Who is a Public Historian
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Who is a Public Historian

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Cosa è o dovrebbe essere un "public historian"

Cosa è o dovrebbe essere un "public historian"

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Who is a Public Historian Who is a Public Historian Presentation Transcript

  • Cosa è (o potrebbe essere) un Public Historian Enrica Salvatori - Università di Pisadomenica 11 marzo 12
  • domenica 11 marzo 12
  • Come ci vediamo noi (voi)?domenica 11 marzo 12
  • Epistemology PH  is  not  only  about  poli/cal  use  of  history    (Storia  Pubblica  -­‐  Italy) PH  is  not  about  re-­‐inven/ng  history  to  serve  a  cause  (Historikerstreit  in   Germany) Public  History  (PH)  generated  a  digital  public  history  approach,  NOW   CHIEFLY  because  of  the  use  of  the  web  to  comunicate  “history” PH  is  one  of  the  most  important  innova/on  in  the  historical  profession   star/ng  in  the  1970’s.domenica 11 marzo 12
  • Brief History of PH In  the  UK  without  using  the  same  terminology  “PH”  appeared  during   the  post-­‐68  cultural  movement. Raphael  Samuel  a  socialist  “public  historian”  invented  the  History   Workshops  mee/ngs  at  Ruskin  College,  Oxford,  to  bring  history   outside  universi/es.  He  used  of  public  lectures  and  intellectual   debates  with  Union  and  working  class  members.  He  captured   individual  and  collec/ve  popular  memories  and  founded  the  History   Workshop  Journal  in  1976  connec/ng  history  to  recent  poli/cal   issues  in  a  so-­‐called  “Public  History  Movement”. The  idea  was  to  “democra?ze”  history  through  all  means  and   sources:  photography  (family  albums  as  sources),  cinema,  theater,   literature  (“wri/ng  myself  into  history”),  oral  history  enquiries,  etc..domenica 11 marzo 12
  • History Workshop Journal’s PH without using the name “like  the  Workshops,  like  the  pamphlets,  like  the  books  in  the   Workshop  series,  the  journal  will  be  concerned  to  bring  the   boundaries  of  history  closer  to  peoples  lives.  Like  them,  it  will  address   itself  to  the  fundamental  elements  of  social  life  —work  and  material   culture,  class  rela/ons  and  poli/cs,  sex  divisions  and  marriage,  family,   school  and  home.  We  are  concerned  at  the  narrowing  of  the  influence   of  history  in  our  society,  and  at  its  progressive  withdrawal  from  the   ba^le  of  ideas.  This  shrinking  of  stature  cannot  be  ascribed  to  a   decline  in  popular  interest.  Throughout  Bri/sh  society  a  desire  for   historical  understanding  con/nues  to  exist;  and  it  is  only  some/mes   fulfilled  by  the  manufacturers  of  part  series,  populariza/ons,  television   entertainment,  and  so  forth.  Serious  history’  has  become  a  subject   reserved  for  the  specialist.”domenica 11 marzo 12
  • Birth of a University PH field in the USA Birth  as  a  discipline  with  the  name  PH  in  1978-­‐1979  at  UCSB,  University  of  Southern   California  at  Santa  Barbara. G.Wesley  Johnson  founded  “The  Public  Historian”  in  1978 1979:  crea/on  of  the  Na/onal  Council  of  Public  History  (NCPH)  Why  ?  Lack  of  University  jobs  Bringing  history  to  local  communi/es  outside  the  university  Bringing  history  to  public  and  private  ins/tu/ons,  private  firms,  government  administra/on  at   all  levels  To  understand  be^er  contemporary  social,  economic,  environmental  urban  problems:  using   the  past  for  understanding  the  present  Historians  should  be  on  the  “frontline”  in  the  media  to  par/cipate  to  public  debates  when   there’s  a  “need  for  history”domenica 11 marzo 12
