USER GUIDEGlobal procedure: 1. Characterised bus line(s) representative of your network, using PAMS, Transfer data collected using memory stick to computer connected to www.starbus-tool.eu, 2. Use decision tool to estimate emissions (pollutants, CO2), economic costs and determine best solution for bus line characterised.Ask for personal account on www.starbus-tool.eu (name, password) 1. For bus line characterisation using PAMS: a. Preliminary control and preparation:Some controls have to be done before providing a bus with simple measurement system: • Chose Euro III Diesel bus, correct in term of performances, maintenance, ask wiring documentation to bus manufacturer • Control availability of bus and driver (able to drive in commercial way) during at least three days • OPTION: Forecast exhaust temperature measurement in exhaust muffler position • Control following system is applicable on vehicle, • GPS, • Pinches for CAN network access, • Dataloger for CAN informations, temperatures (exhaust, outside & in board air) sensors • USB key for transferring data to computer.Vehicle characteristics necessary:Manufacturer, Bus name, Engine referencemax torque, max power, idle speed, max speedFuel characteristics necessary:Specific fuel analysis has to be done before tests to ensure the fuel used is in accordance withRegulations: Density kg/m3, Net Calorific Value MJ/kg, Cetane index, Water content %Planning information, for one bus line characterisation:Phases Duration (hour) remarksEngine warm up 1City bus profil 2 Several loops can be done on same bus profilDownload datas stored and 1 Send also to contacts belowcontrol
TOTAL 4Nota : All tests have to be done by same driver. Driving style has to be in accordance withthe commercial conditions with stops.Phases Duration (hour) remarksPreliminary control 0.5 Vehicle and fuel characteristics neededVehicle Equipment 0.5Tests, cycle characterisation 0.5Taking off equipment 0.5TOTAL 2 b. Bus line characterisation procedure:PAMS description:To allow the equipment to be sent safety to the different user, a made-to-measure suitcase hasbeen performed with a protected space for all the components. Flight transport suitcase for the whole equipment, Specific locations for the different componentsThe areas for the different components are drawn up for a better identification. They aremodular areas, which will enable a further eventual accommodation.Inputs : ( by back face)• 2 RS 232 9 pins (for GPS and MUXy fleet) (extention cables for serial central port)• 2 users analogue inputs (0/10V)• 4 thermocouple inputs (little switches)• 1 power supply input of 24V
• 1 connector sensor optic system• 1 connector sensor pedal positionConnection of the J1939 (CAN) interface on the case• Using wiring documentation provided by bus manufacturer, locate Can_H and CAN_L wires on the bus harness,• Connect non intrusive pinches Muxy Clip from NSI company.Connection of the 24V supplyConnection of the GPS on bus bus roof
Thermocouples connectionIn option, you can connect thermocouples (2) for exhaust temperature measurements. Aspecific tool is associated on www.starbus-tool.eu to analyse these measures, and estimateprobability of success for DPF or SCR.On the data acquisition device, connect the thermocouple in TC1 or TC2 to 4 inputs (seeabove)Power supplyThe electric supply of the system being low (<2A), it is not necessary to find 24V connectionsof high sections. However, we ought to insure that the power ground is correct Use one of thethree supplied connection solutions (cutting-pliers, cable lug, “banana plugs”).Non-intrusive cutting-pliersThe sensitive part of the sensor must surround the cable to be connected. Be careful, this partis very delicate. A spare interface case is supplied. In case it would be used, well indicate
when returning the first one, that it was awry. You can ask your bus manufacturer or watchyour technical book to identify CAN High and CAN Low.Power supply (9-32V) and reconstituted CAN_H and CAN_L signals2 pinches for CAN_H and CAN_L signalsControl of the system performancesGPS performances check-out:If required, use the arrow keys to refresh the displayCAN performances check-outTo be sure that CAN wefts well arrive on the acquisition mainframe:• Energize the system• Switch the bus onControl the following items:
To be sure that CAN frame is present:• Power the system box,• Switch the contact on the bus,• CAN1 del on CAN interface should blink slowly (1Hz). If blink is 3Hz or no light, CAN communication coutains errors. CAN Information contains PER label (1 Hz) c. Launching and use of the system:The interface has been simplified as much as we can in order to let to the user, only thenecessary and sufficient parts in evidence.EnergizingThe main screen shows the analogue input values and, in option, thermocouples (C°). In caseof power supply discontinuation, the mainframe returns automatically in the hand mode(display, measures…).Data are memorized permanently on the memory stick card. There is no risk of informationloss, as long as the system is energized.
