-Verbal Communication Styles 9:30 BREAK 5 minutes 9:35 Cross-cultural Non-verbal Communication Polychronic vs. Monochronic 9:50 Cross-Cultural Conflict Resolution How Would You Respond Activity Thomas, K. Conflict Resolution Model 10:10 Wrap Up Rehearsal Pairs On the Job Practical Tools In-Basket and Other Questions Final Evaluations 10:30 AdjournCopyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  8. 8. Cross-Cultural Communication SUGGESTED READINGS Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking by Malcolm Gladwel: This book contains excellent exercises that will make you think about your own biases and views of people in terms of gender, ethnicity, age, and economic status. Gladwell starts by explaining the natural reactions we as humans have within the first five to ten seconds of being exposed to another person or to any situation. The book covers the functions of the brain and how each part plays a role when we interact with others. Latino Advantage in the Workplace: Using Who You Are to Get Where You Want to Be by Mariela Dabbah and Arturo Poire: This book uses insightful commentary and context while providing actionable tools to really strengthen our communication skills when working with employees from Latin America. The content offers tips and insight on the advantage of being Latino in the United States. Many Latinos, whether they speak Spanish or not, are often not aware that they do indeed have an advantage that comes from their heritage and roots, and, if they are bilingual, the book emphasizes how Spanish is becoming one of the most important languages in the world right now. The Trouble with Diversity: How We Learned to Love Identity and Ignore Inequality by Walter Benn Michaels: In a nutshell, the book discuses how lately the U.S. in general tends to put too much emphasis in race and class, our discussions around these topics have shifted many away from just doing one thing: "working." The topics of race and class are discussed throughout this book from the perspective of a modern college professor.Copyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  9. 9. Cross-Cultural Communication MODULE ONE Introductions/OverviewCopyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  10. 10. Cross-Cultural Communication Start time: 8:00 am I. MODULE ONE: Introductions/Overview (with Icebreaker) (35 minutes) Objective: By the end of this module, the participants will: (1) Learn each other’s names; (2) Feel more comfortable with their surroundings; and (3) Discuss the need for cross-cultural communication training. Power Point Slide: Title of Workshop: Cross-cultural Communication in Higher Education. Trainer’s Name: Andrés Traslaviña Contact: traslavina@me.com Introduction:  Greet each participant as they arrive.  Introduce myself and provide information on how to contact trainer.  Make sure all participants have a copy of the Participants Packet (PP). A. Trainer’s informal presentation: (10 minutes) Smile and begin with enthusiasm, thank participants for their presence. Provide information about restrooms, guidelines on the use of cell phones and testing during the workshop. Share with participants my background and experience working with cross-cultural communication topics in the past. Encourage participants to drop questions in the programs "basket of questions" located by the coffee station. B. Exercise/Activity title and description: “Ask someone if…?” (25 minutes) Rationale: Allow participants to get to know each other and find interesting facts about one another. The first part of the exercise allows people to move around and identify where other participants are located in the room. Handout and Directions: Participants will be given a handout and will be instructed to take 5 minutes to fill in the blanks. Refer to the Participants Packet (PP) handout A p- 1. Points: 1. To set a dynamic tone for the rest of the workshop. 2. To learn each other’s names and identify one trait that will help each other remember participant’s names. 3. To make participants think about what makes them unique and different from the rest of the group. 4. To introduce the rest of the workshop in a non-intrusive way. Source: This exercise is an adaptation of “Find someone who…” from: Silc, K.F (1990)Copyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  11. 11. Cross-Cultural Communication A Cross-cultural training manual. Virginia State Department of Education, Virginia Workplace Literacy grant. ED 339, 255. Retrieved September 7, 2007, from SAGE database. Transition: The last exercise allowed us to get to more about each other and learn our names. For the remaining of the workshop, please refer to each person by their name. The rest of the workshop will follow a dynamic format and perhaps you will be asked to step out of your comfort zone to share your experiences when working with Latino employees. The more you put into these exercises, the more you will get out of them. Our common goal is to be as knowledgeable as possible about the Latin American culture as this will facilitate our cross-cultural interactions with students and also with people you know outside of your workplace. The next part of the workshop will cover the concept of cross-cultural communication and how we can use these tool to understand some of the differences described above.Copyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  12. 12. Cross-Cultural Communication MODULE TWO The Latin American Communication WayCopyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  13. 13. Cross-Cultural Communication Start time: 8:35 am II. MODULE TWO: The Latin American Communication Way (70 minutes) Objective: By the end of this module, the participants will: (1) Identify their cultural context, (2) explain the five most effective ways to communicate with Latino employees, (3) initiate discussions on issues of cross-cultural communication among participants and (4) list 12 Latin American countries. A. Interactive Lecture/Activity: Cross-cultural communication. (15 minutes) Power Point Slide: UNMC Statistical Data. Rationale: By introducing the workshop and refereeing to the needs assessment, participants will understand why it is important to address cross-cultural communication. During the needs assessment participants reported having more interactions Latino employees than with any other group and indicate interest in non-verbal communication skills, implementing successful disciplinary actions and learning about the communication styles characteristic of Latino employees. Points: 1. To establish rapport by talking about my knowledge of the topic. 2. To introduce the workshop by addressing the topic of cross-cultural communication in general terms. 3. To make participants aware of the importance of practicing effective cross- cultural communication techniques in the workplace. 4. Provide statistical data on the Latino population in our community. Source: Wenderspahn, G.M. (2001). Cross-cultural communication between Latin American and U.S managers. Retrieved September 13 from Global Leadership Solutions Web-Site: http://grovewell.com/pub-Latin+US-mgrs.html Albert, R.D. (1996). A Framework and model for understanding Latin American and Latino/Hispanic cultural patterns. Handbook of Intercultural Training. Ed. Dan Landes and Rudy Bhagat. Thousand Oaks: Retrieved October 3, 2007 from NISSI portal. Start time: 8:50 amCopyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  14. 14. Cross-Cultural Communication B. Exercise/Activity Title and Description: High Context vs. Low Context Cultures: Which one do you belong to? (20 minutes) Rationale: Allow participants to determine whether they belong to a high context or low context cultural category. According to Bennett (1999), Latinos fall under the high context group, while most White-European American groups fall under the low context group. These distinctions might account for discrepancies between the communication patterns between European-Americans and Latinos. Handout and Directions: Participants will take the cultural category test and will score their answers to determine their grouping. Refer to participants packet (PP) handout A p-2, 3. Following the text exercise, participants will fill their guided notes on p. 4. Power Point Slide: Cultural context differences. Points: 1. It is important to know the participants cultural category and to customize the training program accordingly. 2. Recognize sources of potential conflict when working with Latino employees. 3. To make participants understand that Latino employees naturally communicate using characteristics distinctive of a high context culture. 5. To inform participants of their own cultural context and how that impacts their communication skills. Source: Bennett, C. (1999) A comprehensive multicultural education (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Hall, E.T. (1976). Beyond Culture. New York, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday. Start time: 9:10 am. C. Interactive Lecture/Activity: Brief lecture over the two cultural context categories. Power Point Slide: Cultural context differences. Rationale: The cultural context categories will provide a framework of reference for the remaining of the workshop. Latino employees belong to a high cultural context group, therefore, other groups that feel associated with cultural traits characteristics of Latinos, will feel identify with high context cultural traits. The same applies for cultures low in context.Copyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  15. 