Planning for PeopleGUIDELINESDeveloping and Implementing aSustainable Urban Mobility Plan                      www.mobilit...
ContactRupprecht Consult – Forschung und Beratung GmbHClever Strasse 13 - 1550668 CologneGermanySebastian Bührmann, Email:...
Co n t en tCONTENTA new way of planning urban mobility ......................................................................
Co n t en tElement 8: Build monitoring and assessment into the plan .........................................................
A ne w way o fpl a nning u r ba n m o b ili t yA new way ofplanning urban mobility                                        ...
S us ta in a b le U r ba n M o b ili t y P l a n                                                                          ...
Bene f i t sBenefitsDifferent approaches to sustainable urban mobility           Environmental and health benefitsplanning...
Bene f i t s Source: Rupprecht ConsultCitizen- and stakeholder-supported                              Integration potentia...
P o lic y B ac kg ro undPolicy backgroundThe need for more sustainable and integrative plan-       activities for urban mo...
T h e p r oj ec tThe ProjectThe European Commission initiated a three-year           •	 Four expert workshops on Sustainab...
A b o u t t h is d ocu m en tAbout this documentThe EC’s Action Plan on Urban Mobility calls for an          The present g...
T h e S U M P cycle                                                                                                   in o...
S U M P E le m en t s a nd Ac t i v i t iesSUMP Elements & Activities                                         Milestone:  ...
S U M P E le m en t s a nd Act i v i t ies                                                                                ...
S U M P E le m en t s a nd Act i v i t ies– p h a se 1: p r epa r ing w ell  Element 1: Determine your potential for a suc...
S U M P E le m en t s a nd Act i v i t ies                                                                                ...
S U M P E le m en t s a nd Act i v i t ies– p h a se 1: p r epa r ing w ellActivity 1.2: Assess impact of                 ...
S U M P E le m en t s a nd Act i v i t ies                                                                                ...
S U M P E le m en t s a nd Act i v i t ies– p h a se 1: p r epa r ing w ellActivity 1.3:                                  ...
S U M P E le m en t s a nd Act i v i t ies                                                                                ...
S U M P E le m en t s a nd Act i v i t ies– p h a se 1: p r epa r ing w ellActivities beyond essential                    ...
S U M P E le m en t s a nd Act i v i t ies                                                                                ...
S U M P E le m en t s a nd Act i v i t ies– p h a se 1: p r epa r ing w ellActivity 1.4:                                  ...
S U M P E le m en t s a nd Act i v i t ies                                                                                ...
S U M P E le m en t s a nd Act i v i t ies– p h a se 1: p r epa r ing w ellCore skill requirements for sustainable urban m...
S U M P E le m en t s a nd Act i v i t ies                                                                                ...
S U M P E le m en t s a nd Act i v i t ies– p h a se 1: p r epa r ing w ell         Examples  has been a very good tool.” ...
S U M P E le m en t s a nd Act i v i t ies                                                                                ...
S U M P E le m en t s a nd Act i v i t ies– p h a se 1: p r epa r ing w ellActivity 1.5:                                  ...
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  1. 1. Planning for PeopleGUIDELINESDeveloping and Implementing aSustainable Urban Mobility Plan www.mobilityplans.eu
  2. 2. ContactRupprecht Consult – Forschung und Beratung GmbHClever Strasse 13 - 1550668 CologneGermanySebastian Bührmann, Email: s.buehrmann@rupprecht-consult.euFrank Wefering, Email: f.wefering@rupprecht-consult.euSiegfried Rupprecht, Email: s.rupprecht@rupprecht-consult.euTel.: 49.221.60 60 55 -0www.rupprecht-consult.euwebsitewww.mobilityplans.euDisclaimerThe sole responsibility for the content of this document lies with the authors. It does not necessarily reflect theopinion of the European Union. Neither the EACI nor the European Commission is responsible for any use that maybe made of the information contained therein.Project EltisplusContract No. EACI/IEE/2009/05/S12.558822Subject Guidelines. Developing and Implementing a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan. (part of Deliverable 2.2)Version 23 September 2011 (working document)Prepared by Rupprecht Consult: Sebastian Bührmann, Frank Wefering, Siegfried RupprechtContributors to case • City of Helsinki: Mette Granberg, Johanna Vilkuna, Sakari Saarinenstudies and tools • Edinburgh Napier University: Tom Rye • Institut d’Estudis Territorials, Barcelona: Kerstin Burckhart • Mobiel 21, Leuven: Sarah Martens, Jan Christiaens • Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe: Gábor Heves • Rupprecht Consult: Wolfgang Backhaus, Sebastian Bührmann, Michael Laubenheimer, Siegfried Rupprecht, Rafael Urbanczyk, Patrick Vanegmond (PDU), Frank Wefering • TRT TRASPORTI E TERRITORIO, Milan: Simone Bosetti, Patrizia Malgieri, Cosimo ChiffiLayout FGM-AMORCover Photo Green City, Munich2 GUIDELINES – Developing and Implementing a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan
  3. 3. Co n t en tCONTENTA new way of planning urban mobility ......................................................................................................................... 5Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan – a definition ........................................................................................................... 6Benefits ......................................................................................................................................................................... 7Policy background ......................................................................................................................................................... 9The project ................................................................................................................................................................... 10About this document ................................................................................................................................................... 11The SUMP cycle in overview ........................................................................................................................................ 2 1Guidelines – SUMP Elements and Activities ................................................................................................... 13Starting point: “We want to improve mobility and quality of life for our citizens!” .................................................. 14Element 1: Determine your potential for a successful SUMP ......................................................................... 15Activity 1.1: Commit to overall sustainable mobility principles ................................................................................ 15Activity 1.2: Assess impact of regional/national framework ..................................................................................... 17Activity 1.3: Conduct self-assessment ....................................................................................................................... 19Activity 1.4: Review availability of resources .............................................................................................................. 23Activity 1.5: Define basic timeline .............................................................................................................................. 29Activity 1.6: Identify key actors and stakeholders ...................................................................................................... 31Element 2: Define the development process and scope of plan ...................................................................... 35Activity 2.1: Look beyond your own boundaries and responsibilities ....................................................................... 35Activity 2.2: Strive for policy coordination and an integrated planning approach .................................................... 37Activity 2.3: Plan stakeholder and citizen involvement ............................................................................................. 42Activity 2.4: Agree on work plan and management arrangements .......................................................................... 49Element 3: Analyse the mobility situation and develop scenarios .................................................................. 51Activity 3.1: Prepare an analysis of problems and opportunities ............................................................................. 51Activity 3.2.: Develop scenarios .................................................................................................................................. 56Element 4: Develop a common vision and engage citizens ............................................................................. 62Activity 4.1: Develop a common vision of mobility and beyond ................................................................................. 