Recycling Rates                                       of Metals                                       A Status ReportUnite...
AcknowledgmentsEditor: International Resource Panel, Working Group on the Global Metal FlowsLead author: T. E. Graedel; Au...
About the UNEP Division of Technology,                   Recycling Rates  Industry and Economics                   of Meta...
Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report                  Preface                  The recycling of non-renewable resou...
Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report                  Preface                  Nearly 20 years after the Earth Summ...
Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report                  Table of Contents                  Prefaces _________________...
Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report                  List of Figures                  Figure 1.    The major metal...
Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report                  Abbreviations and Acronyms                  Coll         Coll...
Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report                  Chemical Abbreviations                  Ferrous Metals       ...
Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report          8
Executive SummaryThe recycling of metals is widely viewed as afruitful sustainability strategy, but littleinformation is a...
Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report                  1. Introduction and                                  mine and...
Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report                  ■     Ferrous metals: V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Nb, Mo         The p...
Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report                  In Appendix A, we list the common uses of           2. Metal ...
Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report                  able for raw materials production to ensure            functi...
Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report                      ly economically beneficial and easy to ac-          cling...
Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report                  3. Defining Recycling                               1. How mu...
Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report                  The end-of-life recycling rate is strongly in-               ...
Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report                  The calculation of the RIR is straightforward       use over ...
Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report                  4. A Review of Avail-                              ic table d...
Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report                   1                                                           ...
Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report                   1                                                           ...
Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report                   1                                                           ...
Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report                  5. Recycling Policy                                ■   Produc...
Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report                  Closed cycles are typical for many industri-             Poli...
Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report                  References                                          ISO. 2006...
Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report          25
Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report                  Appendix A.                                       Non-Ferrous...
Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report                  Specialty Metals                                  W – Tungste...
Metals recycling rates for hybrid vehicle
Metals recycling rates for hybrid vehicle
Metals recycling rates for hybrid vehicle
Metals recycling rates for hybrid vehicle
Metals recycling rates for hybrid vehicle
Metals recycling rates for hybrid vehicle
Metals recycling rates for hybrid vehicle
Metals recycling rates for hybrid vehicle
Metals recycling rates for hybrid vehicle
Metals recycling rates for hybrid vehicle
Metals recycling rates for hybrid vehicle
Metals recycling rates for hybrid vehicle
Metals recycling rates for hybrid vehicle
Metals recycling rates for hybrid vehicle
Metals recycling rates for hybrid vehicle
Metals recycling rates for hybrid vehicle
Metals recycling rates for hybrid vehicle
Metals recycling rates for hybrid vehicle
Metals recycling rates for hybrid vehicle
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Metals recycling rates for hybrid vehicle

  1. 1. Recycling Rates of Metals A Status ReportUnited Nations Environment Programme
  2. 2. AcknowledgmentsEditor: International Resource Panel, Working Group on the Global Metal FlowsLead author: T. E. Graedel; Authors: T.E. Graedel, Yale University, USA; Julian Allwood, Cambridge University, UK; Jean-Pierre Birat,Arcelor-Mittal, France; Matthias Buchert, Öko-Institut, Germany; Christian Hagelüken, Umicore Precious Metals Refining, Germany/Belgium; Barbara K. Reck , Yale University, USA; Scott F. Sibley, US Geological Survey (USGS), USA and Guido Sonnemann, UNEP,France.This report has greatly benefitted from the review process of the related article in the Journal of Industrial Ecology (Graedel et al., 2011)The full report should be referenced as follows:UNEP (2011) Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report, A Report of the Working Group on the Global Metal Flows to the Interna-tional Resource Panel. Graedel, T.E.; Allwood, J.; Birat, J.