15. Cross-Cultural Communication Points: 1. To identify participants cultural context. 2. To associate cultural context with groups other than in Latin or North America. 3. To establish credibility using a study by Edward Hall well know in the cross- cultural communication field. Source: Bennett, C. (1999) A comprehensive multicultural education (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Hall, E.T. (1976). Beyond Culture. New York, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday. D. Interactive Lecture/Activity: Interactive lecture over the five different unique communication styles commonly used by Latino employees. (25 minutes) Power Point Slide: Indigenous Languages on the Americas Power Point Slide: Five communication styles characteristic of Latin American students. Rationale: It is important for supervisors to know how they communicate so that they can use it to their advantage and also be aware of possible shortcomings. Neither the Latino style or the American communication style is better than the other, they are just different, and they respond to cultural patterns (Dabbah & Poire, 2006). The handout provides an easy mnemonics method of remembering the five communication styles characteristic of Latino employees. Once participants have learned the main concepts, they will be able to teach others. Handout and Directions: Ask participants to complete the exercise “The Face of the latino employee exercise” (PP) handout B p-4 in their packets. Participants will be asked to list the five most common communication styles used by Latino employees. Power Point Slide: The face of the Latino employee exercise. Points: 1. The most common communication styles used by Latino employees are: Indirectness, informality, justifying mistakes, humility and offering excessive context (Dabahh & Poire, 2006). 2. By identifying unique communication styles used by Latino employees, supervisors and co-workers will be able to relate better and design appropriate training guides. Source: Dabbah, M. Poire, A. (2006) The Latino advantage in the workplace. Naperville, IL: Sphinx.Copyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  16. 16. Cross-Cultural Communication Start time: 9:35 am E. Exercise/Activity Title and Description: Mental Imagery Exercise. (15 minutes) Rationale: Latino Employees as well as from other cultures have come to the United States to learn about a culture different than theirs. Supervisors and co-workers can assist Latino employees by making them aware of their own communication styles and by explaining the differences between the two cultural communication styles. Handout and Directions: Refer the participants to the (PP) handout C p-5 and describe the travel journey. Divide participants in two groups. Participants will take an imaginary trip to 12 countries in Central and South America; their mission will be to make several stops and pick up one student from each country and bring them back to their community. Their assignment is to teach the Latino employees what they have learned about their communication styles and how this will help them during their interactions. Points: 1. Reinforcement of the five different communication styles used by Latino employees. 2. Educate participants of the geographic positions of Latin American countries. 3. Prepare participants for the rest of their workshop. 4. Relax participants and provide them with information about Latino employees so they can better understand and appreciate their viewpoint. Expectations: Participants are expected to actively participate by following the exercise and “picturing” themselves as if they were really traveling on a plain. Source: Google Earth Tour. Created by Andres Traslaviña on September 30, 2007. End Time: 9:50 am Transition We have covered the core material that will assist you with your communication and training needs with Latino employees. We have learned that the United States belongs to a low context culture and Latin American countries have the characteristics of a high context culture. The face of the Latino employees exercise will help you remember the five most common styles of communication of Latino employees. Now we will take a ten minute break, and will return to learn about the non-verbal communication style differences and ways for you to become an effective non-verbal communicator when working with Latino employees.Copyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  17. 17. Cross-Cultural Communication MODULE II: LECTURETTE I OUTLINE - Through ten years of academic study on Latino employees and having been brought up and traveled in Central and South America, I have discovered many ways in which Latino employees and U.S. supervisors tend to misunderstand each other. Based on the pre-workshop assessment, there is clear need for addressing cross-cultural communication issues in your areas of work. This workshop offers tools for improving interactions among cultures and for closing communication gaps. Power Point Slide: Why Study Latin American employees? • The Amazon rain forest produces 50% of the oxygen in the world; • Latin America is the second fastest growing economic region in the world; • Latin American it is the fastest growing market for U.S. exports; and • Latinos are the largest minority group in the U.S. Cross-cultural communication: Communication between people of different cultural backgrounds involves much more than overcoming the language barrier. Hidden cultural differences often cause a great deal of misunderstanding and friction. These differences are a serious problem because they are mostly invisible and inaudible but they affect the true meaning of the messages sent and received by business counterparts, South and North. Being aware of the cultural factors that create “static” will help businesspeople in the hemisphere understand each other better. However, to accomplish this goal, it is necessary to identify the specific roots of misunderstanding (Wederspahn, 2000). Understanding Cultural Differences: Modernization in Latin America makes it important to the rest of the world. A researcher explains how the uniqueness of Latin American and Latino culture can be studied and understood. What is unique about Latin American and Latino/Hispanic culture? Although cultural differences exist between Latinos and Latin Americans, among different Latin American countries (especially Brazil), and among groups within each country, researcher Rosita Daskal Albert says that Latin Americans tend to perceive, think, and behave in ways different from North Americans and Europeans. What Makes Latin America Unique? Much of Latin Americas similarity to and differences from Anglo culture comes from the period of European colonization. Although each country has different colonial histories, Albert says that the general result has been: a mixture of European, African, and Native American peoples that, unlike the U.S., tends to make race less important than class; a major role for the Catholic Church, sometimes mixed with African and Native American religions; a common languageCopyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  18. 18. Cross-Cultural Communication (except for Brazil, where Portuguese is spoken instead of Spanish). Albert also notes that countries like Mexico have long pre-colonial histories. North Americans and Europeans should not let a shared past blind them to basic differences that too often are hidden by common stereotypes. Latin Americans are eager to forge ties with the U.S., but also are very sensitive to "any hint of North American superiority." Sources: Albert, R.D. (1996). A Framework and model for understanding Latin American and Latino/Hispanic cultural patterns. Handbook of Intercultural Training. Ed. Dan Landes and Rudy Bhagat. Thousand Oaks: Retrieved October 3, 2007 from NISSI portal. Wenderspahn, G.M. (2001). Cross-cultural communication between Latin American and U.S managers. Retrieved September 13 from Global Leadership Solutions Web-Site: http://grovewell.com/pub-Latin+US-mgrs.html Discussion questions: 1. What specific knowledge do you expect to gain during this workshop? 2. Let’s discuss some of the current communication challenges you have with your Latino employees and co-workers. 3. Why are the numbers revealing such a drastic increase in the number of Latino employees? MODULE II: LECTURETTE II OUTLINE Power Point Slide: High and low cultural context categories. In a classical study in cross-cultural communication, Edward T. Hall analyzed the communication styles of cultural groups throughout the world and grouped them in two categories: high context and low context cultures (Hall, 1976). The communication style of the high context group is highly contextualized. The meaning is generally understood in terms of the situation or the setting in which the communication is taking place. For the second group, low context, the communicative context is not as important. Instead, the communication relies almost exclusively on the verbal or written message by itself. Bennett (1999) summarizes these differences as follows:Copyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  19. 