62Activity 4.2: Actively inform the public ....................................................................................................................... 65Element 5: Set priorities and measurable targets .......................................................................................... 68Activity 5.1: Identify the priorities for mobility ........................................................................................................... 68Activity 5.2: Develop SMART targets .......................................................................................................................... 70Element 6: Develop effective packages of measures ...................................................................................... 74Activity 6.1: Identify the most effective measures ..................................................................................................... 74Activity 6.2: Learn from others’ experience ............................................................................................................... 78Activity 6.3: Consider best value for money ............................................................................................................... 80Activity 6.4: Use synergies and create integrated packages of measures ............................................................... 81Element 7: Agree on clear responsibilities and allocate funding ................................................................... 84Activity 7.1: Assign responsibilities and resources ................................................................................................... 84Activity 7.2: Prepare an action and budget plan ........................................................................................................ 85GUIDELINES – Developing and Implementing a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan 3
  4. 4. Co n t en tElement 8: Build monitoring and assessment into the plan ........................................................................... 88Activity 8.1: Arrange for monitoring and evaluation ................................................................................................. 88Element 9: Adopt Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan ........................................................................................ 94Activity 9.1: Check the quality of the plan .................................................................................................................. 94Activity 9.2: Adopt the plan ......................................................................................................................................... 98Activity 9.3: Create ownership of the plan ................................................................................................................. 99Element 10: Ensure proper management and communication (when implementing the plan) ...................... 01 1Activity 10.1: Manage plan implementation .............................................................................................................. 01 1Activity 10.2: Inform and engage citizens ................................................................................................................. 104Activity 10.3: Check progress towards achieving the objectives ............................................................................. 109Element 11: Learn the lessons ..................................................................................................................... 111Activity 11.1: Update current plan regularly ............................................................................................................. 111Activity 11.2: Review achievements – understand success and failure ................................................................... 12 1Activity 11.3: Identify new challenges for next SUMP generation ........................................................................... 114Glossary ........................................................................................................................................................ 1174 GUIDELINES – Developing and Implementing a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan
  5. 5. A ne w way o fpl a nning u r ba n m o b ili t yA new way ofplanning urban mobility It should also be clear right from the beginning that If you imagine your city in 20 years, what would sustainable urban mobility planning is an approach you like it to look like? A place where children that fosters a planning practice and culture that aims can play safely? Where the air is clean? Where at a truly sustainable urban transport development. you can walk to do your shopping? With lots of Sustainable urban mobility planning is about moving in parks and green space? Where businesses can the right direction. It should grow from existing prac- prosper? tices in European cities that already apply many of the aspects covered by a SUMP.But how do you realise such a vision? Sustainable urbanmobility planning is planning for the future of your citywith its people as the focus. Sustainable Urban MobilityPlans (SUMP) mean “Planning for People”.GUIDELINES – Developing and Implementing a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan 5
  6. 6. S us ta in a b le U r ba n M o b ili t y P l a n – a de f ini t i o nSustainable Urban Mobility Plan– a definition How does it work? A Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan is a Strategic A Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan is a way of tackling plan designed to satisfy the mobility needs of transport-related problems in urban areas more effi- people and businesses in cities and their sur- ciently. Building on existing practices and regulatory roundings for a better quality of life. It builds frameworks in the Member States, its basic charac- on existing planning practices and takes due teristics are: consideration of integration, participation, and • A participatory approach: involving citizens and stake- evaluation principles. holders from the outset and throughout the process in decision making, implementation and evaluation, building local capacity for handling complex planningWhat is the purpose of a Sustainable issues, and ensuring gender equity;Urban Mobility Plan? • A pledge for sustainability: balancing economic devel-A Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan aims to create a opment, social equity and environmental quality;sustainable urban transport system by addressing – at • An integrated approach: of practices and policiesleast – the following objectives: between policy sectors (e.g. transport, land-use,• Ensure the accessibility offered by the transport environment, economic development, social inclu- system is available to all; sion, gender equity, health, safety), between author- ity levels (e.g. district, municipality, agglomeration,• Improve safety and security; region, nation, EU), and between neighbouring• Reduce air and noise pollution, greenhouse gas authorities (inter-municipal, inter-regional, trans- emissions and energy consumption; national, etc.);• Improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the • A focus on achieving measurable targets derived transportation of persons and goods; from short term objectives, aligned with a vision for• Contribute to enhancing the attractiveness and transport and embedded in an overall sustainable quality of the urban environment and urban design. development strategy; • A review of transport costs and benefits, taking into account wider societal costs and benefits, alsoWhat is the scope of an SUMP? across policy sectors;The policies and measures defined in a Sustainable • A method comprising the following tasks:Urban Mobility Plan cover all modes and forms of 1. status analysis and baseline scenario;transport in the entire urban agglomeration, including 2. definition of a vision, objectives and targets;public and private, passenger and freight, motorised 3. selection of policies and measures;and non-motorised, moving and parking. 4. assignment of responsibilities and resources; 5. arrangements for monitoring and evaluation. Source: Adapted from “PILOT Project. Sustainable Urban Transport Plans – SUTP Manual, Guidance for Stakeholders“ (2007)6 GUIDELINES – Developing and Implementing a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan
  7. 7. Bene f i t sBenefitsDifferent approaches to sustainable urban mobility Environmental and health benefitsplanning exist throughout Europe. While some coun- Closely related to the positive environmental effectstries such as the UK (Local Transport Plans) or France and improvements in terms of air quality and noise,(Plans de Déplacements Urbains) may be considered citizens and society can realise positive health effects,forerunners, the SUMP approach is new or non-exist- thereby saving significant on health related cost inent in other parts of the EU. both the short and long term. Furthermore, sustain- able urban mobility planning offers the opportunity toThe benefits and added values of a Sustainable Urban tackle climate change issues.Mobility Plan (SUMP) need to be communicated todecision-makers, planners and other urban mobilitystakeholders in order to convince them of the advan- Improved mobility and accessibilitytages of using this approach in their own urban context. Sustainable urban mobility planning that ultimatelyMunicipalities may consider an SUMP as yet another results in the implementation of sustainable mobilityplan on the urban agenda. Therefore, it is important projects or measures improves citizens’ mobility situa-to emphasise that sustainable urban mobility planning tion and facilitates the accessibility of urban areas andis not a completely new planning approach, but that it their services.rather builds on existing planning activities.There is a large variety of benefits associated with Improved image of a citysustainable urban mobility planning. These include: A city engaged in sustainable urban mobility planning can project the image of being innovative and forward-looking.Better quality of lifeThere is a wide consensus that sustainable urban Potential to reach more peoplemobility planning contributes to better quality of life in Planners have the potential to reach more people andan urban area. This can be expressed in many small- better respond to the needs of different user groups.er and larger improvements, such as more attractive Of course it can be challenging to introduce an SUMPpublic spaces, improved (road) safety, better air quality, among planners who have traditionally focused onfewer emissions or less noise. To this extent, sustain- developing infrastructure. Sustainable urban mobilityable urban mobility planning carries an emotional planning offers planners an integrated and interdisci-message (good public spaces, children’s safety) which plinary approach to planning mobility.should be widely used and exploited in the conceptpromotion.GUIDELINES – Developing and Implementing a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan 7
  8. 8. Bene f i t s Source: Rupprecht ConsultCitizen- and stakeholder-supported Integration potentialdecisions Sustainable urban mobility planning encourages anInvolving stakeholders and citizens is a basic principle effective and integrated planning culture for urbanof sustainable urban mobility planning. Through this mobility in Europe. It is an approach that aims for theinvolvement, decisions for or against specific urban integration of sectors and institutions. In most cases,mobility measures can obtain an significant level of the SUMP is driven by a city’s mobility and/or trans-“public legitimacy”. port department. However, it is one of its principles to involve other municipal or regional departments (for example, land-use, environment, economic develop-Effective fulfilment of legal obligations ment, social inclusion, health, safety) in the planningSustainable urban mobility plans offer an effective way process. Therefore, policy relevance of SUMP is notto tackle and fulfil legal obligation such as the Euro- limited to mobility and transport, and this planningpean Commission’s Air Quality Directive (see: http:// approach contributes to the achievement of other localec.europa.eu/environment/air/quality/legislation/ goals (economic, social, environmental) as well.existing_leg.htm) or national noise regulations. Improving a city’s competitiveness andNew political vision access to fundingSustainable urban mobility planning offers the opportu- SUMPs can help planners access certain funding poolsnity to develop another kind of political vision for a city. that are available for innovative solutions or integratedFor officials in local authorities, it provides a longer term planning approaches. In some cases, the existence (oragenda and a clear programme to work towards. If carried the work towards the adoption) of a Sustainable Urbanout well, SUMP has the potential to deliver better results Mobility Plan can improve the competitiveness of a citywith less conflict. when applying for funding.8 GUIDELINES – Developing and Implementing a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan
  9. 9. P o lic y B ac kg ro undPolicy backgroundThe need for more sustainable and integrative plan- activities for urban mobility professionals. Sustainablening processes – also in sectors related to urban mo- urban mobility planning received a further significantbility – has been widely recognised. At the European push when the EU transport ministers adopted conclu-level, Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans have gained sions on the Action Plan on Urban Mobility in Luxem-increased recognition and importance as well. bourg on 24 June 2010. The Council of the European Union “supports the development of Sustainable UrbanThe European Commission’s Action Plan on Urban Mobility Plans for cities and metropolitan areas [..] andMobility aims at accelerating the take-up of sustain- encourages the development of incentives, such asable urban mobility planning in Europe by providing expert assistance and information exchange, for theguidance material, promoting best practice exchange, creation of such plans”.identifying benchmarks, and supporting educational Action Plan on Urban Mobility – Action 1 Accelerating the take-up of Sustain- mutual learning and sharing of experiences and able Urban Mobility Plans best practices that would foster the development of sustainable urban mobility policies. • The EC will support local authorities in develop- • The Commission will also introduce an urban ing Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans covering mobility dimension in the Covenant of Mayors in freight and passenger transport in urban and order to promote an integrated approach linking peri-urban areas. energy and climate change with transport. It will • It will provide guidance material, promote best encourage the incorporation of transport and practice exchange, identify benchmarks, and mobility issues in the Sustainable Energy Action support educational activities for urban mobility Plans to be prepared by the cities participating in professionals. the Covenant. • The EC could take further steps, for example through incentives and recommendations. [Action Plan on Urban Mobility COM (2009) 490/5] • Whenever possible, the Commission will encour- available from http://ec.europa.eu/transport/ age Member States to provide platforms for urban/urban_mobility/action_plan_en.htmGUIDELINES – Developing and Implementing a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan 9
  10. 10. T h e p r oj ec tThe ProjectThe European Commission initiated a three-year • Four expert workshops on Sustainable Urban Mobil-project running from May 2010 to April 2013 to ac- ity Plans held in 2010/2011celerate the large scale uptake of Sustainable Urban • UK Local Transport Plan Guidance (second and thirdMobility Plans in Europe with the help of guidance, edition)awareness-raising activities and training work- • French Plans de Déplacements Urbains (PDU) guid-shops. ance and assessmentThe guidelines presented here have been prepared This document informs awareness-raising activitiesbased on a range of sources and expert input: and training workshops on sustainable urban mobility• Desk research of previous research and guidance planning across Europe. (e.g. SUTP expert group report 2004, PILOT and The guidelines will remain a working document that BUSTRIP projects) will be further fine-tuned in 2011 and 2012 (updates• Investigation into the status of and approach to will be made available on www.mobilityplans.eu). The Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans in 31 European fine-tuning will again involve SUMP stakeholders and countries, i.e. the 27 EU Member States as well as experts. Croatia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway• A user needs assessment carried out through stake- holder and expert interviews Source: www.stockxpert.com10 GUIDELINES – Developing and Implementing a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan
  11. 11. A b o u t t h is d ocu m en tAbout this documentThe EC’s Action Plan on Urban Mobility calls for an The present guidelines have been compiled with theincrease in the take up of sustainable urban mobil- input of many experts on urban transport and mobil-ity planning in Europe. This document introduces the ity planning from across Europe. They reflect a wideconcept of Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans and sets range of experiences. The guidelines, however, needout the steps involved in the preparation of such plans. interpretation in the local context, which may lead toThe document is aimed at practitioners in urban trans- approaches that are somewhat different from thoseport and mobility as well as other stakeholders who described in this document. The guidelines do not givewould be involved in the preparation and implementa- detailed technical guidance, but focus on the processtion of Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans. of developing and implementing an SUMP. The docu- ment however includes many links to more specificThe guidelines presented in this working document technical guidance and tools that can be applied whenfocus on the basic description of essential require- developing an SUMP.ments for Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans. Theyinclude good practice examples, tools and references As mentioned these Guidelines are a working docu-that further illustrate the development and implemen- ment. The SUMP project welcomes comments andtation of a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan. encourages submitting further examples of planning practices (especially from cities in Central and EasternIn many cases, the good practices cover examples Europe). Please see the contact details on page 2 tofrom urban mobility plans that can be considered to send your comments or contributions.fulfil the requirements of an SUMP. In other cases, thegood practices describe processes and activities thatare not embedded directly in an SUMP context, butprovide valuable tips for similar activities (e.g. citizeninvolvement when designing specific measures) withina sustainable urban mobility planning process. Theaim is to provide a portfolio of examples from differ-ent European regions to show that good planningapproaches are possible in different contexts.Information on “Activities beyond essential require-ments” gives additional guidance to cities and regionsthat have already reached an advanced level of urbanmobility planning. Many of the good practice examplesalso illustrate advanced planning activities.GUIDELINES – Developing and Implementing a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan 11