-P.; Reck, B.K.; Sibley, S.F.; Sonnemann, G.; Buchert, M.; Hagelüken, C.The authors of this report thank the following additional workshop participants for their expert perspectives and contributions:Stefan Bringezu, Wuppertal Institute, Germany; Werner Bosmans, European Commission, Belgium; Ichiro Daigo, University ofTokyo, Japan; Kohmei Halada, NIMS, Japan; Seiji Hashimoto, NIES, Japan; Petra Mo, WorldSteel Association, Belgium; SusanneRotter, Technical University of Berlin, Germany; Mathias Schluep, EMPA, Zurich, Switzerland; Raymond Sempels, International ZincAssociation, Belgium; Fritz Teroerde, ELG Metals, USA/Germany; George Varughese, Development Alternatives, India; Zheng Luo,OEA/EAA, Germany. We are especially thankful to Christina Meskers, Umicore, for her valuable contributions to the manuscript.We are grateful for comments on earlier drafts of this report by J. Bullock (Attorney), A. Carpentier (Eurometaux), D. Fechner(GKSS), W. Heenan (Steel Recycling Institute), A. Hlada (International Antimony Association), A. Lee (International Copper Associa-tion), R. Mishra (A-1 Specialized Services & Supplies), H. Morrow (International Cadmium Association), C. Risopatron (InternationalCopper Study Group), M. Schlesinger (Missouri University of Science and Technology), U. Schwela (Tantalum-Niobium InternationalStudy Center), G. Servin (European Copper Institute) and D. Smale (International Lead-Zinc Study Group).Guido Sonnemann, UNEP, supervised the preparation of this report and provided valuable input and comments.Thanks go to Ernst Ulrich von Weizsäcker and Ashok Khosla as co-chairs of the Resource Panel, the members of the ResourcePanel and the Steering Committee for fruitful discussions. Additional comments of a technical nature were received from somegovernments participating in the Steering Committee.Helpful comments were received from several anonymous reviewers in a peer review process coordinated in an efficient andconstructive way by Yvan Hardy together with the Resource Panel Secretariat. The preparation of this report also benefitted fromdiscussions with many colleagues at various meetings, although the main responsibility for errors will remain with the authors.Copyright © United Nations Environment Programme, 2011Portions of this report have appeared in the Journal of Industrial Ecology article by Graedel et al. (2011): ”What Do We Know AboutMetal Recycling Rates?“Design: 3f design; cover concept UNEP;Photos: iStockphoto.com: background title/page 8 © Richard Clark, title 1 © oneclearvision, title 2 © Marco Hegner, title 3 © MilosPeric, title 4 © DNY 59, page 12 © Öko-Institut, page 15 © Peter Zelei, page 25 © tbradford, page 34 © Huguette Roe, page 42© Dieter Spears.This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part and in any form for educational or non-profit purposes without specialpermission from the copyright holder, provided acknowledgement of the source is made. UNEP would appreciate receiving acopy of any publication that uses this publication as a source.No use of this publication may be made for resale or for any other commercial purpose whatsoever without prior permission inwriting from the United Nations Environment Programme.DisclaimerThe designations employed and the presentation of the material in thispublication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoeveron the part of the United Nations Environment Programmeconcerning the legal status of any country, territory, city orarea or of its authorities, or concerning delimitation of its UNEPfrontiers or boundaries. Moreover, the views expressed promotes environ-do not necessarily represent the decision or thestated policy of the United Nations Environment mentally sound practicesProgramme, nor does citing of trade names or globally and in its own activities.commercial processes constitute endorsement. Please print this publication – when printing is necessary – on recyclingISBN: 978-92-807-3161-3 paper or FSC certi ed paper. Our distri- bution policy aims to reduce UNEP’s carbon footprint.
  3. 3. About the UNEP Division of Technology, Recycling Rates Industry and Economics of Metals The UNEP Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (DTIE) helps governments, local authorities and decision-makers in business and A Status Report* industry to develop and implement policies and practices focusing on sustainable development.The Division works to promote: > sustainable consumption and production, > the efficient use of renewable energy, > adequate management of chemicals, > the integration of environmental costs in development policies.The Office of the Director, located in Paris, coordinates activitiesthrough:> The International Environmental Technology Centre - IETC (Osaka, Shiga), which implements integrated waste, water and disaster management programmes, focusing in particular on Asia.> Sustainable Consumption and Production (Paris), which promotes sustainable consumption and production patterns as a contribution to human development through global markets.> Chemicals (Geneva), which catalyzes global actions to bring about the sound management of chemicals and the improvement of chemical safety worldwide.> Energy (Paris and Nairobi), which fosters energy and transport policies for sustainable development and encourages investment in renewable energy and energy efficiency.> OzonAction (Paris), which supports the phase-out of ozone depleting substances in developing countries and countries with economies in transition to ensure implementation of the Montreal Protocol.> Economics and Trade (Geneva), which helps countries to integrate environmental considerations into economic and trade policies, and works with the finance sector to incorporate sustainable development policies. UNEP DTIE activities focus on raising awareness, improving the transfer of knowledge and information, * This is the second report of the Global Metal Flows working group fosteringInternational Panel on Sustainable Resource Management and of the technological cooperation and partnerships, of UNEP implementing international conventions and agreements.For more information, see www.unep.fr