19. Cross-Cultural Communication High Context Cultures Low Context Cultures • Strong cohesive group • Weaker group identity identity • Strong human collective • More individualistic support network approach • Individuals gain identity • Gain identity based on through group association individual efforts and accomplishments • Closed society with clear • Open society with weaker distinctions between distinctions between insiders and outsiders insiders and outsiders • Behavior is regulated by • Greater personal freedom rigid code • Tendency to be • More individual choice bureaucratic According to Bennett, Latinos, Native Americans, African Americans and rural Appalachians fall under the high context group, while most White European American groups fall under the low context group (1999). These distinctions might account for the discrepancy between the communication patterns of European Americans and Latinos; however, it does not explain the reason for the communication problems Latinos experience with African American groups. Halls ideas have opened discussion and brought to the surface issues that can affect cross- cultural communication. Latino employees characteristics based on cultural context. Speaking: Alberts research shows that Latinos talk louder than Anglos but tend to be less rowdy in restaurants and at parties. Eye contact: Albert also found that Latinos avoid making eye contact with superiors such as teachers which Anglos may take as a sign of disrespect. Gestures: Latin Americans use gestures to express feelings, to answer questions, to greet people or send them away much more frequently than North Americans. Personal space: Albert says that Latin Americans usually sit and stand much closer to each other than do North Americans, Northern Europeans, and Asians. The result according to a 1959 study is that Anglos may see Latino closeness as sexual or hostile, while Latinos may find Anglo distance unfriendly and cold. Touch: Latin Americans touch much more frequently than North Americans according to Albert. Touch is a way of establishing rapport, but can be highly specific to theCopyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  20. 20. Cross-Cultural Communication relationship and situation. She says that "the rules governing touch are subtle and complex and the wrong kind of touch can be interpreted negatively." Such rules seem to vary by country as well. Albert notes that a 1976 study found that Costa Ricans interact closer and more directly than Panamanians or Colombians, while Colombians had a lower contact score (touching and holding) than Costa Ricans or Panamanians. Advice participants that we will cover communication styles more in-depth later during the program. Source: Albert, R.D. (1996). A Framework and model for understanding Latin American and Latino/Hispanic cultural patterns. Handbook of Intercultural Training. Ed. Dan Landes and Rudy Bhagat. Thousand Oaks: Retrieved October 3, 2007 from NISSI portal. Bennett, C. (1999) A comprehensive multicultural education (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Hall, E.T. (1976). Beyond Culture. New York, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday. Discussion Questions: Which cultural context applies to you? What is your cultural background? Can you have characteristics from two cultural context groups? Why? MODULE II: LECTURETTE III OUTLINE Start by explaining that Latino employees come from many different countries and each has its unique cultural characteristics. As the United States there are different subcultures in various regions within each country. Example: I was born and raised in Bogotá, Colombia, and my ancestors came fromCopyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  21. 21. Cross-Cultural Communication Spain. People from Bogotá differ from people in other cities and regions within Colombia. Even within Bogotá, there are many subcultures that define every individual. The safest ways to approach cultural traits is by analyzing every individual as a person and derive conclusions based on their unique experiences. Despite these variances we can determine some general characteristics that are particular to Latino employees cultures. Historically, countries in Latin America were influenced primarily by Spanish and indigenous cultural traits. The interactions between natives and the conquistadores created some consistent cultural patterns among countries in Latin America. Power Point Slide: Indigenous Languages in the Americas Briefly explain the language differences between countries in Latin America. Power Point Slide: Five communication styles characteristic of Latino employees. Indirectness: In an attempt to avoid confrontation, Latinos tend to have an indirect style of communication. Latinos find it easier and more polite to "beat around the bush" instead of stating what they think. Many Latinos not only act like this towards others, but they also expect others to do the same for them (Dabbah & Poire, 2006). Example: Advise students to be concise in their answers and to work on their assertiveness. In an interview scenario, it will be very important to stay on topic and answer questions in a diligent and concise manner. Informality: In Latin America, it is common to visit your relatives or friends homes without calling ahead, and you will be well received. They will set a place at the table for you and they will be glad you joined them for lunch or dinner (Dabbah & Poire, 2006). Example: For employment references, advice your co-workers to let the people they have chosen know, they cannot assume that people will be ok with it. Latino employees must clarify the expectations as to what the references can say about them. Humility: Latino parents and grandparents teach their children to be humble and to respect their elders and superiors. Given the influence of the Catholic Church in Latin Countries, a humble attitude has always been valued. Example: During the first few seconds of an interaction with supervisors Latino employees may come across as not being confident by not offering a strong handshake, keeping a good posture or lack of a smile. Justifying Mistakes: One of characteristics that most clearly distinguish Latinos from North Americans is in the way they handle mistakes. Most Latinos tend to make up excuses to explain whey the mistake was made, or they look to others to distribute the responsibility (Dabbah & Poire, 2006).Copyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  22. 22. Cross-Cultural Communication Example: Compare the Latin American political news to a political event in North America when someone accepted their mistake in public. Use Presidents Clintons or the governor of Californias recent example. Offering excessive context: The language logic in standard English progresses in a linear fashion without the possibility for digressing from the main topic (Tinarejo & Ada, 1993). Speakers of English are expected to progress from point A to point B with minimal deviation from the topic. Spanish and Romance languages in general have a linear structure, but the story grammar allows for greater digression in formal and informal interactions (Tinarejo & Ada, 1993). For example, the use of double negatives is illogical and non-standard in English while in Spanish double negatives are required (Coe, 1992). Example: Ask participants if they have ever found themselves listening to someone tell a story while you think, "please get to the point!." Often when a Latino student tells a story, he or she feels compelled to explain who is married to whom, who knew whom, etc. Latinos have a hard time making a long story short. These details provided in the longs stories are extremely valuable in the Latino culture (Dabbah & Poire, 2006). Sources: Coe, N. (1992) Learner English: A teacher guide to interference and other problems (72-89). Cambridge, Great Britain: Cambridge University Press. Dabbah, M, Poire, A. (2006) The Latino advantage in the workplace. Naperville, IL: Sphinx. Tinarejo, J.V, Ada, A.F. (1993). The Power of two languages: Literacy and biliteracy for Spanish speaking students (pp. 220-233). New your: McMillan/McGrraw-Hill. Discussion questions: What is your preferred communication style? Identify the style or styles you can relate with to the communication styles commonly used by Latino employees? What advantages do you see in being indirect? Justifying mistakes? Being humble? Being informal? Offering excessive context? As a supervisor, how can you take advantage of these communication styles? The Face of the Latino employee exercise: This simple mnemonics exercise will help you remembering the five most common communication styles characteristic of Latino employees. The main elements of our face consist of eyes, ears, noose, mouth, eyebrows, and forehead. This exercise will test your creativity. Refer participant to handout p-2. Exercise Ideas. Ask participants to share their exercise with a partner and the experiences working withCopyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  23. 