  • Innovating professionally in communicating History  PH  is  more  than  30  years  old   It  has  become  an  academic  discipline  in  many  countries Museum,  archives,  libraries,  private  and  public  ins/tu/ons  are   prac/cing  PH  worldwide PH  uses  systema/cally  all  media  to  communicate  history Now the  WWW  cannibalizes  all  other  media  and  is  a  fer/le  space   available  to  develop  PH  projectsdomenica 11 marzo 12
  • The Aims Making  history  for  the  widest  public  possible   Making  history  outside  the  university  as  professional  historians   (university  degrees  &  methodological  skills) Doing  history  close  to  communi/es  of  people  (social,  ethnical,  poli/cal,   cultural,  etc.)  Reconstruc/ng  memories  and  iden//es  at  different  scale    Doing  interac/ve  History  together  with  common  people Crowdsourcing  ac/vi/es Performing  collabora/ve  and  interdisciplinary  histor  projects  in  the   humani/es  and  social  sciences  Spreading  History  inside  the  society  using  all  possible  media  and   ac/vi/esdomenica 11 marzo 12
  • Public Historians should be able to offer  scholarly  history  essays (re-­‐)  create  primary  sources use  professionally  the  media build  complex  web  sites  to  disseminate  the  presence  of  history  in   our  socie/es create  web  2.0.  invented  archives help  in  keeping  alive  our  collec/ve  memories use  of  popular  history  methods  and  wri/ngs  (“popularizing”), research  and  teach  history  for  private  and  public  employers collaborate  with  other  professions  to  create  a  “collec/ve”  and   collabora/ve  working  environment.domenica 11 marzo 12
  • What are made for PH projects? Reenactment  and  living  history History  parks  and  environmental  parks Memory  museums,  parks  and  exhibi/ons Crea/on  of  archives  and  sources  together  with  “ordinary”  people Oral  history  methods Urban  restora/on  projects History  projects  in  physical  and  virtual  spaces Heritage  preserva/on,  etc..domenica 11 marzo 12
  • Defining PH is possible ? Public  History  in  Australia  has  been  defined  as  the  prac/ce  of  history  by  academically   trained  historians  working  for  public  agencies  or  as  freelancers  outside  the  universi/es.   Public  historians  may  work  in  heritage  conserva/on,  commissioned  history,  museums,   the  media,  educa/on,  radio,  film  interac/ve  mul/media  and  other  areas.   They  are  people  who  have  asked:  What  is  history  for?   And  they  are  concerned  with  addressing  the  rela/onship  between  audience,  prac/ce   and  social  context.  Public  history,  however,  is  an  elas/c  term  that  can  mean  different   things  to  different  people,  locally,  regionally,  na/onally  and  interna/onally.  The   democra/za/on  of  history  making  and  the  rise  of  professional  historians  associa/ons   have  also  blurred  simple  defini/ons.  Public  representa/ons  of  the  past,  official  or   otherwise,  which  marginalize  or  abuse  history  raise  other  vital  ques/ons  for  all   concerned  with  public  histories.” Australian  Centre  for  Public  History  at  the  University  of  Technology  (Sidney,  Australia):domenica 11 marzo 12
  • NCPH definition of PH A  movement,  methodology,  and   approach  that  promotes  the   collabora/ve  study  and  prac/ce  of   history;  its  prac//oners  embrace  a   mission  to  make  their  special  insights   accessible  and  useful  to  the  publicdomenica 11 marzo 12