  4. 4. Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report Preface The recycling of non-renewable resources ent metals – essentially all the metals of the is often advocated as the solution to poten- periodic table of elements. In this effort, recy- tially restricted supplies. It is indeed true cling rates are carefully and clearly defined, that every kilogram of resources that is suc- and results then presented for all the met- cessfully recycled obviates the need to locate als for three important but different recycling and mine that kilogram from virgin ores. rates. For many of these metals, this is the Unfortunately, however, and notwithstand- first time such estimates have ever been pre- ing their potential value, industrial and con- sented. sumer products containing these resources have often been regarded as waste material The future availability of metals is a com- rather than as “surface mines” waiting to be plex topic, and one which depends on a mix exploited. This is a nearsighted and unfor- of geological knowledge, industrial potential, tunate view. As the planet’s mineral depos- and economics. We are limited to informed its become less able to respond to demand, guesswork as to the growth of personal whether for reasons of low mineral content, incomes, changing cultural preferences, environmental challenges, or geopolitical future technological advances, and the like. decisions, we limit our technological future We can paint pictures of possible material- by using these resources once and then dis- related futures, but we cannot predict which carding them through neglect, poor product will occur. What we can be certain of is that design, or poor planning. improved rates of recycling will be vital to any sustainable future, and that knowing where How are these philosophical thoughts reflect- we stand today provides a most useful per- ed in practice? Or, to ask the question from a spective, and one of the foundations upon practical perspective, “How well are we doing which we can build a more sustainable world. at recycling?” It may be surprising, but it is certainly true, that recycling rates have not always been clearly defined in the past, and Prof. Thomas E. Graedel that when definitions have been clear it is found that the data to support their quantifi- Leader of the cation are frequently unavailable. As a conse- Global Metal Flows Working Group quence, there is considerable uncertainty as to how efficiently non-renewable resources are retained for a second or third use within today’s technological product systems. In this report, the second compiled by the Global Metals Flows Group of UNEP’s Resource Panel, a group of experts from industry, academia, and government evaluate recycling rate information for sixty differ- 2
  5. 5. Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report Preface Nearly 20 years after the Earth Summit, na- Understanding, quantifying and estimating tions are again on the Road to Rio, but in a the ways metals flow through economies is world very different and very changed from part of the solution to better managing their that of 1992. Then we were just glimpsing impacts and their benefits. Indeed the Inter- some of the challenges emerging across the national Resource Panel, hosted by UNEP planet from climate change and the loss of and established in 2007, identified metals as species to desertification and land degrada- a key area in terms of the 21st century sus- tion. Today many of those seemingly far off tainability challenge. The Panel’s Global Met- concerns are becoming a reality with sober- al Flows Group has identified six, central as- ing implications for not only achieving the sessment reports as needed to bring clarity UN’s Millennium Development Goals, but and to promote action towards a sustainable challenging the very opportunity for close to metals economy: stocks in society, current seven billion people to be able to thrive, let status of recycling rates, improvement op- alone survive. Rio 1992 did not fail the world tions for recycling rates, environmental im- – far from it. It provided the vision and impor- pacts, future demand, and critical metals. tant pieces of the multilateral machinery to achieve a sustainable future. This, the second report in this area, focuses on current statues of metal recycling rates in A transition to a green economy is already society. It provides, from a global perspective, underway, a point underscored in UNEP’s the best scientific information available on Green Economy report and a growing wealth the rates of metal recycling in the world. In of companion studies by international organi- particular it provides authoritative estimates zations, countries, corporations and civil so- of current metal recycling rates. This in turn ciety. But the challenge is clearly to build on allows evaluations on the amounts of metals this momentum. A green economy does not that are not recycled and are available to be favour one political perspective over another. brought back into the economy by improved It is relevant to all economies, be they state recycling rates. It provides governments and or more market-led. Rio+20 offers a real op- industry the relevant baseline information to portunity to scale-up, accelerate and embed make more intelligent and targeted decisions these “green shoots”. on metals management. Metals are a core, centre-piece of the global, This is no easy task and here I would like to economy: Whether it be in the manufacture of congratulate the Resource Panel and its ex- buildings or cars to the booming production perts and partners for bringing to govern- of mobile phone, computers and other elec- ments, business and civil society an impor- tronic goods, metals have become increas- tant piece in the sustainability jigsaw puzzle. ingly important to commerce. But metals are Metals encapsulate the 21st century chal- also part of the challenge society is facing in lenge of realizing sustainable development: its transition to a low carbon, resource effi- development that requires and requests a far cient 21st Green Economy. Metals are a finite more intelligent understanding and trajectory resource, whose management, consump- that reflects the needs of a planet moving to tion and production echo to the need to adopt more than nine billion people by 2050. a recycling economy and one where rate of GDP growth are decoupled from rates of re- Achim Steiner source use. UN Under-Secretary General and Executive Director UNEP 3