23. Cross-Cultural Communication someone who evidently uses these communication styles.Copyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  24. 24. Cross-Cultural Communication MODULE THREE Cross-cultural Non-verbal Communication Start time: 10:00 am III. MODULE THREE: Cross-cultural Non-verbal Communication (90 minutes) Objective: By the end of this module, the participants will: (1) Identify non-verbal communication styles characteristic of Latino employees; (2) Explain four differences in non-verbal communication between cultures in the U.S. and Latin America; and (3) Demonstrate these differences during a "fish bowl" exercise.Copyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  25. 25. Cross-Cultural Communication A. Exercise/Activity Title and Description: Case Study. (20 minutes) Rationale: Participants will have an opportunity to analyze a case where non-verbal communication plays a determinant role in the outcome of the conversation. This case study will allow interaction among the participants as they discuss the proposed questions. . Handout and Directions: Participants will take five minutes to read the case study followed by an open group discussion. Refer to participants packet (PP) handout D, p6. Points: 1. The four essential non-verbal communication characteristic of any culture that could lead to misunderstandings are: proxemics, (which deals with the study of space), kinesis (the study of the body movements), haptics (which refers to the study of touch), and oculesis (the study of the use of eyes in personal communication). 2. Latino employees, in general, get very concerned when they come to a new environment and feel that their colleagues or supervisors do not respect them. The use of beckoning to call children in public school is generally used in the Unites States. However, beckoning and finger pointing can have cultural implications when used with adults. For some Latino groups, beckoning implies certain levels of subordination, and it is used mostly to call children. Beckoning might be offensive for Latinos, but finger pointing might be a natural way to call people. While beckoning is normal for mainstream groups, finger pointing can be offensive (Rosado 2005.) Source: Rosado, L. A. (2005). Cross-cultural Communications: A Latino Perspective. AE- Extra. January. Retrieved October 8, 2007 from AE-Extra Web-site: http://asstudents.unco.edu/students/AE-Extra/2005/1/Art-1.html Zanger V.V. (1985). Face to Face: the Cross-cultural Workbook. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. Start time: 10:20 B. Interactive Lecture/Activity: Interactive lecture over the four differences between non-verbal cross-cultural communication styles. (15 minutes) Power Point Slide: Differences between non-verbal communication styles.Copyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  26. 26. Cross-Cultural Communication Rationale: Participants will learn essential differences in non-verbal communication styles. This is important as communication between people of different cultural backgrounds involves much more than overcoming the language barrier. Non-verbal cultural differences often cause a great deal of misunderstanding and friction. These differences are a serious problem because they are mostly subtle and inaudible but they affect the true meaning of the messages. (Wederspahn, 2001). - Points: The four essential non-verbal communication characteristic of any culture that could lead to misunderstandings are: proxemics, which deals with the study of space, kinesis or the study of the body movements, haptics which refers to the study of touch, and oculesis or the study of the use of eyes in personal communication. Source: Cruz, W. (2001). Differences in non-verbal communication styles between cultures: The Latino-Anglo perspective. Journal of Leadership and Management in Engineering, 1(4), 51-53. Retrieved September 10, 2007 from ASCE database. Wederspahn, G.M. (2001). Cross-Cultural Communication Between Latin American and U.S. Managers. Grovewell leadership solutions. http://www.grovewell.com/pub- Latin+US-mgrs.html BREAK: 15 minutes. Start time: 10:50 C. Exercise/Activity Title and Description: "Fish bowl" exercise. (20 minutes) Rationale: Participants will discuss the outcomes of the exercise and that, following this activity, participants will have an opportunity to develop their own option reflecting their own views about what they have observed. Explain that this discussion will take place in a "fish bowl." At any one time some of the duration of participants will interact in a discussion while others are observing silently from the outside. Those on the outside will be looking for ideas about the nonverbal communication Directions: Volunteers please move to the center while the others remain outside the circle. The group inside the fishbowl will not be able to talk. Directions for inside group: Part A:Copyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  27. 27. Cross-Cultural Communication 1. Pick a partner (you should end up with three couples) 2. Turn your backs to each other and get as close as possible. 3. Take a small step (only 8 inches) 4. Count to ten 5. Turn around 6. The outside group will count to twenty 7. You are free to stand at a distance you consider appropriate. After 1 minute partners should switch and repeat the same exercise. Part B: 1. Shake your partners hand 2. Vigorously shake it and hold the gesture for at least 8 seconds. 3. Release hands 4. Stand in front of each other 5. Outside group counts to twenty. Outside the "Fish Bowl"—Participants on the outside of the circle should be observing carefully to the non-verbal reactions. Points: 1. To introduce the next lecture on the characteristic non-verbal communication styles based on cultural context. 2. To have participants experience first hand how different our non-verbal communication styles are. 3. To allow discussion on the advantages of becoming aware of non-verbal communication styles particular of Latino employees. Source: Created by Andres Traslavina October 3, 2007. Expectations: Participants inside the fishbowl may feel uncomfortable as these non-verbal signs are characteristic of cultures which are high in context. The outside group should be able to clearly observe non-verbal communication signs, thus allowing for an open discussion. Discussion Questions: 1. How did you feel about the space you kept between you and your partner? 2. Was this difficult or easy? 3. What were some non-verbal communication styles you have seen when working with employees from Latin America? 4. What other connotation can you give to these non-verbal gestures? 5. Would you rather be inside or outside of the fishbowl? Start time: 11:10Copyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  28. 28. Cross-Cultural Communication B. Interactive Lecture/Activity: Multitasking vs. Monotasking Power Point Slide: Polychronic vs. Monochronic styles. Rationale: It is important for participants to be aware of their own style and to determine how they can better use the abilities of Latino employees. Points: 1. Groups from high context cultures tend to be people oriented and polychronic, while groups from low context groups tend to be more monochronic and task oriented. 2. To teach the difference between Polychronic and Monochronic styles. 3. To find similarities between communication styles across cultures. Source: Bennett, C. (1999) A comprehensive multicultural education (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Hall, E. T. (1966) The hidden dimensions. New York: The Anchor Book/Random House, Inc. Morales-Jones, C. (summer, 1998) Understanding Hispanic culture: From tolerance to acceptance. The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin, 64 (4), 13-17. End Time: 11:30 Transition We have covered essential information on cross-cultural non-verbal communication. Being aware of your unique communication style will assist you when interacting with Latino employees. Now we will enjoy a wonderful three course authentic lunch. After lunch, please return to this same room as we will begin our discussion on the cross- cultural adaptive stages characteristic of Latino employees. LUNCH BREAK: 90 Minutes MODULE III: LECTURETTE I OUTLINE In Latin America, there is less physical distance between people, softer handshakes, more touching and abrazos, and greater use of hand and arm gestures. Business dress tends to be more fashionable and, in some cases, more colorful. Nonverbal language is very important in face-to-face communications because itCopyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  29. 