  12. 12. T h e S U M P cycle in ov e r v ie wThe SUMP cycle in overviewThe three elements of a Sustainable Urban Mobil- It needs to be stressed that the timing of the differentity Plan, as presented and agreed at the consultation Activities provides a logical rather than a sequentialworkshops are: structure. Activities run partially in parallel or include• Planning (process): the core of the methodology feedback loops. The section on “timing and coordina-• Plan (content of the document): beyond providing tion” for each Activity highlights crucial aspects in this a plan outline, putting focus on actual examples of regard. effective measures• Policy (implementation process of the plan and its The following page includes a graphical overview of the final appraisal): a new element to facilitate imple- SUMP cycle, followed by a detailed description of all mentation Elements and Activities.Developing and implementing an SUMP should beunderstood as an innovation cycle that is repeated inthe sense of a continuous improvement strategy.This document structures the SUMP cycle into 11Elements (= main steps) and 32 Activities (= detailingspecific tasks). Each of the 32 SUMP Activities belong-ing to the eleven SUMP Elements is structured in auniform manner:• Rationale of Activity, issues to be addressed, ques- tions to which responses are needed• Aims of the Activities to be performed• Tasks describing what needs to be done in detail• Activities beyond essential requirements, address- ing cities with some experience in the elaboration of mobility plans• Timing and coordination requirements with other Activities• Checklist of milestones to be achieved12 GUIDELINES – Developing and Implementing a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan
  13. 13. S U M P E le m en t s a nd Ac t i v i t iesSUMP Elements & Activities Milestone: Final impact assessment concluded 1.1 Commit to overall sustainable mobility principles 1.2 Assess impact of regional/national framework 11.1 Update current plan regularly Starting Point: 1.3 Conduct self-assessment Review achievements - "We want to 11.2 understand success and failure improve mobility 1.4 Review availability of resources and quality Identify new challenges of life for our 1.5 Define basic timeline 11.3 citizens!" for next SUMP generation 1. Determine 1.6 Identify key actors and stakeholders 11. Learn the your potential 10.1 Manage plan implementation lessons for a successful Look beyond your own SUMP 2.1 boundaries and responsibilities 10.2 Inform and engage the citizens Strive for policy coordination and 10. Ensure 2.2 an integrated planing approach Check progress towards 2. Define the 10.3 proper manage- development achieving the objectives Plan stakeholder and citizen ment and process and 2.3 communication Implementing Preparing scope of involvement Milestone: the plan well plan 2.4 Agree on workplan and management arrangements SUMP document Prepare an analysis of adopted 3.1 9. Adopt Sustainable problems and opportunities 3. Analyse the 9.1 Check the quality Sustainable Urban mobility situation 3.2 Develop scenarios of the plan Urban Mobility and develop Plan Mobility scenarios 9.2 Adopt the plan Milestone: Planning Analysis of problems Create ownership & opportunities concluded 9.3 of the plan Rational and 8. Build Elaborating transparent Develop a common vision of monitoring and the plan goal setting 4. Develop 4.1 mobility and beyond Arrange for monitoring assessment into a common 8.1 and evaluation the plan vision 4.2 Actively inform the public 7. Agree 5. Set on clear priorities and 7.1 Assign responsibilities and resources responsibilities measurable 5.1 Identify the priorities for mobility and allocate 6. Develop effective targets 7.2 Prepare an action and budget plan funding 5.2 Develop SMART targets packages of measures 6.1 Identify the most effective measures 6.2 Learn from others experience Milestone: Measures 6.3 Consider best value for money identified 6.4 Use synergies and create integrated packages of measuresRupprecht Consult, 31 March 2011GUIDELINES – Developing and Implementing a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan 13
  14. 14. S U M P E le m en t s a nd Act i v i t ies – p h a se 1: p r epa r ing w ellGuidelines –SUMP Elements and Activities It should be clear from is to convince decision makers of the added value of Starting Point: the outset that urban this approach. If there is no “champion” available on "We want to transport and mobility the local level, it can be hard work to convince the improve mobility is not an end in itself right politicians to become supporters of developing an and quality but should contribute SUMP. This requires compiling good arguments. While of life for our to higher goals, such there is no “silver bullet”, starting points could be to citizens!" as quality of life and show the challenges and problems the city faces if well-being of the citi- nothing is changed, to stress the benefits generated byzens. This should be the starting point for developing an SUMP and to highlight the fact that good results area Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan. Depending on the recognised by the voters (e.g. pointing to other citiesnational context a legal obligation can also be the driv- that have applied sustainable urban mobility planning).ing force for developing an SUMP. Nevertheless real This is particularly challenging as the full impact of ancommitment is needed to make it a truly sustainable SUMP only becomes visible after a longer time-spanand effective plan. than the electoral cycle. It may be helpful to point to the option of including “quick win” solutions in the SUMP,A common challenge for planners in local administra- which may help to generate a positive response amongtions who support sustainable urban mobility planning citizens and other stakeholders in the short-term. Source: Bernd Decker, Rupprecht Consult14 GUIDELINES – Developing and Implementing a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan
  15. 15. S U M P E le m en t s a nd Act i v i t ies– p h a se 1: p r epa r ing w ell Element 1: Determine your potential for a successful SUMP Commit to overall sustainable Review availability of Preparing well 1.1 1.4 mobility principles resources 1. Determine your potential Assess impact of regional/national 1.2 1.5 Define basic timeline for a successful framework SUMP Identify key actors and 1.3 Conduct self-assessment 1.6 stakeholders AimsAt the beginning of the sustainable urban mobility plan- • Ensure that basic sustainability principles are takenning process, it is necessary to determine the potential into account throughout the whole planning process.to elaborate a successful SUMP. This depends on many • Develop a joint understanding of what sustainableinternal and external factors that provide an overall urban mobility means.framework for the planning process and plan imple- • Broaden the view to all aspects that need to bementation. addressed to make the SUMP a truly sustainableThe following describes the key activities in preparing document, also beyond transport and mobility.the SUMP process. TasksActivity 1.1: Commit to overall • Analyse to what extent sustainability principlessustainable mobility principles are already part of your city’s/ region’s policy (e.g. in visions, local agenda) on transport and mobilityRationale and related policy fields (e.g. sustainable land-useAn urban transport plan can only call itself sustainable if policy that makes use of brownfield land vs. one thatcertain economic, social and environmental criteria are promotes urban sprawl).taken into account. An underlying understanding of, and • Check with local decision makers and key stake-commitment to, sustainability principles is an essential holders with a say in relevant policy fields to whatplanning fundamental that will help to orient the SUMP extent the sustainability principles are in line withdevelopment process at an overall strategic level. the current political agenda. • As a starting point, try to achieve broad agreement on making sustainability principles the underlying Definition: fundament of the work on SUMP. A sustainable transport system A sustainable transport system meets socie- ty’s economic, social and environmental needs whilst minimising its undesirable impacts on the economy, society and the environment. Source: Renewed EU Sustainable Development Strategy as adopted by the European Council on 15/16 June 2006, http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eussd/GUIDELINES – Developing and Implementing a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan 15