  6. 6. Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report Table of Contents Prefaces ___________________________________________________________________________ 2 Table of Contents ___________________________________________________________________ 4 Abbreviations and Acronyms _________________________________________________________ 6 Executive Summary _________________________________________________________________ 9 1 Introduction and Scope of Study ___________________________________________________ 10 2 Metal Recycling Considerations ___________________________________________________ 12 3 Defining Recycling Rates _________________________________________________________ 15 4 A Review of Available Information for Recycling Rates _______________________________ 18 5 Recycling Policy Considerations___________________________________________________ 22 References ________________________________________________________________________ 24 Appendix A. Most Common Uses for the Metals of the Periodic Table ____________________ 26 Appendix B. The Alloy Families of the Major Metals ____________________________________ 28 Appendix C. Review of Ferrous Metal Recycling Statistics ______________________________ 30 Appendix D. Review of Non-Ferrous Metal Recycling Statistics __________________________ 31 Appendix E. Review of Precious Metal Recycling Statistics ______________________________ 32 Appendix F. Review of Specialty Metal Recycling Statistics _____________________________ 34 Appendix G. Examples for System Definition in Figure 3 (Metal Life Cycle)________________ 37 Appendix H. Scrap use in metal production: Recycling Input Rate vs. Recycled Content ____ 41 References of Appendices ___________________________________________________________ 42 4
  7. 7. Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report List of Figures Figure 1. The major metal groupings addressed in this report ________________________ 11 Figure 2. Simplified metal and product life cycle ____________________________________ 13 Figure 3. Metal life cycle and flow annotation _______________________________________ 16 Figure 4. EOL-RR for sixty metals _________________________________________________ 19 Figure 5. RC for sixty metals ______________________________________________________ 20 Figure 6. OSR for sixty metals _____________________________________________________ 21 Figure 7. The time dealy in the recycling of metals in products ________________________ 23 Figure B1. Worldwide applications of tin in 2004 [USGS 2009] __________________________ 29 Figure H1. The main subprocesses of metal production ________________________________ 40 List of Tables Table C1. Recycling statistics for the ferrous metals _________________________________ 30 Table D1. Recycling statistics for the nonferrous metals ______________________________ 31 Table E1. Estimated end-of-life recycling rates for precious metals for the main end use sectors ______________________________________________ 32 Table E2. Consensus recycling statistics for the precious metals group _________________ 33 Table F1. Consensus recycling statistics for the specialty metals group ________________ 36 5
  8. 8. Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report Abbreviations and Acronyms Coll Collection CR Old Scrap Collection Rate EAF Electric Arc Furnace EOL-RR End-of-Life Recycling Rate Fab Fabrication LED Light Emission Diode Mfg Manufacturing OSR Old Scrap Ratio Prod Production RC Recycled Content Rec Recycling RIR Recycling Input Rate USGS United States Geological Survey WM&R Waste Management and Recycling Units ppm parts per million 6
  9. 9. Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report Chemical Abbreviations Ferrous Metals Specialty Metals Yb – Ytterbium V– Vanadium Li – Lithium Lu – Lutetium Cr – Chromium Be – Beryllium Hf – Hafnium Mn – Manganese B – Boron Ta – Tantalum Fe – Iron Sc – Scandium W – Tungsten Ni – Nickel Ga – Gallium Re – Rhenium Nb – Niobium Ge – Germanium Hg – Mercury Mo – Molybdenum As – Arsenic Tl – Thallium Se – Selenium Bi – Bismut Non-Ferrous Metals Sr – Strontium Mg – Magnesium Y– Yttrium Steel Alloy Family Al – Aluminium Zr – Zirconium HSLA steels – High Strength- Ti – Titanium Cd – Cadmium Low Alloy Steels Co – Cobalt In – Indium SS – Stainless Steel Cu – Copper Sb – Antimony ST – Steel Zn – Zinc Te – Tellurium Sn – Tin Ba – Barium Others Pb – Lead La – Lanthanum Si – Silicon Ce – Cerium P– Phosphor Precious Metals Pr – Praseodymium S– Sulfur Ru – Ruthenium Nd – Neodymium TiO2 – Titanium Dioxide Rh – Rhodium Sm – Samarium BaSO4 – Barium Sulfate Pd – Palladium Eu – Europium PGMs – Platinum Group Metals Ag – Silver Gd – Gadolinium PET – Poly(ethylene Os – Osmium Tb – Terbium terephthalate) Ir – Iridium Dy – Dysprosium Pt – Platinum Ho – Holmium Au – Gold Er – Erbium Tm – Thulium 7
  10. 10. Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report 8
  11. 11. Executive SummaryThe recycling of metals is widely viewed as afruitful sustainability strategy, but littleinformation is available on the degree towhich recycling is actually taking place. Thisreport provides an overview on the currentknowledge of recycling rates for sixty metals.We propose various recycling metrics,discuss relevant aspects of the recycling ofdifferent metals, and present current esti-mates on global end-of-life recycling rates(EOL-RR) [i. e., the percentage of a metal indiscards that is actually recycled], recycledcontent (RC), and old scrap ratios (OSR) [i. e.,the share of old scrap in the total scrap flow].Because of increases in metal use over timeand long metal in-use lifetimes, many RCvalues are low and will remain so for theforeseeable future. Because of relatively lowefficiencies in the collection and processing ofmost metal-bearing discarded products,inherent limitations in recycling processes,and because primary material is oftenrelatively abundant and low-cost (therebykeeping down the price of scrap), manyEOL-RRs are very low: for only eighteenmetals (aluminium, cobalt, chromium,copper, gold, iron, lead, manganese, niobium,nickel, palladium, platinum, rhenium, rho-dium, silver, tin, titanium, and zinc) is the veryimportant EOL-RR above 50 % at present.Only for niobium, lead, and ruthenium is theRC above 50 %, although sixteen metals are inthe 25 – 50 % range. Thirteen metals have anOSR > 50 %. These estimates may be used toassess whether recycling efficiencies can beimproved, which metric could best encourageimproved effectiveness in recycling and toprovide an improved understanding of thedependence of recycling on economics,technology, and other factors.