  • Lynn H.Nelson pioneer “digital historian”’s definition Public  History  in  the  United  States  means  the  presenta?on  of  History  to   an  audience  not  familiar  with  the  subject  being  presented.  […]  Public   historian  is  the  means  by  which  historical  actuality  is  made  a^rac/ve  and   understandable  to  the  American  public  […]  that  is  deeply  ignorant  of  its   na/ons  history  and  geography,  and  that  sees  li^le  value  in  the  study  of,   much  less  the  apprecia/on  of,  History  […].  People  trained  in  Public  History   expect  to  obtain  jobs  as  historical  museum  curators,  managers  of  public   archives  (such  as  the  na/onal  and  state  archives,  educa/onal  consultants   for  History  curricula  at  the  primary  and  secondary  level,  directors  of  state   (or  large  local)  historical  socie/es,  Army,  Navy,  Marine  and  Air  Force   historians,  managers  of  re-­‐enactment  organiza/ons  and/or  events,  staffing   the  na/onal  and  state  historic  parks  and  cemeteries,  historical  monument   commissions,  historic  preserva/on  boards,  and  the  like,  or  as  self-­‐ employed  historians  seeking  government  grants  or  wri/ng  such  grants  for   local  authori/es,  or  a  writers  of  popular  historical  accounts.domenica 11 marzo 12
  • Different sectors of PH Wesley  Johnson  in  1978: Public  ins/tu/ons Firms  and  business  enterprises Consultancies  for  other  professions  (lawyers,  doctors,  public   administrators  at  all  levels,  etc..) Media  (and  today  new  digital  media) Heritage  (“conserving”  the  past) Teaching  local  history  problems  through  local  history  socie/es Managing  and  crea/ng  archives Teaching  Public  History  at  Schools  and  Universi/esdomenica 11 marzo 12
  • A discipline, field, movement or method ? Working  collec/vely  and  within  groups  with  different   professional  skills  and  training Combining  empirical  research  and  conceptual  wri/ngs A  PH  is  not  only  a  teacher  but  also  a  professional  historian   making  original  research:  “historical  skills  are  just  as  important   and  usable  whether  one  is  called  educator,  research  director,   communica/ons  specialist,  records  manager  or  Public   Historians”. The  methods  are  as  any  other  academic  historian  but  also  using   the  “new  media”  technologies  in  digital  history  domenica 11 marzo 12
  • Open problems in the PH field What  is  objec/vity  in  PH  works  ? Which  kind  of  public  should  be  served  ? Which  kind  of  ac/vi/es  should  be  performed  as  PH  ? In  which  physical/virtual  spaces  performing  PH  ? Which  appropriate  media  should  be  chosen  ? How  to  integrate  memory  and  iden/ty  studies? How  do  develop  PH  in  Italy?  ;-­‐)domenica 11 marzo 12
  • WWW = Cannibal The  Web  cannibalizes  all  other  media   BUT  it  is  also  a  fer/le  space  to  develop   PH  projects A  Public  Historian  should  be  also  a   Digital  Historian  domenica 11 marzo 12
  • THE WEB AS DIGITAL LAB Con/nue  interac/on  between  our  personal  computer  and  the  web   through  the  browser  for  searching,  publishing  and  teaching   history    The  web  is  poten/ally  a  “personal  digital  laboratory”.    The   web  offers  interac/ve  services  and  access  to  digital  informa/on/ documenta/on:  repositories,  reference  managers,  blogs,   discussion’s  lists,  e-­‐learning/e-­‐teaching  sorware’s,  and  now   Zotero.     Digital  literature  is  created  using  the  web    Virtual  Primary  sources   (or  meta-­‐sources)  are  available    History  in  the  web  is  widely  used   by  many  different  “publics”domenica 11 marzo 12
  • The Valley of the Shadow The  Valley  of  the  Shadow  is   a  digital  archive  of  primary   sources  that  document  the   lives  of  people  in  Augusta   County,  Virginia,  and   Franklin  County,   Pennsylvania,  during  the  era   of  the  American  Civil  War. The  Valley  Project  is  a  part  of  the  Virginia  Center for  Digital  History  at  the  University  of  Virginia.domenica 11 marzo 12