29. Cross-Cultural Communication conveys feelings, intentions, and reactions. Latin Americans may seem emotional and excitable to their U.S. counterparts, while U.S. Americans may come across as cold and distant. Even in non-face-to-face communications such as via e-mail, fax, or telephone, the absence of nonverbal signals may create a problem. Not being able to see each other, the parties may misinterpret the true meaning or tone of written messages. (Wederspahn, 2001). Power Point Slide: Differences between non-verbal communication styles. Proxemics: Refers to the use of space in interpersonal relationships. This is the inviolable distance people maintain between one another when speaking. This distance for Anglos and for people in northern Europe is between 18 and 33 inches. In Latino countries, the distance is between 8 and 18 inches. (Cruz, 2001). Example: In communication with Latino employees, they may feel others are too far away and would take a step closer to establish the culturally learned comfort distance. Latinos may misperceive others as being cold, aloof, or uninterested. Kinesics: Refers to the study of body movements and facial expressions as systematic part of communication. As in our case study, Latinos will point with puckered lips as a way of communicating nonverbally "there", "that one over there", or "him or her." Latinos may point their lips as someone and smile, which can mean "check him or her out", or "listen to that." In the case of our librarian, she could have perceived Hugos signaling as a sexual invitation. The use of smiles constitutes another non-verbal difference in kinesics. Latinos tend to smile in any situation as oppose to Anglos as they may not consider smiling in serious situations. Example: In the Latin American culture the smile takes place of many verbal expressions. For example, a person may smile instead of saying, "Hi. How are you?" A clerk may smile at a customer rather than say, "May I help you." And a customer may smile at a clerk rather then say, "Thank you." Friends who express thanks verbally may be perceived as rejecting others or distancing themselves. (Cruz, 2001). Haptics: Is the study of touch in nonverbal communication. Among Latinos, there is a great deal of physical contact. The cross-cultural effect of the differences in haptics is that Anglos feel Latinos touch to a degree that is uncomfortable, threatening, or insulting. Latino employees may feel others are cold, unfriendly, dismissive, or insulting. It will be appropriate to address these issues as soon as you start interacting with employees from Latin America. Example: It is common for Latino women who are friends to kiss each other on theCopyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  30. 30. Cross-Cultural Communication check to say hello and to touch or grab each others arms while talking. It is common for Latino men to hug each other, to shake hands, to grab the arm of the other, and to place their hand on their friends shoulder while communicating. Oculesis: Oculesis is the study of the use of eyes in personal communication. Latinos will look into the eyes of the person to whom they are speaking, but only in a fleeting way. Anglos may misinterpret this difference in culturally learned eye contact as betraying a lack of confidence, certainty, or truthfulness. This is particularly crucial in cases where Anglos are interviewing Latinos (Cruz, 2001). In the Latino culture direct, prolonged eye contact means you are challenging the person, that you are angry, or that you have a romantic interest in the person. Example: During an interview, Latino employees will tend to wonder around with their eyes; this does not mean they are distracted, but as a sign of respect they would prefer not to establish direct eye contact. As I grew up, it was understood in our family to respect our elders by showing politeness and not looking at people straight into their eyes. Sources: Cruz, W. (2001). Differences in non-verbal communication styles between cultures: The Latino Anglo perspective. Journal of Leadership and management in Engineering, 1(4), 51-53. Retrieved September 10, 2007 from ASCE database. Wederspahn, G.M. (2001). Cross-Cultural Communication Between Latin American and U.S. Managers. Grovewell leadership solutions http://www.grovewell.com/pub- Latin+US-mgrs.html Discussion questions: 1. What is your preferred non-verbal communication style? 2. What is the effect on communication of non-verbal out-of-awareness behavior? 3. What advantages do you see in maintaining a closer distance when talking? 4. Can you think about ways of advising employees on sexual harassment issues based on non-verbal communication? MODULE III: LECTURETTE II OUTLINE Power Point Slide: Multitask Vs. Monotask. Nonverbal language is very important in face-to-face communications because itCopyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  31. 31. Cross-Cultural Communication conveys feelings, intentions, and reactions. Latin Americans may seem emotional and excitable to their U.S. counterparts, while U.S. Americans may come across as cold and distant. In order to overcome non-verbal communication challenges, it is necessary to first see them clearly and objectively; this skill can be learned by using gestures and body language understood across cultures, and matching voice tone, volume, and pacing. Two fundamental attitudes toward time and activity according to one researcher are whether people do many things at once (polychronic) or one thing at a time (monochronic). Taking turns, seeing people privately, scheduling appointments are more important to those on monochromatic time. Albert says that Anglos need to remember that polychronic Latin Americans tend to value family and friends over schedules and may "see North Americans as slaves to the clock." Example: Start the lecture by role playing someone who is displays multitasking skills. As you talk, pick up your cell phone, sit by a participant, write in their handout, take a drink of water, fix your collar and tie your shoes. This exaggerated exercise will introduce our next topic. Polychronic vs. Monochronic Polychronic refers to the ability and the willingness to handle multiple tasks at the same time, e.g., watching television, reading a book and talking to people at the same time (Bennett, 1999; Hall, 1966). Monochronic is the preference for handling one task at a time. Monochronic people are time and schedule oriented, and they may show low tolerance for individuals who do not abide by their interaction style. At the same time, their preference to handle one thing at a time can send the wrong message to polychronic people who will perceive their attitude as rude and insensitive. They might feel insulted when the monochronic person ignores or gives them an ugly look for violations of interaction maxims. Groups from high context cultures tend to be people oriented and polychronic, while groups from low context groups tend to be more monochronic and task oriented (Bennett, 1999). In most Latino cultures, when two adults are conversing and a third one approaches the group with the intent to ask a question or to join the conversation, the speakers will normally interrupt the conversation to attend the needs of the newcomer (Morales-Jones, 1998). This behavior shows politeness, and most Latinos will abide by this unstated norm. However, individuals from low context cultures might not welcome the intrusion of the newcomer and will not allow the person into the conversation until they reach a closure point in the conversation. These differences in interaction style can create animosity and negative feelings between the two groups. Geography and the historical development of the groups seem to play a role in these preferences. African Americans and European American Southern groups appear to be more polychronic than their counterparts from the Northeast. A large number of Latinos,Copyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  32. 32. Cross-Cultural Communication Native Americans and Southern Europeans on the other hand appear to be more polychronic (Bennett, 1999). The best way to investigate differences is by seeking contacts with the groups in question and by discussing these differences. Sources: Bennett, C. (1999). A comprehensive multicultural education (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Hall, E. T. (1966). The hidden dimensions. New York: The Anchor Book/Random House, Inc. Morales-Jones, C. (1998). Understanding Hispanic culture: From tolerance to acceptance. The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin, 64 (4), 13-17. Discussion questions: 1. What is your preferred communication style? Polychronic or monochronic? 2. What is your perception of people who multitask? 3. What advantages do you see in being able to multitask? 4. What task would you assign to someone who is more comfortable multitasking?Copyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  33. 