  12. 12. Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report 1. Introduction and mine and process virgin materials and thus saving substantial amounts of energy and Scope of Study water while minimizing environmental degra- dation in the process. Recycling data have the potential to dem- Metals are uniquely useful materials by vir- onstrate how efficiently metals are being tue of their fracture toughness, thermal and reused, and can thereby serve some of the electrical conductivity, and performance at following purposes: high temperatures, among other proper- ties. For these reasons they are used in a ■ Determine the influence of recycling on re- wide range of applications in areas such as source sustainability machinery, energy, transportation, build- ing and construction, information technology, ■ Provide information for research on im- and appliances. Additionally, of the different proving recycling efficiency resources seeing wide use in modern tech- nology, metals are different from other mate- ■ Provide information for life-cycle assess- rials in that they are inherently recyclable. ment analyses This means that, in theory, they can be used over and over again, minimizing the need to ■ Stimulate informed recycling policies. Report 1 – Metal Stocks in Society Report 2 – Recycling Rates of Metals Report 3 – Environmental Impact of Metals Report 4 – Recycling: It’s Opportunities, Limits and Infrastructure Report 5 – Future Demand Scenarios for Metals Report 6 – Critical Metals and Metal Policy Options The first five reports form the necessary basis for Report 6. Moreover a workshop report on geological metal stocks has been prepared; download: UNEP Resource Panel website. This report summarizes the results of The elements investigated are not all met- the Global Metal Flows working group of als according to the usual chemical definition UNEP’s International Panel for Sustainable of metal, as metalloids have been included Resource Management (Resource Panel) as while the radioactive actinides and polonium it addressed metal recycling rates (Graedel were excluded. From the alkali metals only et al., 2011). We will discuss definitions of dif- lithium (Li) has been included because of its ferent recycling statistics, review recycling use in batteries, and from the alkaline-earth information, identify information gaps, and metals all but calcium have been included. discuss the implications of our results. The Furthermore, selenium has been included goal was to summarize available informa- because of its importance as an alloying ele- tion (rather than to generate new data), high- ment and semiconductor. The selected ele- light information gaps, and to fill these gaps ments (called “metals” hereafter) include through informed estimates. 10
  13. 13. Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report ■ Ferrous metals: V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Nb, Mo The principal metals in each of these group- ings are more or less according to popu- ■ Non-ferrous metals: Mg, Al, Ti, Co, Cu, Zn, lar nomenclature (e. g., the ferrous metals Sn, Pb include those whose predominant use is in the manufacture of steel), but the less abun- ■ Precious metals: Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Os, Ir, Pt, dant or widely used elements do not neces- Au sarily fit neatly into these four groups (for example, tellurium [Te] could equally well ■ Specialty metals: Li, Be, B, Sc, Ga, Ge, As, have been included in the ferrous metals). Se, Sr, Y, Zr, Cd, In, Sb, Te, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, The metal groupings are shown in Figure 1. Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Hg, Tl, Bi 1 2 H He 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Li Be B C N O F Ne 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe 55 56 * 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 Cs Ba Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn 87 88 ** 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 Fr Ra Rf Db Sg Sg Hs Mt Ds Rg Uub Uut Uug Uup Uuh Uus Uuo 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 * Lanthanides La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 ** Actinides Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Specialty Precious Non-ferrous Ferrous Figure 1. The major metal groupings addressed in this report. 11
  14. 14. Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report In Appendix A, we list the common uses of 2. Metal Recycling each of these metals as a rough guide to their products, product sectors, and recycling Considerations prospects. Metals are predominantly used in alloy form, Figure 2 illustrates a simplified metal and but not always, and recycling information that product life cycle. The cycle is initiated by specifies the form of the metal is not com- choices in product design: which materials monly available. Thus, all information herein are going to be used, how they will be joined, refers to the aggregate of the many forms of and which processes are used for manu- the metal in question (but as metal, even if facturing. These choices respond to techni- often used in a non-metallic form such as an cal and economic objectives, and alterna- oxide, e. g., BaSO4, TiO2). This distinction will tive designs and materials compete based be addressed in the results where necessary. on technical performance, cost, environmen- The results also refer to global average sta- tal risk, and potential for supply disruption. tistics utilized in concert with expert estima- Choices made during design have a lasting tions; those for a particular nation or region effect on material and product life cycles. might differ substantially from these aver- They drive the demand for specific metals ages. and influence the effectiveness of the recy- cling chain during end-of-life. The finished product enters the use phase and becomes part of the in-use stock of metals. When a product is discarded, it enters the end-of- life phase. It is separated into different metal streams (recyclates), which have to be suit- 12