  • Podcastingdomenica 11 marzo 12
  • Museum exhibitions and servicesdomenica 11 marzo 12
  • HISTORICAL PARK AND REVIVALdomenica 11 marzo 12
  • 3 D visualization environment The  London  Charterdomenica 11 marzo 12
  • Mapping Historydomenica 11 marzo 12
  • Visualization of Historical Data - TIMELINEdomenica 11 marzo 12
  • Visualization of Historical Datadomenica 11 marzo 12
  • Digital History Essay with interactive chapters Martha   Ballard’s  Diary   Onlinedomenica 11 marzo 12
  • Gulag: Many Days, Many Lives The  Soviet  Gulag  existed neither  as  a  single  unified experience,  nor  as  a  single   unified  ins/tu/on.  This massive  and  lethal  machine   influenced  the  lives  of  millions   of  people  from  1917-­‐1988. Gulag:  Many  Days,  Many  Lives   presents  an  in-­‐depth  look  at  life in  the  Gulag  through  exhibits   featuring  original  documentaries and  prisoner  voices;  an  archive filled  with  documents  and   images;  and  teaching  and  bibliographic resources  that  encourage  further  study.  Visitors  also  are  encouraged  to  reflect   and  share  their  thoughts  about  the  Gulag  system.domenica 11 marzo 12
  • Interactive digital public history Web  2.0  tools  allow  a  different  kind  of   par/cipa/on  in  History  by  several  different  kind  of   community Crea/ng  sources  and  inven/ng  archives Commen/ng  and  implemen/ng  digital  archives Commen/ng  and  sharing  view  about  historydomenica 11 marzo 12
  • THE 09/11 DIGITAL ARCHIVEdomenica 11 marzo 12
  • Hurricane Digital Memory Bank Arer  the  construc/on  of  the  September  11  Digital  archive  the   most  recent  digital  history  project  is  Hurricane  Digital  Memory   Bank This  is  an  invented  archive:  The  Hurricane  Digital  Memory   Bank  uses  electronic  media  to  collect,  preserve,  and  present   the  stories  and  digital  record  of  Hurricanes  Katrina,  Rita,  and   Wilma. The  project  contributes  to  the  ongoing  effort  by  historians  and   archivists  to  preserve  the  record  of  these  storms  by  collec/ng   first-­‐hand  accounts,  on-­‐scene  images,  blog  pos/ngs,  and   podcasts.domenica 11 marzo 12
  • genealogy tools and sitesdomenica 11 marzo 12
  • Community-based socialand digital history The  Cleveland  Cultural  Gardens  embody  the  history   of  twen/eth  century  America.  Each  individual  garden  is   founded  and  maintained  by  the  city’s  many  ethnic   communi/es,  revealing  the  history  of  immigra/on  to,  and   migra/on  within,  the  United  States. Web  2.0  tools  allow  a  different  kind  of  par/cipa/on  in  History  by  several   different  kind  of  community They  comment  on  how  they  have  built  communi/es  and  constructed  their   iden//es  as  individuals  and  collec/ves. The  gardens  reveal  the  stories  of  the  major  conflicts  that    gave  shape  to  the   century:  World  War  I,  World  War  II  and  the  Cold  War. Insights  into  the  large  social,  economic,  poli/cal,  and  cultural  upheavals  that   roiled  through  the  na/on  during  the  last  century:  the  Great  Depression,   suburbaniza/on,  the  Civil  Rights  Movement,  and  the  deindustrializa/on.    This   is  a  story  of  hope  and  despair,  joy  and  sadness,  conflict  and  coopera/on,   growth  and  declindomenica 11 marzo 12
  • Italian examples MEMORO, LA BANCA DELLA MEMORIA FACCIA A FACCIA, FONDAZIONE DALMINE TRAMONTI, ITINERARI DELLA MEMORIA LUNGO I CRINALI DELLA VAL DI VARAdomenica 11 marzo 12