33. Cross-Cultural Communication MODULE FOUR Closing The Gap Between Two Cultures Start time 1:00 pm IV. MODULE FOUR: Closing the gap between two cultures. (85 minutes) Objective: By the end of this module, the participants will: (1) list and explain three attitudinal differences between Latino employees and North American supervisors; (2) explain the patterns of acting and thinking of Latino employees; (3) utilize the concepts of respect and time during a role play exercise; and (4) implement the techniques learned to improve their interactions with Latino employees. A. Interactive Lecture/Activity: Attitudinal differences: (25 minutes) Power Point Slide: Three common attitudinal differences between the two cultures.Copyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  34. 34. Cross-Cultural Communication Rationale: It is important to highlight some distinct differences between Latino employees and North American supervisors. When supervisors and co-workers understand these differences, they will minimize conflict and will know how to take preventative measures, establish open communication, and implement disciplinary practices. Points: 1. To make supervisors and co-workers aware of natural attitudinal differences between them and their Latino employees 2. To demonstrate how Latinos express the significance of family in their lives. 3. To explain the general perceptions of men and women in Latino cultures. Source: Albert, R.D. (1996). A Framework and model for understanding Latin American and Latino/Hispanic cultural patterns. Handbook of Intercultural Training. Ed. Dan Landes and Rudy Bhagat. Thousand Oaks: Retrieved October 3, 2007 from NISSI portal. Start time: 1:25pm B. Exercise/Activity Title and Description: Cross-cultural sensitivity temperature test (20 Minutes) Rationale: Participants will be allowed to assess their cultural perceptions after having been exposed to a lecture on the differences of perception between the two cultures. The hope is that participants will answer positively to all the statements as a result of their participation throughout the workshop. Handout and Directions: Refer participants to the packet handout A p. 9. Assure participants that there are no right or wrong answers. Ask them to work quickly and to record their first impression by indicating the degree to which they agree or disagree with the statement. Points: 1. To make participants feel good about future interactions with Latino employees. 2. To reveal negative feelings participants may still have about interacting with Latino employees. 3. To address any possible issues for conflict based on their answers. 4. To open discussions about cultural stereotypes. Source: This exercise is a modification of Chen, G.M., Starosta, W.J. (2000).The development and validation of the intercultural sensitivity scale. Human Communication, 3 (1), 3-14.Copyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  35. 35. Cross-Cultural Communication BREAK: 10 minutes Start time: 1:55 pm C. Interactive Lecture/Activity: Patterns of thinking and action in Latin America: (20 minutes) Power Point Slide: Patterns of thinking & Patterns of action. Rationale: This module will examine the differences in patterns of thinking and patterns of action between supervisors and Latino employees. The lecture serves as a preamble to open discussion based on participants’ previous experiences. Handout and Directions: Guided note taking on the patterns of thinking and acting in Latin America. Refer participants to handout B, p. 9. (10 minutes) Source: Albert, R.D. (1996). A framework and model for understanding Latin American and Latino/Hispanic cultural patterns. Handbook of Intercultural Training. Ed. Dan Landes and Rudy Bhagat. Thousand Oaks: Retrieved October 3, 2007 from NISSI portal. Points: 1. To provide concrete examples of the patterns of thinking of Latin American employees. 2. To identify what is most important for Latino employees when undertaking a task at work. 3. To open a discussion about the possibility of creating a hostile situation if any of these patterns are disrupted. 4. To open a discussion on the difference in thinking and acting patterns between the two different cultural context groups. Start time: 2:25 D. Exercise/Activity Title and Description: Jigsaw learning: (20 minutes) Rationale: Participants will have an opportunity to practice the patterns of communication in high context cultures. Handout and Directions: Divide participants into seven different groups. Assign each table with a topic selected from the lecture on the patterns of thinking and action. Each group will read, discuss and learn the material assigned to them. Refer participants to handout C, p. 10. Allow five minutes for this part of the exercise.Copyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  36. 36. Cross-Cultural Communication Points: 1. To practice the concepts learned during the lecture. 2. To open a discussion about differences between the communication patterns in the U.S. and the learned material. 3. To promote collaboration between groups. Source: This activity is an adaptation from "Jigsaw Learning" in "101 Ways to Make Training Active" (Silberman, 2005, p. 178). BREAK: 10 minutes MODULE IV: LECTURETTE I OUTLINE As we have learned, compared to North American and some European cultures, Latin Americans tend to be more authority-oriented, family-oriented, spontaneous, expressive, and focused on the present instead of the future. 1. Differences in perceiving. Perceptions of power and authority: Studies of the workplace have found that Latin Americans are more likely to expect and accept that power in organizations will be distributed unequally. According to Albert (1996), "Latino students are more authority oriented than their Anglo peers."Copyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  37. 37. Cross-Cultural Communication Perceptions of men and women: There is much controversy on the importance given to machismo, or manliness, in Latin American cultures. According to Albert (1996), "The Anglo stereotype of aggressive machismo obscures the Latin Americans broader image of male dignity, honor, and care for ones family." According to Albert (1996), "Latin American women often have ruled the household staff, influenced their sons, and been active in public affairs. And as more Latinas enter the workforce, they have gained rights such as maternity leave and legalized divorce." For example my mother worked fulltime at a demanding position, and has the respect of her entire family. Her commitment to our family and her professional career were stellar. She taught me that work is enjoyable when there is room for family and personal time. 2. Differences in Thinking. Attitudes toward society: According to Albert (1996), "a study of fifty three countries found that the U.S., Australia, and Great Britain were the most individualistic, while five Latin American countries were the most collectivistic. Latin Americans are more likely to define themselves as part of the group, sacrifice personal goals, observe social norms and obligations, and maintain relationships at any cost." These studies confirm that Latinos fall into the high context group based on Halls research. According to Albert (1996), "A fundamental cognitive shift is required for Anglos interacting with Latinos. Though they value individuality, Latin Americans may interpret individualistic behaviors as selfish and egotistical." Attitudes toward family: The extended family is the most important social circle in Latin America. My family comes first, and I take pride in acknowledging them as my primary reason for success. Attitudes toward work: Latinos place value on work ethic, persistence, status, and a sense of shame. In contrast and according to Albert (1996), "U.S. students were more likely to value reciprocity, personal steadiness, protecting ones ego, and respect for tradition. This finding contradicts the stereotypical assumption of Latin Americans as people who do not work hard." 3. Differences in Acting. Living with nature: Cultures can view themselves as a product of nature, in harmony with nature, as the dominating nature. Latin American countries have seen themselves as natures product. Being instead of doing: According to Albert (1996), "Latin Americans prefer spontaneous, being activities (such as fiesta), while North Americans prefer planned,Copyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  38. 38. Cross-Cultural Communication doing activities (such as tennis). This difference has led to the stereotype of the lazy Latino, who in turn may see Anglos as "Always rushing to do more and more things without stopping long enough to reflect on the ultimate meaning and purpose of all this activity." Although Latino employees have a tremendous work ethic, they do not identify with their jobs like North Americans. According to Albert (1996), "work for Latinos is more of a means to provide for their families, although the economic development is changing this being orientation at a time when the U.S. appears to be discovering its worth." Showing how you feel: According to Albert (1996), "Latin Americans tend to be more expressive and emotional (Dionysian) than North Americans, who value stoicism and control (Apollonian). Latinos prefer communication that involves the free expression of emotion." Avoiding uncertainty: Latin American employees are characterized for carrying high levels of job stress, desire for rigid company rules, and intention to stay with the company for a long time. According to Albert (1996), "Although Latin Americans have suffered much economic and political uncertainty. Latin Americans tend to be very flexible in terms of interpersonal relations, especially when dealing with those of equal or higher status, rules in organizations and bureaucracies, and plans." Source: Albert, R.D. (1996). A framework and model for understanding Latin American and Latino/Hispanic cultural patterns. Handbook of Intercultural Training. Ed. Dan Landes and Rudy Bhagat. Thousand Oaks: Retrieved October 3, 2007 from NISSI portal. Discussion Questions: 1. Do you agree that Latino employees tend to be more sensitive or emotional? 