  15. 15. Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report able for raw materials production to ensure functionality of the end-of-life metal is lost that the metals can be successfully recycled. (non-functional recycling, see below). The In each phase of the life cycle metal losses distinction between open and closed product occur, indicated by the ‘residues’ arrow in systems as made in Life Cycle Analysis (ISO, Figure 2. 2006), where a product system is only consid- ered closed when a material is recycled into The life cycle of a metal is closed if end-of- the same product system again, is often not life products are entering appropriate recy- applicable to metals as metals with the same cling chains, leading to scrap metal in the properties (or quality) can be used in more form of recyclates displacing primary metals. than one product. The life cycle is open if end-of-life products are neither collected for recycling nor enter- Scrap types and types of recycling. The differ- ing those recycling streams that are capable ent types of recycling are related to the type of recycling the particular metal efficiently. of scrap and its treatment: Open life cycles include products discarded to landfills, products recycled through inap- ■ Home scrap is material generated during propriate technologies where metals are not fabrication or manufacturing that can be or only inefficiently recovered (e. g., the infor- directly reinserted in the process that gen- mal sector), and metal recycling in which the erated it. Home scrap recycling is general- Residues ucts Disca Prod Use rded pro Residues du cts Product New scrap End-of-Life manufacture Me tal & es clat alloys Recy from Residues industrial materials Raw materials Residues production from concentrates, ores Metal & alloys Natural resources Figure 2. The life cycle of a material, consisting of production, product manufacture, use, and end-of- life. Recyclates are those materials capable of reentering use after reprocessing. The loss of residues at each stage and the reuse of scrap are indicated. (Reproduced with permission from Meskers, 2008.) 13
  16. 16. Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report ly economically beneficial and easy to ac- cling, it will lead to an open metal life cy- complish. It is excluded from recycling sta- cle as discussed above. Examples are tistics and not further discussed here. small amounts of copper in iron recyclates that are incorporated into recycled carbon ■ New (or pre-consumer) scrap originates steel. from a fabrication or manufacturing pro- cess and is mostly of high purity and value. ■ Recycling failures occur when metal is Its recycling is generally economically ben- not captured through any of the recycling eficial and easy to accomplish although it streams mentioned above, including dur- becomes more difficult the closer one gets ing use (in-use dissipation, as the corro- to finished products (e. g., rejected printed sion of sacrificial zinc coatings on steel), at circuit boards). New scrap is typically in- end of life (to landfills), and whenever met- cluded in recycling statistics. als are not recovered from recycling frac- tions (e. g., final wastes, slag, effluents, ■ Old (or post-consumer) scrap is metal in dust). products that have reached their end-of- life. Their recycling requires more effort, particularly when the metal is a small part of a complex product. ■ Functional recycling is that portion of end- of-life recycling in which the metal in a discarded product is separated and sort- ed to obtain recyclates that are returned to raw material production processes that generate a metal or metal alloy. Often it is not the specific alloy that is remelted to make the same alloy, but any alloys within a certain class of alloys that are remelted to make one or more specific alloys. For example, a mixture of austenitic stainless steel alloys might be remelted and the re- sulting composition adjusted by addition of reagents or virgin metal to make a specific stainless steel grade. ■ Non-functional recycling is that portion of end–of-life recycling in which the metal is collected as old metal scrap and incor- porated in an associated large magnitude material stream as a “tramp” or impu- rity elements. This prevents dissipation into the environment, but represents the loss of its function, as it is generally im- possible to recover it from the large mag- nitude stream. Although non-functional recycling is here termed a type of recy- 14