  • Digital History and Public History    Audience:  New  bridges  between  academic  and  popular/public   history. New  Archives/New  Inquiry:  Digital  resources  are  expanding   and  redefining  the  archival  base  for  most  fields  and  thereby   redefining  the  fields  themselves.  (This  is  driven  more  by  libraries   and  the  tech  industry  than  by  historians.)  Collabora?on:  […]  The  best  digital  projects  are  collabora/ve,   involving  mul/ple  scholars  and  a  technical  team,  and  ideally  an   ins/tu/on  commi^ed  to  keeping  the  project  alive  arer  its  creators   move  on  to  other  things…domenica 11 marzo 12
  • Which skills? a “linked to the public” view of History communication a basic knowledge of HTML, CMS, digital video-audio, data visualization soft ware are becoming more and more friendly more? and now?domenica 11 marzo 12
  • First time of DH “So  far  few  historians  have  tried  to  define  "digital  history."  We  were  probably  the  first  to   use  the  term  when  Ed  Ayers  and  I  founded  and  named  the  Virginia  Center  for  Digital   History  (VCDH)  in  1997–1998.  We  used  the  term  in  essays  and  talks  to  describe  The   Valley  of  the  Shadow.  In  1997  we  taught  an  undergraduate  seminar,  "Digital  History  of   the  Civil  War."  We  began  calling  such  courses  "digital  history  seminars"  and  taught  seven   of  them  at  the  University  of  Virginia  over  as  many  years.Later  Steve  Mintz  started  his  site   (in  effect,  a  digital  textbook)  sing  the  name  Digital  History.”   from  Daniel  J.  Cohen,  Michael  Frisch,  Patrick  Gallagher,  Steven  Mintz,  Kirsten  Sword,  Amy  Murrell  Taylor,  William  G.   Thomas  III,  and  William  J.  Turkel:  Interchange:  The  Promise  of  Digital  History,  in  Journal  of  American  History,  2,  2008,  §   11,  pp.452-­‐491,  URL:  h^p://www.historycoopera/ve.org/journals/jah/95.2/interchange.html]domenica 11 marzo 12
  • Digital Historian At  GMUs  Center  for  History  and  New  Media,  Roy  A.Rosenzweig   oversaw  the  crea/on  of  online  history  projects  (Links  to  Washington   Post  ar/cle  by  Adam  Bernstein,Washington  Post  Staff  Writer,  Saturday,   October  13,  2007) Roy  A.  Rosenzweig,  57,  a  social  and  cultural  historian  at  George  Mason   University  […]  became  a  prominent  advocate  for  "digital  history,"  a  field   combining  historical  scholarshipwith  digital  medias  broad  reach  and   interac/ve  possibili/es,  died  Oct.  11  at  Virginia  Hospital  Center  in   Arlington  County. Daniel  J.  Cohen  and  Roy  Rosenzweig:  Digital  history  :  a  guide  to  gathering,  preserving,  and   presen/ng  the  past  on  the  Web.,  Philadelphia,  Pa.:  University  of  Pennsylvania  Press, 2005.domenica 11 marzo 12
  • Digital World History “…In  the  1990s,  world  history  courses  went  online[…].  With  the  use  of  these   materials  inevitably  came  arguments  for  greater  interac/vity—in  the  form  of   the  online  documenta/on  and  in  the  underlying  interpreta/on.  […]  Digital   media  have  been  extraordinarily  helpful  in  spreading  the  word  on  all   approaches  to  world  history  […]  especially  by  providing  online  documents   and  interpre/ve  statements  on  a  wide  range  of  topics.  I  would  label  the  sum   total  of  this  development  as  "digitally  assisted  world  history.“  For  a  more   conceptually  thoroughgoing  "digital  world  history",  one  needs  to  see  the   advantages  of  digital  technology  suffused  throughout  the  processes  of   research,  publica/on,  and  teaching.  One  must  ask  what  digital  history  can  do   to  facilitate  the  construc/on  of  complex  and  mul/dimensional  narra/ves….”  Digital  World  History:  An  Agenda  -­‐  Patrick  Manning,  University  of  Pi^sburgh,  April  2007.domenica 11 marzo 12
  • A METHOD OR A FIELD? Digital  History  is  about:  Services:  technologies  in  the  fields  of  humani/es  compu/ng  and  history  Historiography:  hypertextual,  and  expressive  ways  to  write  history    Digital  primary  sources  (and/or  meta-­‐sources)    E-­‐teaching/learning  facili/es  for  history.domenica 11 marzo 12