2. If Latino employees have the desire for rigid company rules, can you list your departmental rules? 3. How can you, as a supervisor, take advantage of an employee that is flexible in terms of interpersonal relations? 4. What roles do you see most fitting to the personality of a typical Latino employee? MODULE IV: LECTURETTE II OUTLINE 1. Patterns of Thinking in Latin America Respect and dignity: According to Albert (1996), "Latin Americans equate personal dignity with equal treatment and respect. This makes them more sensitive to criticism or insults." Loyalty: Latinos are loyal by nature. Marketing research shows that Latinos stick toCopyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  39. 39. Cross-Cultural Communication brand names for longer periods of time than people in the United States. For Latinos, the value of someones "word" is as a document has been signed and sealed. Latinos expect others to be loyal to them. Simpatía: According to Albert (1996), "A person is simpático/a when he or she is open, warm, friendly, empathetic, and enthusiastic.” As we learned, Latinos tend to avoid conflict in efforts to reflect "simpatía." 2. Patterns of Action in Latin America. Cooperation: According to Albert (1996),"Latin Americans are less competitive than North Americans. She notes that, unlike self-reliant and assertive Anglos, Latin American and Latino children are trained for cooperation, harmony in interpersonal relations, and sensitivity to the needs and feelings of others.” Interpersonal connections: Alberts (1996) own studies found in Colombia found that "palanca" (a "lever" or a "connection") is common in myth and reality. Relationships among unequals are part of a persons identity and provide a means for the less powerful to transcend rules and obtain scarce resources as a "favor" or even an "obligation" of the "palanca." Being from Colombia, I can testify that the "palanca" can be more influential than educational degrees themselves. Personal attention: According to Albert (1996), "Latin Americans expect and often prefer personalized, individualized attention. This may be true since they place more emphasis on class and status in relationships than do Anglo Americans." Source: Albert, R.D. (1996). A framework and model for understanding Latin American and Latino/Hispanic cultural patterns. Handbook of Intercultural Training. Ed. Dan Landes and Rudy Bhagat. Thousand Oaks: Retrieved October 3, 2007 from NISSI portal. Discussion Questions: 1. Are your communication patterns different from the ones we have covered? 2. When working with Latino employees, can you think about specific examples when you have observed these patterns? 3. Have the use of the cultural communication patterns been beneficial to cover? Why?Copyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  40. 40. Cross-Cultural CommunicationCopyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  41. 41. Cross-Cultural Communication MODULE FIVE Addressing Cross-cultural Conflict Start time: 2:45 V. MODULE FIVE: Addressing Cross-cultural Conflict (45 minutes) A. Interactive Lecture/Activity: Addressing Cross-cultural Conflict (15 minutes) Rationale: This module will provide the necessary framework for supervisors and co- workers to use when dealing with conflict. It is important to translate all the cross- cultural differences between two cultures into a concise plan of action for when conflict arises. Many of the workshop participants expressed interest in learning effective ways of dealing with conflict. Power Point Slide: Conflict handling modes.Copyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  42. 42. Cross-Cultural Communication Points: 1. To provide a general framework of reference as a resource for cross-cultural conflict resolution. 2. To make participants aware that conflict resolution techniques are universal. 3. To emphasize the importance of learning cultural communication styles as a conflict prevention techniques. Source: Dos Santos, P. , Gabrielidis, C. , Villareal, L. , Stephan, W. , Ybarra, V. (1997). Preferred styles of conflict resolution: Mexico and the United States. Journal of Cross- cultural Psychology, 21, 661. Retrieved November 4, 2007 from ASCE database. Thomas, K. W. (1974). Making conflict management a strategic advance. Retrieved November 11, 2007 from the CPP, Inc, web site: http://www.cpp.com/ B. Exercise/Activity Title and Description: How would you respond? (15 minutes) Rationale: Participants will become aware of their own ways of dealing with conflict. Every individual has a unique way of confronting difficult situations. Our own personal experiences, cultural background and overall attitude, affect the way we handle conflict. According to the dual-concern model, individuals styles of conflict resolution are determined by concern for their own outcomes as well as the outcomes of others (Dos Santos, Gabrielidis, Villareal, Stephan, & Ybarra, 1997). Handout and Directions: Divide the group into five different tables. Assign each table one case scenario from handout A, p 11. Each participant will write an answer to the assigned scenario. I will select five volunteers from each table and will ask them to collect the participants’ written answers in the flipchart will classify them into the following categories: negative or passive responses, aggressive or violent responses, and responses offering possibilities of democratic conflict resolution. Then ach volunteer will present to the class the classified responses written on the flipchart, and all participants will comment on them. Points: 1. To learn that conflicts can be viewed as viewed opportunities to learn about how to manage difficult situations? 2. By becoming a positive conflict solver, participants can apply these techniques to many areas in their own lives. 3. We all have a way to react to difficult situations; the key is to learn how to look for win-win alternatives as we learned during the first part of the module. Source:Copyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  43. 43. Cross-Cultural Communication International Peace Research Association (IRPA). , UNESCO. (1994). Handbook Resource and Teaching Material in Conflict Resolution, Education for Human Rights, Peace and Democracy. Paris, France. Dos Santos, P. , Gabrielidis, C. , Villareal, L. , Stephan, W. , Ybarra, V. (1997). Preferred styles of conflict resolution: Mexico and the United States. Journal of Cross- cultural Psychology, 21, 661. Retrieved November 4, 2007 from ASCE database. C. Interactive Lecture/Activity: Respect and Time (15 minutes) Rationale: To expose participants to two of the most critical differences between cultures. These two cultural elements will serve as the closing remarks before wrapping up the workshop. Power Point Slide: Respect & Time. Points: 1. To conceptualize the value of time for Latino employees. 2. To conceptualize the importance of respect in the Latino culture. Source: Rosado, L. A. (2005). Cross-cultural Communications: A Latino Perspective. AE- Extra. January. Retrieved October 8, 2007 from AE-Extra Web-site: http://asstudents.unco.edu/students/AE-Extra/2005/1/Art-1.html Stewart, E. C. (1985). American cultural patterns (13th ed.). Yarmouth, Maine: Intercultural Press. D. Exercise/Activity Title and Description: Guided note taking about respect and time. Handout and Directions: Refer participants to the packet, handout B, p. 12. Source: Rosado, L. A. (2005). Cross-cultural Communications: A Latino Perspective. AE- Extra. January. Retrieved October 8, 2007 from AE-Extra Web-site: http://asstudents.unco.edu/students/AE-Extra/2005/1/Art-1.html End Time: 3:30 pm Transition Our program is coming to an end. Reiterate being thankful to participants for remainingCopyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  44. 