  16. 16. S U M P E le m en t s a nd Act i v i t ies – p h a se 1: p r epa r ing w ellActivities beyond essential Timing and coordinationrequirements • At the beginning of the planning process. Sustain-• Reinforce your commitment to sustainable urban ability principles to be considered throughout the mobility by joining the Covenant of the Mayors and/ whole planning process. or the CiViTAS Forum (details see below).• Make sure that a clear distinction is made between Checklist access to services and facilities (mobility) and traffic/ transport: The first is the objective of all activities, Analysis concluded on the extent to the purpose; the second is the instrument to real- which sustainability criteria guide current ize access and mobility. An overall principle could be policies relevant to urban mobility. to provide access for the citizens with less traffic (= Overall commitment to sustainability less resources, less costs, less fuel, less pollution, principles from key stakeholders achieved. less accidents etc.). Examples CiViTAS Forum Network Currently there are 186 member cities in the CiViTAS Forum Network that have signed the CiViTAS Decla- ration. The CiViTAS Forum is open to all cities that want to learn more about the usefulness of individ- ual measures that support clean urban transport, and the best ways to combine and integrate them on Source: www.civitas-initiative.eu a large scale. Participating cities have to prove their political and technical commitments to introduce ambitious, integrated urban transport strategies. Covenant of Mayors Specifically, this means that the city plans to The European Union (EU) is leading the global fight • achieve a significant change in the modal split, in against climate change, and has made it a top prior- favour of sustainable transportation modes; ity. Its ambitious targets are spelt out in the EU • follow an integrated approach, by addressing as Climate Action and Energy Package, which commits many of the categories of CiViTAS instruments Member States to curb their CO2 emissions by at and measures as possible in its policy. least 20 % by 2020. Signatories of the Covenant of Each city must commit itself to the introduc- Mayors contribute to these policy objectives through tion of an ambitious, sustainable urban trans- a formal commitment to go beyond this target port policy. This commitment must be politically through the implementation of a Sustainable Energy endorsed in the CiViTAS Forum Declaration by Action Plan. the signature of a local politician who has execu- tive power (Councillor or (Vice) Mayor). Details see: Details see: www.eumayors.eu http://civitas.eu/cms_network.phtml?id=37116 GUIDELINES – Developing and Implementing a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan
  17. 17. S U M P E le m en t s a nd Act i v i t ies– p h a se 1: p r epa r ing w ellActivity 1.2: Assess impact of °° Requirements or initiatives for coordination andregional/national framework integration of different policies, e.g. the inte- gration of local and regional land use planningRationale such as new housing developments or businessSustainable urban mobility planning is focused on parks in the region can decisively change mobilitythe level of the urban agglomeration. Neverthe- patterns on the local level.less it is embedded in a wider regional and national • Create a synopsis of relevant regional/ nationalframework for planning activities in the field of urban framework with suggestions as to how to addressmobility. This includes for example regulations, fund- these points for the local SUMP.ing streams or higher level strategies for spatial andtransport development (e.g. a national transport plan, Activities beyond essentialwhere one exists). It is crucial to assess the impact of requirementsthe regional/ national framework to fully exploit oppor- • Possibility to include further recommendations.tunities and avoid conflicts with higher level authoritiesat a later point. Timing and coordination • At the beginning of the planning process, within aAims few weeks.• Ensure that relevant regional and national frame- • Consider relevant results throughout the whole work conditions for SUMP are identified. planning process and for measure design, take it• Gain a clear perspective on how the regional and particularly into account when defining the develop- national framework will influence the sustaina- ment process and scope of plan (SUMP Element 2). ble urban mobility planning process and design of measures. ChecklistTasks Relevant documents from national• Identify, document and assess: and regional level reviewed and °° Legal regulations and guidance for an SUMP (if results summarised. any) °° Regional/ national funding criteria that relate to Opportunities and potential problems an SUMP identified that might result from °° Higher level plans, strategies and objectives that regional and national framework might influence your SUMP or what your SUMP conditions. can do. For example, a National Roads Author- ity’s plans for new or improved roads could work against the objectives of a city’s SUMP by encour- aging more driving into the city. The SUMP will have to take this into account. °° Higher level influence on responsibilities or plan- ning perimeter for an SUMPGUIDELINES – Developing and Implementing a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan 17
  18. 18. S U M P E le m en t s a nd Act i v i t ies – p h a se 1: p r epa r ing w ell Examples France: National framework and legal aspects The first development of the “Plans de Déplacements Urbains” (PDUs) – the French SUMP – followed the adoption of the Loi des transports intérieurs (Law on domestic transport; LOTI) in December 1982. This law stipulates the goal, general objectives and Source: www.sxc.hu | Pascal THAUVIN orientations of the PDUs. The general goal of a PDU is to ensure a sustainable equilibrium between the needs for mobility and accessibility with the protec- PDU observatory that evaluates annually the progress tion of the environment and health. The Loi sur l’air made in the realisation of different PDU activities. The et l’utilisation rationelle de l’énergie (Clean air and PDU should also be compatible with a range of other rational use of energy law; LAURE) of December plans and strategies such as those on urban develop- 1996 made it obligatory for all agglomerations with ment, on air quality and climate protection, on territo- more than 100,000 inhabitants to develop a PDU. rial development, on higher level transport and road Transport authorities in agglomerations with less development schemes, on access for the disabled than 100,000 inhabitants may choose to develop a and the equality act and on mobility management/ PDU on a voluntary basis. Several such authorities commuter plans. An interesting new development is have chosen to do so; others have developed similar that the “Law Grenelle 2” (2010) imposed the require- documents, although they were not legally obligated ment to measure CO2 levels before the implemen- to do so (e.g. Schéma de Déplacement Urbain, or tation of an SUMP, and another one after five years. Politique Globale de Déplacement). This evaluation supplements the 2005 regulation that The Loi solidarité et renouvellement urbains (solidar- obliges an environmental impact assessment to be ity and urban renovation law; SRU) of December 2000 carried out during the elaboration of a PDU. reinforced the PDU as an instrument. This legislation Source: Rupprecht Consult, based on: enlarged the number of mobility issues to be dealt «Plan de Déplacements Urbains»: Panorama 2009, GART, Paris, with, and also made it a reference document for mobil- avril 2010. ity, urban development, social cohesion and environ- «Les Plans de Déplacements Urbains, Bilan et Perspectives», mental protection. Therewith, the PDU changed from GART, Paris, 2005. a “simple” forward-looking document into an integra- «Transport public et déplacement dans les schéma de Cohérence territoriale», Actes du colloque organise le 13 septembre 2005, tive programming document of infrastructures and GART, Paris, 2005. accompanying measures. The law also imposed the «Loi Handicap: 1 an après, Conférence de presse», Phillippe Bas, inclusion of a more detailed financial plan and a calen- Ministre délégué à la Sécurité sociale, aux personnes âgées, aux dar for the integrated actions and activities. Finally, Personnes handicapées et à la famille, 9 février 2006. AUCAM, le Plan de Déplacement Urbain (PDU), Que savons nous, N°27, the law requires an evaluation and review of the PDU Caen, octobre 2010. at the latest five years after the final approval of the plan. Most metropolitan authorities have set up a18 GUIDELINES – Developing and Implementing a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan
  19. 19. S U M P E le m en t s a nd Act i v i t ies– p h a se 1: p r epa r ing w ellActivity 1.3: • Identify and analyse drivers and barriers for trans-Conduct self-assessment port development in your urban agglomeration. °° Contextual barriers that affect the whole sustain-Rationale able urban mobility planning process (e.g. insti-A self-assessment at the beginning of the planning tutional, legal, financial – for example, is the busprocess is needed to identify strengths and weak- company private, or controlled by another level ofnesses and to understand your own potential to run a government?successful sustainable urban mobility planning proc- °° Process barriers that may arise in the courseess. The assessment should cover the current status of the planning (e.g. management, communica-of transport planning (how close to SUMP are you?) as tion between different departments who will bewell as the contextual and process barriers and driv- involved in SUMP development and implementa-ers that might influence the sustainable urban mobil- tion).ity planning process. This will help to determine what °° Identify drivers that can support process andthe planning process will look like in your own local implementation.context. The self-assessment should consider the • Assess social exclusion aspects and solutions in theneeds of the whole community, i.e. for example also framework of transport policies. This means consid-address social inclusion and gender questions. ering the needs of the whole community, including all vulnerable groups such as children, disabledAims people, the elderly, low income households, minority• Get an honest and clear picture on the strengths, groups etc. Gender aspects, i.e. giving women and weaknesses and opportunities with regard to devel- men the same opportunities, should also be looked oping an SUMP in your own local context (e.g. politi- at. Important questions are: cal, institutional, legal framework). °° Does the transport system guarantee equal• Develop a tailored sustainable urban mobility plan- access, affordability and availability (or related ning process that fits the local context. mobility options)? °° Do transport-related measures facilitate employ-Tasks ment and support the development of an inclusive• Analyse the status of different SUMP elements labour market? in your current local transport planning (are they • Carry out an honest self-assessment as a starting considered fully, to a limited degree or not at all?). point for improving planning processes and policies. You may use this document to check whether the The outcome does not necessarily have to be made Elements and Activities described have already public. been established in your city or region. This way you can identify gaps in current planning practice that should be addressed in the new SUMP.GUIDELINES – Developing and Implementing a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan 19
  20. 20. S U M P E le m en t s a nd Act i v i t ies – p h a se 1: p r epa r ing w ell Tools Self-assessment methodologies achieved, as well as on how it organises its SUMP. Internal meeting and review The City of Gent and the City of Ljubljana employed A self assessment can be as simple as a group peer reviewers to help them reflect on what they of people who are involved in the planning proc- have achieved, and how they might do better in their ess sitting down together to discuss the strengths SUMPs. (See also example from BUSTRIP project and weaknesses of current processes and how to on the next page) improve them. An independent facilitator can help in this. If desired, this can be coupled with a full SWOT-analysis. This method was used by Derby- Use of quality management systems shire County Council in the UK, as a way of improv- and labels ing its local transport planning (SUMP) processes, Quality management systems (QMS) are designed and of taking into account changes in other areas of to assess organisational processes and offer guid- planning that affected the LTP. ance on how to improve them. When a certain level of organisational quality is judged to have been achieved, a label or certificate is awarded. The most well known form of quality management system is ISO9001, which evolved out of quality management primarily in the manufacturing industry, and so was initially designed for production processes. More relevant to sustainable urban mobility planning might be the Common Assessment Framework, which is available free of charge to all EU Member States and is particularly aimed at the public sector. Source: FGM Finally, some specific quality management systems that deal with certain aspects of sustainable mobili- ty are currently available: Bypad is a QMS for cycling Peer review (www.bypad.org), and MaxQ is a QMS for mobility Another way of reviewing the planning environment management (www.epomm.eu). The City of Lund in for an SUMP is by means of a peer review. This is Sweden has applied MaxQ to improve the mobility where one or more sustainable urban mobility plan- management policy that sits within the wider frame- ners, or other experts in the field, are invited to work of its well known SUMP, Lundamats. QMSs review the situation in a city before it prepares its to assess the quality of a city’s entire sustainable (latest) SUMP. The peer reviewer can consider the mobility policy are currently (2011) under develop- quality of the planning process and organisations in ment in the IEE STEER projects Ecomobility SHIFT place and can also help to benchmark its outputs (www.ecomobility.org/shift/), QUEST and ADVANCE and outcomes against the “best in class,” thus giving (no websites available at time of writing). the city feedback on what it has done and what it has Source: Tom Rye, Edinburgh Napier University20 GUIDELINES – Developing and Implementing a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan
  21. 21. S U M P E le m en t s a nd Act i v i t ies– p h a se 1: p r epa r ing w ellActivities beyond essential Timing and coordinationrequirements • At the beginning of the planning process, with• Apply peer-review methodology with external experts. results to be taken into account for the design of• Apply quality management systems. locally tailored sustainable urban mobility planning process (→ Activity 2.4 “Agree on work plan and management arrangements). • Link to → Activity 1.4: Review availability of resources. Tools Self assessment and peer review in BUSTRIP project The BUSTRIP project used a peer review method to help the partner cities understand the status of their urban transport planning, policies, activities and processes. The methodology was designed to assist partner cities in preparing and implementing Source: Sakari Saarinen sustainable urban transport plans and actions. BUSTRIP peer reviews were performance assess- served as background information for a peer review ments; considered judgments of peers (experts from team that was nominated specifically for each part- other partner cities) on status and progress made ner city. The peers desk-reviewed the self assess- (performance) by municipalities towards an agreed- ment report and set up with city the actual peer upon benchmark of sustainable urban transport. review visit. As a next step, the peer review team The “BUSTRIP SUTP Benchmark” was adapted from visited the city for 3 – 5 days and carried out a review the final report of the EU Expert Working Group on on the basis of the self-assessment and on meetings Sustainable Urban Transport Plans 2004. The bench- and interviews with stakeholders, interest groups, mark described the characteristics that should be politicians and civil servants. After the visit, the evident within Sustainable Urban Transport Plans. team wrote its peer review report for the reviewed As a first step of the peer review process the cities city who then used both their own self-assessment prepared self-assessment reports describing the report and the peer review team’s report in the next progress being made in the municipality towards steps of the planning process and preparation of the sustainable urban transport. The self-assessment city’s Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan. reports included the municipality profile, the driv- BUSTRIP peer review methodology document is available from: ers and impacts related to urban transport, and the www.bustrip-project.net/documents.htm gap analysis describing the processes the city had Author: Sakari Saarinen, Finland (formerly Union of Baltic Cities, used in preparing its existing transport related plans, now City of Helsinki) strategies, actions, and targets. This description was compared to the ‘ideal’ characteristics of the bench- mark for preparing SUTPs. The self-assessmentGUIDELINES – Developing and Implementing a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan 21