  • WHAT’S DIGITAL “Digital  history  is  an  approach  to  examining  and  represen/ng  the  past  that  takes   advantage  of  new  communica/on  technologies  such  as  computers  and  the  Web. It  draws  on  essen/al  features  of  the  digital  realm,  such  as  databases,  hypertextualiza/on,   and  networks,  to  create  and  share  historical  knowledge.   Digital  history  complements  other  forms  of  history—indeed,  it  draws  its  strength  and   methodological  rigor  from  this  age-­‐old  form  of  human  understanding  while  using  the   latest  technology.”domenica 11 marzo 12
  • WHAT’S DH IN WIKIPEDIA Digital  history  is  a  rapidly  changing  field.  New  methods  and  formats  are  currently  being  developed.  This  means  that   digital  history  is  a  difficult  term  to  define.  However,  it  is  possible  to  iden/fy  general  characteris/cs.   Digital  history  represents  a  democra?za?on  of  history  in  that  anyone  with  access  to  the  Internet  can  have  their  voice  heard,   including  marginalized  groups  which  were  oren  excluded  in  the  grand  narra/ves  of  na/on  and  empire.  In  contrast  to  earlier  media  formats,  digital  history  texts  tend  to  be  non-­‐linear  and  interac?ve,  encouraging  user   par/cipa/on  and  engagement. Digital  history  is  studied  from  various  disciplinary  perspec?ves  and  in  rela/on  to  a  range  of  interrelated  themes  and   ac/vi/es.  The  field  includes  discussion  of:  archives,  libraries,  and  encyclopedias;  museums  and  virtual  exhibits;  digital  iden/ty   and  biography;  digital  games  and  virtual  worlds;  online  communi/es  and  social  networks;  Web  2.0;  and  e-­‐research  and   cyber-­‐infrastructure. Digital  methods  in  historical  research  offer  new  ways  to  record,  communicate  and  preserve  documents,  ar/facts  and   knowledge  of  the  past.  However,  there  are  challenges.  These  include:  developing  efficient  ways  to  determine  the  authority   and  authen?city  of  digital  content;  shiring  from  long  established  archival  preserva/on  systems  designed  for  earlier  media   formats  to  using  rela/vely  unstable  digital  preserva/on  formats  and  standards;  and  ensuring  be^er  accessibility  for  those   who  lack  access  to  the  technology  due  to  age-­‐related  or  socio-­‐economic  disadvantage. Many  online  history  projects  facilitate  large-­‐scale  conversa?ons  (one-­‐to-­‐one,  one-­‐to-­‐many  and  many-­‐to-­‐many),  producing   new  kinds  of  distributed  texts.  Further  research  is  required  to  understand  the  significance  of  these  texts  for  historical   studies.domenica 11 marzo 12
  • Why becoming a Digital Historian ? “Only  historians  can  decide  whether  history  will  par/cipate  in  the  intoxica/ng  possibili/es  of  a  true   hypertextual  history,  of  a  recons/tuted  social  science  history,  of  an  en/rely  new  kind  of  immersive  history.   Only  we  can  decide  if  we  want  to  make  use  of  any  of  the  tools  that  are  being  created  for  purposes  far   from  our  own  current  prac?ce.  There  is  nothing  in  the  machinery  itself  that  will  cause  any  of  this  to   happen.  [..]  Digital  media  does  not  produce  any  par/cular  outcome.  It  does  not  intrinsically  degrade   educa/on  and  scholarship  nor  does  it  necessarily  improve  them.  Everything  depends  on  the  decisions  we   make.  We  can  decide  to  encourage  the  collabora/on  and  risk-­‐taking  necessary  for  digital  history  through   our  selec/on  commi^ees  and  tenure  decisions,  through  our  program  commi^ees  and  editorial  policies.  