  17. 17. Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report 3. Defining Recycling 1. How much of the end-of-life (EOL) metal is collected and enters the recycling Rates chain (as opposed to metal that is land- filled)? (old scrap collection rate, CR) 2. What is the efficiency in any given recy- Recycling rates have been defined in many cling process (i. e., the yield)? (Recycling different ways, from different perspectives process efficiency rate, also called recov- (product; metal; metal in product) and for ery rate [e. g., van Schaik, A. et al, 2004]). many different life stages; sometimes the term is left undefined. Attempts to rectify this 3. What is the EOL-recycling rate (EOL- situation (e. g., Sibley, 1995; Sibley, 2004; Eu- RR)? The EOL-RR always refers to rometaux, 2006; Bailey et al., 2008; Reck and functional recycling (unless noted differ- Gordon, 2008) have suggested more consist- ently), and includes recycling as a pure ent approaches . In this report, we build upon metal (e. g., copper) and as an alloy (e. g., that work to define recycling efficiencies at brass). end-of-life (collection, process efficiency, re- cycling rate) and in metal production (recy- In contrast, the non-functional EOL-recycling cling input rate, old scrap ratio). rate describes the amount of metal that is collected but lost for functional recycling and At end of life (EOL), the recycling efficiency that becomes an impurity or “tramp element” can be measured at three levels: in the dominant metal with which it is collect- ed (e. g., copper in alloy steel; more examples are provided in Appendix E). 15
  18. 18. Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report The end-of-life recycling rate is strongly in- In metal production, two other metrics are of fluenced by the least efficient link in the re- importance, the recycling input rate and the cycling chain, which is typically the initial col- old scrap ratio. The recycling input rate (RIR) lection activity. describes the fraction of secondary (scrap) metal in the total metal input of metal pro- Figure 3 provides a simplified metal life cy- duction (as an approximation, primary metal cle based on which the above-mentioned EOL input is calculated as extracted ore minus metrics can be calculated: losses through tailings and slags). The RIR corresponds to the recycled content (RC) in 1. Old scrap collection rate: CR = e / d the fabricated metal (flow c). The RIR is iden- tical to the recycled content (RC) when the 2. Recycling process efficiency rate = g / e latter is calculated as follows (see Appendix H for further details): 3. EOL-RR = g / d (refers to functional recycling only). 4. RC = ( j + m ) / ( a + j + m ) Non-functional EOL-RR = f / d. Metal A WM&R (a) Prod (b) Fab (c) Mfg Use (d) Coll Stock (h) (e) (n) (m) (j) (g) (o) Rec Scrap market (f) Rec a: primary metal input g: recycled EOL metal (old scrap) b: refined metal h: scrap from Manufacturing (new scrap) c: intermediate products (e.g. alloys, j: scrap used in Fabrication (new &old) semis) m: scrap used in Production (new & old) d: end-of-life (EOL) products (metal n: tailings and slag Metal B content) o: in-use dissipation WM&R Prod Fab Mfg Use e: EOL metal collected for recycling Stock Coll f: EOL metal separated for non-functional Scrap Rec recycling market Figure 3. Metal life cycle and flow annotation: Flows related to a simplified life cycle of metals and the recycling of production scrap and end-of-life products. Boxes indicate the main processes (life stages): Prod, production; Fab, fabrication; Mfg manufacturing; WM&R, waste management and recycling; Coll, collection; Rec, recycling. Yield losses at all life stages are indicated through dashed lines (in WM referring to landfills). When material is discarded to WM, it may be recycled (e), lost into the cycle of another metal (f, as with copper wire mixed into steel scrap), or landfilled. The boundary indicates the global industrial system, not a geographical entity. 16
  19. 19. Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report The calculation of the RIR is straightforward use over time, different end uses with differ- at the global level, but difficult if not impos- ent respective lifetimes, different production sible at the country level. The reason is that processes (sometimes limiting the amount of information on the recycled content of im- scrap used), and varying tolerances in metal ported produced metals is typically not avail- production to scrap impurities (van Schaik et able (flow b, i. e., the share of m/(a+m) in oth- al., 2004; Gaustad et al., 2010). er countries is unknown), in turn making a precise calculation of the recycled content of The recycling process efficiency will vary from flow c impossible. metal to metal, depending on the material type or metals grade for which a process is The old scrap ratio (OSR) describes the frac- optimized, and although it can be high it will tion of old scrap (g) in the recycling flow never reach 100 % due to thermodynamic and (g+h). other limitations (Castro et al., 2004). Current recycling statistics by nature provide only his- 5. OSR = g / ( g + h ) torical data. In order to better align product design, life cycle management and recycling In combination with the recycled content, this processes and measures it will become in- metric reveals the quantity of metal from EOL creasingly important to use predictive mod- products used again for metal production and els. Such models have been developed by Van product manufacturing, and enhances un- Schaik and Reuter (2010), but go beyond the derstanding of the degree to which the use scope of this report. of scrap from various stages of the metal life cycle is