  22. 22. S U M P E le m en t s a nd Act i v i t ies – p h a se 1: p r epa r ing w ell Examples Koprivnica, Croatia: Identify and focus on strengths in order to eliminate weaknesses At the very beginning of the Active Access project (www.active-access.eu) in which Koprivnica partici- pates to promote cycling and walking, a detailed status-analysis was carried out. This was based on a self-assessment carried out by the municipal- ity itself, an extensive consultation process with a Source: City of Koprivnica photo gallery range of stakeholders as well as a public survey. The public survey was conducted repeatedly, target- The city’s mobility plan attempts to eliminate weak- ing those who walk and cycle regularly, as well as nesses by focusing on these strengths. When car those who primarily drive their cars. drivers were asked in the public survey whether they The self-assessment has revealed that the city would change their mobility patterns if there was has excellent conditions to promote sustainable a proper infrastructure in place, there was over- mobility. The urban structure is level, compact and whelming support. All in all, a solid self-assess- has enough space to install an extensive bicycle ment was crucial in choosing the right focus for network. Already now 30% of the population walk or Koprivnica’s mobility planning, and assured great cycle regularly. 70% of school children go to school public acceptance also during the implementation using public transport, cycling or by foot. In the phase. summer vacation period the number of pedestrians and cyclists even outnumber that of cars. Eltis case studies with more information on Koprivni- ca: http://www.Eltis.org/index.php?ID1=6&id=62 Source: Gábor Heves, Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe Checklist Appropriate self-assessment carried out. Strengths and weaknesses with regard to developing an SUMP identified. Results summarised as starting point to optimise locally tailored planning process.22 GUIDELINES – Developing and Implementing a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan
  23. 23. S U M P E le m en t s a nd Act i v i t ies– p h a se 1: p r epa r ing w ellActivity 1.4: TasksReview availability of resources • Assess skills available within the leading organisation(s) and among stakeholders. EnsureRationale that all core skills for sustainable urban mobilityClosely linked to the self-assessment is the question of planning are considered. See list below.the available resources for carrying out the sustainable • Develop a simple skill management plan thaturban mobility planning process and for implementing outlines a strategy to cover skill gaps (e.g. throughmeasures. This includes human resources (i.e. avail- training, cooperation, subcontracting). This shouldable staff and skills) as well as financial resources. be done by someone who is familiar with the sustain-Without sufficient resources it will be difficult to run able urban mobility planning process (if applicablea successful SUMP. For most public authorities, the in cooperation with your human resources manag-specific skills required for running the SUMP process er). See figure below.will exceed the capacities of their staff. While it may • Define the required budget for the sustainablebe common practice to bring in external expertise for urban mobility planning process and ensure politi-particular technical tasks it is also important to think cal approval.about building up expertise in your own organisation, • Assess the likely budgetary framework for measureand co-operating with other stakeholder over the long implementation. Consider local, regional, nationalterm. The aim is to cover immediate skill requirements and EU funding opportunities. This will probably still,by sub-contracting if needed, but also to develop and be a rough estimate at this stage, but will help youkeep expertise on sustainable urban mobility planning stay realistic.within your own organisation. Activities beyond essentialAims requirements• Ensure that the necessary (wide) range of skills for • Cooperation between responsible organisations to managing and driving the SUMP process are avail- fill potential skill gaps. able in your local authority and among stakeholders. • Involvement of external partners (e.g. consultants,• Balance short-term skill requirements and capac- universities) to fill skill gaps as needed. ity building for the local sustainable urban mobility • Recruitment: In the case of skill shortages, consider planning community. hiring people with a non-transport-related back-• Assess the confirmed and potential financial ground for specific tasks (e.g. marketing). This kind resources for running the planning process and for of “thinking outside the box” helps bring in the fresh implementing measures. perspective that is a key part of sustainable urban mobility planning. Also consider combining the resources of different stakeholders to finance staff (see Aachen example below). Timing and coordination • From the outset, essential for the constitution of the SUMP team that will actually carry out the planning processGUIDELINES – Developing and Implementing a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan 23
  24. 24. S U M P E le m en t s a nd Act i v i t ies – p h a se 1: p r epa r ing w ell Details on the tasks Developing a skill management plan Management skills Identify core skill Technical skills requirements Operative skills Skills Profile of responsible Motivation (organisations & organisations (deficits individuals) and strength) Cooperation Skill management options Training Add expertise Internal External Cooperation Recruitment Subcontracts Available financial resources Schedule of SUT-planning Skill management plan (Figure amended from PILOT project 2007, www.pilot-transport.org/)24 GUIDELINES – Developing and Implementing a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan
  25. 25. S U M P E le m en t s a nd Act i v i t ies– p h a se 1: p r epa r ing w ellCore skill requirements for sustainable urban mobility planning Management skills (required during the entire sustainable urban mobility planning process) Project management (incl. political liaison) Technical management Financial management Staff management (incl. managing multidisciplinary teams made up of internal and external staff) Technical skills (required during the entire process) Urban planning and transport planning Other important sectoral policies (economic, social, environmental) Basic knowledge of policy at other levels – regional, national, EU Operational skills (required for particular Activities) Related Element/ Activity Activity 2.4 Plan stakeholder and citizen involvement Element 4. Develop a common vision Stakeholder and citizen involvement Activity 9.3 Create ownership of the plan Activity 10.2 Inform and engage citizens (measure implementation) Element 3. Analyse the mobility situation and develop scenarios Development, monitoring and Element 5. Set priorities and measurable targets evaluation of indicators Element 8. Build monitoring and evaluation into the plan Element 3. Analyse the mobility situation and develop options Data collection and analysis Element 8. Build monitoring and assessment into the plan Modelling and scenario development Activity 3.2 Develop scenarios Activity 2.3 Plan stakeholder and citizen involvement Information and public Element 4. Develop a common vision and engage citizens relations, Marketing Activity 9.3 Create ownership of the plan Activity 10.2 Inform and engage citizens (measure implementation) Activity 2.4 Agree on work plan and management arrangements Accounting Activity 7.2 Prepare an action and budget plan Activity 7.2 Prepare an action and budget plan Procurement Activity 10.1 Manage plan implementationSource: Pilot full manual 2007, table amended, www.pilot-transport.org/index.php?id=48 Checklist Skills and required financial resources for planning process analysed. Skill management plan compiled. Budget for running sustainable urban mobility planning process politically approved. Likely budgetary framework for measure implementation assessed.GUIDELINES – Developing and Implementing a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan 25
  26. 26. S U M P E le m en t s a nd Act i v i t ies – p h a se 1: p r epa r ing w ell Examples Bristol, England: Skill management Örebro, Sweden: in Joint Local Transport Plan (JLTP) Promoting a new way of thinking 2005/6 – 2010/11 The common view of sustainable transport was not so Ensuring continuous improvement in project strong in Örebro when the sustainable urban mobil- management skills forms a key part of ongoing ity planning process started. To change the situation, staff development within the Councils that joined to the city used various measures. A capacity-building develop a common LTP in the Greater Bristol area. assessment was carried out in a working group as Internal programmes of project management devel- part of the self-assessment, identifying the knowl- opment are already in place and key staff across edge gaps among the employees. The finding was the transport sectors are under regular review to that the municipality has a good detailed knowledge ensure standards are continuously improved. of transport-related issues but mainly within narrow Wider than project management, the authorities are fields. “For many professionals a more holistic way of working with internal and external training agencies thinking can be a bit of a revolution,” says Per Elving- and local universities to explore further opportuni- son, who started as a process manager for sustain- ties for both developing existing staff and bringing able transport soon after the assessment. To facilitate new trainees into the authorities. Where external the implementation of sustainable urban transport, expertise is used the approach is to integrate these a special unit – also responsible for raising aware- staff into the project teams. This approach ensures ness among employees and politicians – was set up. that through close working within a multi-discipli- The unit has, among other things, planned semi- nary project team the strengths and skills base of nars focusing on the reduced need for cars through in-house staff are expanded and developed. spatial planning. In general, a new way of thinking Skill management is seen as critical to high quality is the key. “It must be established, especially among transport planning, which is needed to ensure suffi- key persons, to make the process more powerful. An cient government funding.” important part of capacity building has been getting (JLTP2 available from http://travelplus.org.uk/ all key staff to agree on a common analysis of the our-vision/joint-local-transport-plan-2) current situation. In this respect, the SUMP template Source: City of Örebr26 GUIDELINES – Developing and Implementing a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan
  27. 27. S U M P E le m en t s a nd Act i v i t ies– p h a se 1: p r epa r ing w ell Examples has been a very good tool.” Meanwhile, it is impor- France: Responsibilities for PDU tant to look around at what others are doing beyond (Plans de Déplacements Urbains) municipal borders. “It is very important to provide our development decision-makers with very practical, good examples During the development of the PDU (=SUMP) the that have already been tested.” International coopera- relevant authority is often assisted, both in the prep- tion has become more important in this process. Over aration of the work plan, and in the development of the past few years, Örebro has focused on exchanging the PDU itself. Some authorities delegate part of the experiences. Study visits are an important part of that work to the urban development agency of which they work. “On a national level, we are trying to build up are a member, or which they select through a call for an informal network for sustainable transport among tender. Others manage the development of the plan cities of our own size in the region,” Elvingson says. themselves while tendering part of the intellectual Source: BUSTRIP Project 2007, Moving sustainably – Guide to work to private consultancies. The regional trans- Sustainable Urban Transport Plans, www.movingsustainably.net/ port research centres (CETEs) are in general also index.php/movsus:planning_process involved in the elaboration of the PDUs. A number of stakeholders are involved in PDU development. At a minimum, the following stakeholders should be involved during the different development steps: The PDU development stages and stakeholders involved Stages Actors involved others than the competent authority Elaboration or revision Actors associated: State; Department; Region of the PDU Actors consulted: State; Department; Region; Municipalities within the geographical area; Other consulted actors on their demand (associations Formalising of the draft PDU of transport professionals and users, environmental associations, cham- ber of commerce, etc.) Actors consulted: General public (the opinions of the public stakeholders Official public enquiry are attached to the draft PDU) The competent authority approves the PDU, if needed modified following Approval of the PDU the consultation of the public stakeholders and the report of the public enquiry commission Municipalities: compatibility of the local urban development plans, and Implementation of the PDU the road network management; State and department: compatibility with the national and department road network management The competent authority is obliged to evaluate the PDU realisation. It is Evaluation recommended to involve all actors that were involved in the initial devel- opment of the PDU Source: Rupprecht Consult, based on “Transport et mobilité, les dossiers du CERTU n°146”, «La concertation dans les PDU: pourquoi? Avec Qui? Comment?», CERTU, Lyon, janvier 2006.GUIDELINES – Developing and Implementing a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan 27
  28. 28. S U M P E le m en t s a nd Act i v i t ies – p h a se 1: p r epa r ing w ell Examples France: Costs of PDU development Aachen, Germany: Cooperation The costs of the development of a PDU differs between the city authority and the widely and depends on the scope of the PDU, the chamber of industry and commerce availability of existing plans and studies, the nature to finance a mobility manager of the envisaged PDU, and the external assistance An example for thinking outside the box with regard required. In France, the authority generally spends to financial resources is the cooperation between between 200,000 and 400,000 EUR on the develop- the City of Aachen’s environment department and ment of a PDU. These accounts, however, are not its chamber of industry and commerce. They have always complete and some hidden costs, or costs jointly financed a part-time mobility manager since covered by external subsidies are not included in 2008. The basis for this was the Clean-Air Plan, in these figures. which many measures were agreed on to promote Source: Rupprecht Consult, based on «PDU», GART, April 2010. alternatives to cars, especially for trips to work. The part-time mobility manager is responsible for consulting the chamber’s member companies regarding public transport offers and represents the interests of the member companies in the field of mobility management. The mobility manager is funded two-thirds by the City of Aachen and one- third by the chamber. The approach of bundling financial resources for running mobility manage- ment is unique for Germany and a good example of how public authorities can maximise resources when funding is tight. The joint funding of staff by involved parties should be considered from the Source: FGM beginning to ensure sufficient human resources to set up the plan and to monitor the implementation of measures. More information (in German) available from www.effizient-mobil.de/index.php?id=aachen Source: Rupprecht Consult based on input from the City of Aachen28 GUIDELINES – Developing and Implementing a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan
  29. 29. S U M P E le m en t s a nd Act i v i t ies– p h a se 1: p r epa r ing w ellActivity 1.5: TasksDefine basic timeline • Strive to fully embed sustainable urban mobility planning into the development and implementationRationale schedule of other existing policies and strategiesEnsuring the right timing is a key to success. Steps (both overall and by sector).and stages in the SUMP process partly depend on each • Choose an appropriate timeframe for building aother – interdependencies need to be carefully trans- strategic and operational framework for the plan-lated into a chronological order that fulfils all logical ning process: 1-3 years (partly preceding and partlyrequirements of the process (e.g. having identified overlapping with the planning process). The timeproblems before discussing objectives) and harmonis- needed for this will to a large extent depend on thees with the local conditions. experience with planning processes, institutionalIt is also crucial to consider on-going planning and structures the political context and the local ‘plan-policy-making activities when determining the timing ning culture’.for the planning process. Election periods, legislation • Establish a timeframe for the sustainable urbanprocesses, regulation processes or other planning mobility planning process: in ideal case 1.5 yearsactivities may influence the SUMP process through (depending on framework conditions and experiencetheir influence on the institutional context (e.g. change this can become longer).of decision makers, changing legislation). • Take into consideration decision-making windows (e.g. elections). The months before an election itAims may be difficult to move ahead quickly. This may• Build SUMP into current planning practice. influence the timing of the planning process.• Strive for harmonisation of the timing of the SUMP • Continue to implement “quick win” measures during process with different technical and political deci- setting-up the strategic and operative framework sion-making processes (e.g. overall strategies, for SUMP and during the planning process. This will sectoral plans, elections). Identify time windows for help to avoid the impression of inactivity and will coordination with SUMP. be particularly important for decision-makers who• Enable realistic planning of the entire SUMP proc- need to show that they are working towards a more ess. sustainable urban mobility development. The “quick• Establish an overview of the general schedule of win” measures should be short-term measures that the SUMP process (preparation, drafting, validity/ can be relatively quickly implemented, have good horizon, implementation, review) and describe the visibility, contribute to sustainability goals, and will temporal interdependencies among all tasks. not jeopardize an integrated planning approach for• Minimise risks related to timing. the SUMP. • Choose an appropriate timeframe for implementa- tion of measures: 3-10 years (e.g. depending on the type of measure and synchronisation with funding streams). • Build in time for evaluation and a plan update after plan adoption. Review and update at least every 5 years.GUIDELINES – Developing and Implementing a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan 29

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