From now to the shutting down of the power, data is automatically saved by the system. Thefiles will be stored on the memory stick card and a dedicated software tool will be used toextract the relevant informations.To be able to separate the tests in a further stage, it is necessary to write manually the hourand date system on a dedicated document (this can be done by the bus driver, when stoppingat the beginning or end of the line).If the power is shut down, when re-starting, the system will automatically launch all thestorages without any operator intervention. That means that it can be leaved in operationduring a large amount of time (ie several weeks), due to the high capacity of the memory card.Example of information writing by the operator (or driver)Start test date / hour Stop test date / hour Comment Odometer mileage Drivermm-dd-yy-hh-mm-ss mm-dd-yy-hh-mm-ss difference (km)02-18-08-17-27-39 02-18-08-18-32-39 Ligne 21 23.5 km John Smith outward02-18-08-18-40-39 02-18-08-19-43-51 Ligne 21 23.5 km John Smith returnThese informations will be compared to those calculated in case of GPS problem. To validateconnection, file can be extracted (see below) and transformed using generatorData Retrieval1- hit icon on corner bottom right2- hit “remove media”3- hit “OK”How to extract the memory card :1. Remove the memory card from its slot2. Warning : never remove the memory card while icon top/right is green3. Insert the memory card in the PCMCIA to USB converter, and plug it inside an USB slot. The device will appear as a new disk letterFor information, link to project video available on www.starbus-project.eu.
2. Decision tool :Step 1: using PAMS data, automatic calculation of emissions pollutants & GHG for all majorsenergetic pathways, cumulated or instantaneously,Step 2: Provide “classic” economic inputs,Step 3: Automatic calculation of costs, aggregation of economy and environment usingexternal costs methodology. a. Emissions calculations:• Insert memory stick,• Create txt file, for example : measure_generated.txt• Connection to www.starbus-tool.eu, open your account with your name/password,• Download (only first time) generator file and launch it, provide information requested, indicating reception file: measure_generated.txt. Generator will transform csv to txt file readable with excel, and calculate emissions (several minutes) Starbus generator• In “My route / Route characterisation”, define your current bus fleet and those forecasted for renewing your fleet. After, use measure_generated.txt as inputs for emissions presentations. Decision tool presents first results: o Retrofit DPF possible or not, %NOx reduction estimation based on exhaust T°, o Instantaneous emissions (pollutants, CO2) on map, o Impact of stop/start on emissions,• In “My emissions”, decision tool presents: o Emissions calculations cumulated (g/km) on “my bus line” for major pathways, o All files downloadable: instantaneous emissions, cumulated for extended calculations.• In « My network / New simulation », see below chapter 2.2.
To define your actual and future bus fleet Cumulated emissions results for identified pathways Bus route chosen Instantaneous pollutant emissions b. Inputs for classic economic calculations in “My network / New simulation”:• Identify one, two or three pathways in competition for your new buses,• Provide informations requested concerning your bus network, fuel station, workshop modifications, new bus introduction per year, financial incentives example of bus network description• You can access to previous simulation using “My network / Open simulation”,• You can also share results with others Decision Tool user using “File sharing”.
• Standard options are available: o FAQ, o My profil: to modify or complete your profil, o Suggestions: to propose improvements, or other. c. Automatic calculation of costs, aggregation of economy and environment using external costs methodology:Based on emissions calculated and inputs provided, decision tool aggregates and proposesenvironnement, economic and global pathways comparison. For example, calculations ofNGV and Diesel costs : Decision Tool User point Of view Choice between Euro V Diesel or NGV : Fuel cost (w/o tax) 0.9 0.34 => 0.45 Maintenance (€/100km) 10 30, and others hypothesis … From Euro II to NGV Euro V From Euro II to NGV Euro V From Euro II to Diesel Euro V 1000000 1000000 1000000 900000 900000 900000 800000 800000 800000 700000 700000 700000 600000 GHG pollution GHG pollution 600000 Local pollution 600000 500000 Local costs Fuel pollution 500000 500000 400000 Fuel costs Maintenance 400000 400000 Invest BUS 300000 Maintenance 300000 300000 200000 Invest BUS 200000 200000 100000 100000 100000 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16For each pathway, different indicators are proposed :• Economic, based on classic economic costs,• Local pollution, based on regulated pollutants,• Global pollution, based on GHG emissions,• Risk, based on aggregation of energetic independency, number of existing bus in Europe, number of new bus in Europe, GHG performance compared to Diesel,• Energetic independency,• And global, based on aggregation of previous indicators.
Economic Indicator 5 4.5 4 3.5 3 Local pollution Indicator Global Indicator 2.5 (pollutants, noise) 2 1.5 Today Fleet 1 Diesel New Fleet 0.5 Alternative 1 0 Alternative 2 Energetic Global pollution Indicator Independance (CO2) RisksAll indicators are calculated as well as all costs (economic and environmental), allemissions and fuel consumption for identified pathways on characterised route. 3. STARBUS Decision Tool improvements:New pathway characterised can be include in web tool sending measures to administrator forvalidation.
Define new pathwayDefine new emission matrixWith integrated download exe