44. Cross-Cultural Communication active and attentive. Assure participants that the knowledge gained will contribute tremendously to their interactions with Latino employees. Also, many of the communication styles learned today will apply to employees that belong to cultures high in context as we have learned during the first module. During module five we have reviewed a conflict resolution model and the concepts of time and respect as being critical when interacting with Latino employees. Now, lets pick a partner as we will wrap up the training program with some useful activities you can take back to your work places. BREAK: 10 Minutes MODULE V: LECTURETTE I OUTLINE Start by stating that conflict resolution can be an entire program on its own; however, the cross-cultural topics addressed during this workshop are all applicable to preventing conflict. The following module will serve as a guide to apply when participants are faced with a difficult situation. The most important part when addressing conflict is opening communication channels, and being in a position where you can culturally understand others points of views. Ways of Dealing with Conflict: (2A4C Useful acronym). Avoidance: When a supervisor employs this option, he/she is ignoring the conflict and letting it be. For whatever reason, the supervisor may feel that the conflict is not worth the effort toCopyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  45. 45. Cross-Cultural Communication resolve. This could be complete avoidance Avoiding conflict does not deal with the issues at hand. This is a lose-lose strategy. When one person avoids a conflict, neither person has an opportunity to resolve it. Both people lose (Thomas, 1974). Accommodation: Accommodation is agreement through yielding or conforming to the positions of others; it is cooperation in an effort to create harmony, even at the expense of your own ideas and values, and agreement in the name of peace and tranquility, knowing full well that you do not entirely buy into it. For Latinos employees, and as we have studied before, this approach will probably be the one that would accommodate to their communication style. Accommodators may not always be famous for their creativity, but can often be relied upon for social tact and diplomacy. This is a lose-win strategy. People lose because their needs are not met. The other person’s needs are met, but the relationship suffers because supervisors or employees eventually become resentful and unsatisfied (Thomas, 1974). Compromise: Compromise involves a search for a solution, which is mutually acceptable. Compromise involves two or more parties coming together and reaching to an agreement. With compromise, there will be give and take. Everybody seems to gain something, but not to gain everything. Supervisors and employees who compromise settle for the best they can get, as opposed to reaching a decision that everyone wants. According to Thomas (1974), this is a lose-lose strategy. Both the supervisor and the employee give up something they need just to make the conflict disappear. Most likely, supervisors and employees will come back to the same issues later (Thomas, 1974). Competition: This is the offensive aggressive approach to conflict resolution. It is especially attractive to those in power and authority who like to accomplish and maintain total control. In a competitive situation, there is no room for listening, little information sharing, and little interpersonal reasoning. Supervisors who fall into this area often make decisions without any input from their employees. Employees in a team often view competitive leadership as inappropriate and destructive. This is a win-lose/lose-win strategy. Either supervisors win and employees lose, or supervisors lose and employees wins. (Thomas, 1974). Collaboration: According to Thomas (1974), collaboration is a dual membership approach to conflict resolution. In the collaborative mode, employees and supervisors:  Accept the fact that there is conflict.  Take time for sharing of values, needs, interests, and resource; in other words, people will seek to understand before being understood.  Discovers many possible solutions and weighs the consequences of each.  Selects the alternative that best meets the needs and concerns of each member.Copyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  46. 46. Cross-Cultural Communication  Forms a team plan, implements and evaluates the outcomes. According to Thomas (1974), Collaboration is the vehicle which:  Generates the most creative solutions.  Sets the greatest membership support.  Produces the greatest amount of personal growth. This is a win-win strategy. Both the supervisors and the employees have the chance to express their needs and resolve the conflict in a mutually acceptable way. While this strategy may sound simple, it’s actually the most difficult to use. It requires each of the parties to articulate, prioritize, and satisfy their own needs while also addressing others’ needs (Thomas, 1974). Source: Dos Santos, P. , Gabrielidis, C. , Villareal, L. , Stephan, W. , Ybarra, V. (1997). Preferred styles of conflict resolution: Mexico and the United States. Journal of Cross- cultural Psychology, 21, 661. Retrieved November 4, 2007, from ASCE database. Thomas, K. W. (1974). Making conflict management a strategic advance. Retrieved November 11, 2007 from the CPP, Inc. web site: http://www.cpp.com/ Discussion questions: 1. Based on the conflict resolution model, which of these five methods would you feel more inclined to use? 2. Can you describe a time when you have used one or more of the five methods describe in the conflict resolution model? 3. Based on the conflict resolution model, what methods do you think Latinos would prefer to use? Debriefing: As we have learned from the communication styles, and according to Dos Santos, Gabrielidis, Villareal, Stephan, and Ybarra, Latino employees belong to collectivistic cultures and they will strive to maintain harmonious relationships with others while would seek for pursuing personal goals. Because Americans are individualistic, they would be expected to put their own needs above others, and this should be reflected in preferences for competitive and collaborative styles of conflict resolution. (Dos Santos, Gabrielidis, Villareal, Stephan, & Ybarra, 1997). MODULE V: LECTURETTE II OUTLINE In my view as a trainer the concepts of respect and time are two cultural topics that, if understood, can assist with your work interactions with Latino employees.Copyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska
  47. 47. Cross-Cultural Communication Respect: The Latino concept of respect has played an important role in numerous communication challenges between supervisors and employees. According to Rosado (2005), "for traditional Latinos, respect is the foundation for any professional or social relationship." This formality is present and supported by the Spanish language through the alternate use of the pronouns "usted" for formal interactions and "tú" to show informality and friendship. Friends address each other as "tú," and strangers, older people or people in positions of authority are always addressed as "usted" (Rosado, 2005). The Spanish as well as the Italian languages have additional titles to show respect for older people and people in a position of authority. These languages add the titles of "Don" and "Doña" to the surname of males and females respectively. In the best literary representation of Spanish literature, "Don Quixote de la Mancha" (The Man from La Mancha), the title of "Don" was used as a sarcastic title of nobility for the old and demented character (Rosado, 2005). According to Rosado (2005), "Latinos who have not been acculturated to the mainstream culture show an elevated sense of respect and mistrust for figures of authority in the work place." The division line between administrators and employees might discourage Latinos from developing informal or social relations with supervisors in the work place. According to Rosado (2005), "European American groups have a more liberal view in this regard, and social interaction with colleagues is acceptable and, in some instances, highly recommended." In the Latino tradition, respect is given to a person based on age and the position held. While in other groups, respect might not come necessarily with age or the position; instead, respect is something people earn (Rosado, 2005). Example: In Puerto Rico, when people formally introduce themselves, they use their last name. It is very rare to see a native Puerto Rican giving his first name upon initial introduction. In contrast to this behavior, some groups in the United States use the first name to show informality and friendship. This behavior can create confusion to Puerto Ricans and other Latinos, who follow a similar tradition. They address people by, and prefer to be addressed by, their title and last name. (Rosado, 2005). Example: I have been in my profession for seven years, adapting to the time frame of the U.S. has been challenging, yet enriching. The culture where I grew up was one in which time was viewed as something you share with others and not as something that runs out; therefore one must be restrictive when choosing who one shares time with. Time and Productivity: According to Rosado (2005) "most European American groups have a very strict view of the concepts of time and productivity." Latino employees have the tendency to relax time constraints, especially in social activities. It is very usual for Latin Americans to extend the time for meals or social activities without being restricted by an specific time-Copyright © 2009 Proyecto ñ | Lincoln, Nebraska

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