We   can  champion  the  new  connec/ons  between  professors  and  secondary  teachers,  between  teachers  and   students,  and  between  historians  and  readers  already  encouraged  by  the  new  media.  The  inven?on,   development,  and  spread  of  new  media  are  the  most  profound  historical  change  of  the  last  decade  and   those  changes  show  every  sign  of  accelera?ng.  Historians  need  to  understand  the  new  media  and  its   implica/ons  as  fully  as  possible,  for  both  defensive  and  hopeful  reasons.  We  need  to  resist  the  dilu?on  and   distor?on  of  historical  knowledge  brought  by  the  erosion  of  our  authority  in  a  widely  dispersed  new   medium.  The  best  way  to  wage  that  resistance  is  to  seize  for  ourselves  the  opportuni?es  the  medium   offers,  opportuni/es  to  touch  the  past,  present,  and  future  in  new  ways.”   In:  The  Pasts  and  Futures  of  Digital  History,  URL:  [h^p://www.vcdh.virginia.edu/PastsFutures.html]  Edward  L.  Ayers.   University  of  Virginia,  1999  (Later,  from  2002,  VCDH,  Virginia  Center  for  Digital  Historydomenica 11 marzo 12
  • Center for Digital Humanities University of South Californiadomenica 11 marzo 12
  • Digital History, Department of History, University of Nebraska-Lincolndomenica 11 marzo 12
  • Digital Public History Project The   Geography  of   Slavery  in   Virginia,  2005-­‐domenica 11 marzo 12
  • EHPS - European History Primary Sources European  History  Primary  Sources  (EHPS),  is  an  index  of   scholarly  websites  that  offer  online  access  to  primary  sources   on  the  history  of  Europe. The  Digital  Primary  Sources  contained  in  EHPS  indexed  web   sites,  are  not  limited  to  meta-­‐sources  but  include  also  invented   archives  and  born  digital  sources. EHPS  was  presented  during  an  interna/onal  conference   organized  in  Florence  on  15-­‐16  December  2009  called  Cultural   Heritage  on  line.  Empowering  users:  an  ac/ve  role  for  user   communi/es.domenica 11 marzo 12
  • DH in Italy Non-­‐professional  History,  Trento  in  Cina Everybody’s  History,  Diario  di  un  fante  Academic  History  (Stmoderna.it  -­‐  Corso  di  Storia  Digitale,  University  of   Pisa)  Divulga/ve  History  (La  Torre  Monalda  a  FI)  Memories  (Memoro,  l’archivio  della  memoria)  Online  exhibi/ons  (The  Museum  of  Fascist  Unforms)  Blogs  (Storelint  -­‐  Seminari  autoges//  di  Storia  )  Interac/ve  History  (Dalmine:  Faccia  a  Faccia)domenica 11 marzo 12
  • From Public to Digital Public History: professional historians as mediators “Although  they  trusted   college  professors  as  experts, Americans  expressed  a  strong preference  for  the  direct   experience  that  museums seemed  to  offer  […].   [People]  preferred  to  make   their  own  histories”. William  G.  Thomas  III  (University  of  Nebraska)domenica 11 marzo 12
  • Presence of the past in American Society “What  counts  [for  Thelen  and  Rosenzweig]  is  the  uses  of  the  past  in  the   present:  that  is,  the  availability  of  usable  pasts  rather  the  the  pastness  of   history”.   For  doing  this  a  PH  is  using  the  methods  of  any  other  professional  historian  PHs  should  also  be  trained  to  use  TV,  radio,  web  and  all  other  media’s  and   acquire  a  professional  role  of  mediator PHs  should  be  trained  to  design  complex  web  sites  through  digital  history   prac/ces  thinking  about:  accessibility,  interoperability,  sustainability,  use  of   specific  methods  for  interac/ng  with  diverse  publics. Bernard  Eric  Jensen:  “Usable  pasts:  comparing  approaches  to  Popular  and  Public  History.”,  in   Paul  Ashton  e  Hilda  Kean  (a  cura  di):  People  and  their  pasts:  public  history  today.,  Basingstoke:   Palgravedomenica 11 marzo 12