What’s Shanghai’s effective urbantransport policy in the period of rapid growth? Pan Haixiao, Professor E-mail: email@example.com Department of Urban Planning, Tongji University 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092, China
0. Introduction Location & Region Total area of 6,340.5 km2 Population of 12 million around 17 million(2003) 4. million 18.6 million(2007) 24.0 million(2011) 12 million
First-ring 100sq.km 4 millionOut-ring 660sq.km 12 million
Poor transport system until 1990’sLong delay in transport infrastructure and high density, low level ofroad space (2.29sq.m/capita. In Shanghai)Big conflicts of bus and bike, heavy congestion when economyimprovedBus speed : 4.5-6km/h, rush hourDense bus line comparing with other cities in China, night busavailable
Modal split in Shanghai PT PC WBTaxi: 3 million pax, Bus: 7 million pax, Metro 6 million
Modal split in Shanghai for commuting Citywide: PT32%, PC+M 21%Central city: PT42% , PC21%
1.Control on motorized vehicle in early stage ——license auction 2005~2010 comparing of private cars by Beijing and Shanghai (unit:10 thousand) Shanghai- Beijing Population > Income > Car<< Source: Shanghai Statistics Yearbook (2006-2011), Beijing Statistics Yearbook (2006-2011) According to the comparison of the amount of private cars between the two similar cities, Beijing and Shanghai, private cars license auction policy reduced millions of automobiles from 2005 to 2010.
Auction prices from 2002 to 2011 (unit: yuan) Now: 10,000 USD car plateSince 2010 the price of license has been rising rapidly, so government increasesthe number of licenses in order to control the price in a reasonable range,which weakens the effect of license auction policy. But not success in controlthe price
1.Control on motorized vehicle — parking fee policiesHigher Parking Fee from 20063~5 times higher than Beijing, other cities in China On-street parking fee management in Shanghai Daytime Area First Extra half Night(Yuan) hour(Yuan) hour(Yuan) Key area in inner city 15 10 10 Other area in inner city 10 6 8 Area between inner/outer ring 7 4 5
How people use their car?—very small percentage for short travel Only 14.9% car travel distance less than 5km Lyon: 58% Car travel distance less than 3kmTo city center: 66% by public transport 22% by Car 12% by Slow Mode
Problems:1.Park fee doesn’t increase with the CPI, so the effect of this policygradually failed. It should be adjusted to 5 euro/hour according to the incomeincreasing People affordable car plate have higher income as in developedcountry2.Park fee has no difference between cars with different emission ofCO2, so this policy can’t encourage people use the cars with low-carbon emission.3. Public Participation, people’ s congress each , ask for more parkingspace to Mayor , 10 representatives jointed bill
Problems:1.Park fee doesn’t increase with the CPI, so the effect of this policy gradually failed. It should be adjusted to 5 euro/hour according to the income increasing People affordable car plate have higher income as in developed country2.Park fee has no difference between cars with different emission of CO2, so thispolicy can’t encourage people use the cars with low-carbon emission.
Income,CPI,parking cost Income CPI Parking cost Year
2. Strengthen public transport infrastructure construction Achievement : 13 Lines, 420km of metro lines and 300km exclusive bus with camera on bus , no BRT
Challenge:Economical sustainable development and social justice. The government couldn’t balance the cost with the ticket revenue
Is metro fast? Distance Time Cost Speed (kilometers) （minutes） （yuans） （km/hour）Trip O and Trip Dboth inside InnerBeltway 9.70 49.11 4.71 11.85Trip O or Trip Dbetween Innerand OuterBeltways 14.46 55.23 5.50 15.71Trip O or Trip Doutside OuterBeltway 19.00 67.84 5.78 16.80
3. Building multi-mode urban transport systemThe national road planning code issued in 1994 also helps the fast developmentof bicycle, 3.5-5.5 m dedicated bicycle lane reserved in the design of urbanarterial and sub-arterial road.
Registered number of non-motor vehicles Modal split of slow transportBicycle is still the mostsustainable mode of urbantransport.The government has become toprotect proper activity spacefor slow transport.And e-bike is becoming moreimportant and popular in dailylife with the development ofurban scale. Source: The fourth comprehensive travel survey of Shanghai, 2009
Combine with the metro station Unattended rental stops (digital control, 24h service)Combine with Metro stations In residential communities ShanghaiFirst Innovative Public Bike System
Mode shift from Other Taxi Saving time Miss Private Car Saving Money Metro Pedestrian 45.87％ of the respondents are worrying about the stolen problemBus Private BicycleIn those urban edge area, thepublic transit service are not so E-bike or Motorcycle Shanghaigood.
Bike is not only for last mile But for Broken MilesBike or more general Small size, Slow speed, Short Range vehicleIs the Key Balance Factor to Establish a Multi-Modal Green Transport System
Multi-Modal Public Transport Hub Discount transferAirport + HSR Station
Challenge:1. The construction of the multi-mode transport system has to face the challenge of institutional fragmentation.2. Transportation construction shows the obvious tendency of roads construction. Taking Shanghai middle ring for example, government only thinks about how to increase the speed and comfortableness of the private cars, neglecting the bicycle and public transportation. Nowadays, the traffic along the middle-ring area hasn’t be improved. Middle ring in Shanghai
4. Land Use Density ControlEmphasize the idea of neighborhood unit, strictly regulateto provide residential area with all kinds of public servicefacilities Residential District Building Land Area Area 1668-3293 2172-5559 Total 2228-4213 2762-6329 Education 600-1200 1000-2400 78-198 138-378 Hospital 178-398 298-548 Culture and 125-245 225-645 Entertainment Commercial 708-910 600-940 Community 59-464 76-668 Service 20-30 Financial 25-50 60-80 40-150 70-360 Infrastructure 460-820 500-960 Administratio 46-96 37-72 n
City Center well integrated , higher market demand
5. Top Down+ Bottom up Transport PlanningTop Down + Bottom-up community planning has appeared, with Shanghai Community Bus to be a very good example.EvaluationTwo community bus lines in Baoshan District has been operated for half a year, withthe daily passengers up to 3,046 and 1,666,twice as that of the first opened day.Problems Longer Headway: 15min headway is a little longer, reducing the convenienceand the attraction. Less Integration: The community bus doesn’t enjoy the public transporttransfer discount policy for bus transfer. Higher Cost : from DistrictPeople’s congress each year, legal system
6. Big event—The Shanghai EXPO 2010A set of consistent travel demand management strategies were developed to organizethe travel of spectators:1. Continue to strengthen metro system construction: Expo transportation system comprises of metro line M4, line M7, line M8 and line L4. Expo traffic supply could reach approximately 78 thousand per hour.2. Construct common BRT lines and EXPO excluded bus lines3. Implement water bus to construct green transport system4. Control private cars: The government implemented the policy of “zero” car parking for the private cars, to encourage the tourists travel by public transportation and improve the traffic condition in this area.5. Implement the time-space balanced strategy with ITS
Achievement :Satisfy the travel demand of spectators and the citizens Without Massive Road Construction and Restriction to Local Citizens Arrival spectator Departure spectator at 21:00~23:00 Source: Zhu, Shao, Chen, Li, 2011
Vision:Green Urban Transport Capital Now Green Transport 80% Private Vehicle 20%3 Km city , TLD
Balanced Multi-ModalGreen Transport System 5DPOD>BOD>TOD>XOD>COD 3 Km + 5D city
Thank you ! Pan Haixiao, Professor Department of Urban Planning Tongji University E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org