occurring. For a better interpretation of these metrics some influencing factors have to be consid- ered. The recycled content depends on the amount of scrap available and on the scrap quality: The new-scrap availability depends on the degree of metal use and the process efficiency in fabrication and manufactur- ing. The old-scrap availability is a function of metal use a product lifetime ago, in-use dis- sipation over the product lifetime, and the ef- ficiency of the EOL collection and recycling system. High growth rates in metal demand in the past, together with long product life- times (often several decades), result in avail- able old scrap quantities that are typically much smaller than the metal demand in pro- duction, leading to RCs much smaller than 100 %. Even a very efficient EOL recycling system would not provide enough old scrap for a high recycled content with a high OSR. Comparisons of RCs across metals are prob- lematic due to different growth rates in metal 17
  20. 20. Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report 4. A Review of Avail- ic table displays in Figures 4–6 illustrate the consensus results in compact visual display able Information for formats. Recycling Rates The EOL-RR results in Figure 4 relate to what- ever form (pure, alloy, etc.) in which sub- stance-specific recycling occurs. To reflect the The set of global-average metal recycling level of certainty of the data and the estimates, rates that we derive represents an order of data are divided into five bins: > 50 %, > 25– magnitude estimate that was derived from a 50 %, > 10 –25 %, 1–10 %, and < 1 %. It is note- review of the recycling literature and informed worthy that for eighteen of the sixty metals do estimates by industry experts. The years for we estimate the EOL-RR to be above 50 %. An- which figures are available vary, but many ap- other three metals are in the > 25 –50 % group, ply to the 2000 –2005 time period; in most cas- and three more in the > 10 –25 % group. For a es the statistics change slowly from year to very large number, little or no end-of-life recy- year. This literature review was followed by a cling is occurring, either because it is not eco- workshop in which experts discussed the rel- nomic, or no suitable technology exists. evance and accuracy of the published infor- mation, which is clearly of varying quality and Similarly, Figure 5 presents the recycled con- differ by region, product, and available tech- tent data in similar form. Lead, ruthenium, nology, all of which make it challenging to and niobium are the only metals for which quote definitive values for any of the recycling RC > 50 %, but sixteen metals have RC in the metrics. For used or end-of-life electronics, > 25 –50 % range. This reflects a combination automotive vehicles, and some other products, in several cases of efficient employment of significant exports take place from industri- new scrap as well as better than average end- alized to transition and developing countries of-life recycling. where the recycling process efficiency rate is often low. Additionally, for the base metals and The old scrap ratio results (Figure 6) tend to gold, especially, informal recycling in devel- be high for valuable materials, because these oping countries is extensive. Thus, no attempt materials are used with minimal losses in was made to specify exact recycling rates; manufacturing processes and collected at end rather, the experts chose five ranges for re- of life with relatively high efficiency. Collection cycling values in cases where familiarity with and recycling at end of life are high as well for the recycling industry enabled such choices the hazardous metals cadmium, mercury, and to be made, even in the absence or paucity of lead. Overall, 13 metals have OSR > 50 %, and published data. Because of the independence another 10 have OSR in the range > 25 –50 %. of data sources, and the underlying uncertain- ties, mass balance cannot always be achieved Where relatively high EOL-RR are derived, the when combining the results of the various impression might be given that the metals in metrics, nor should one expect to do so, and question are being used more efficiently than the consensus numbers compiled here by the those with lower rates. In reality, rates tend to experts need to be understood as a first com- reflect the degree to which materials are used prehensive assessment which will require fur- in large amounts in easily recoverable appli- ther review and elaboration over time. None- cations (e. g., lead in batteries, steel in auto- theless, we regard the magnitudes of the re- mobiles), or where high value is present (e. g., sults to be approximately correct on a global gold in electronics). In contrast, where ma- average basis as of the time of publication of terials are used in small quantities in com- this paper. plex products (e. g., tantalum in electronics), or where the economic value is at present not The detailed results of these exercises are very high, recycling is technically much more presented in the Appendix. The three period- challenging. 18
  21. 21. Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report 1 2 H He 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Li Be B C N O F Ne 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe 55 56 * 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 Cs Ba Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn 87 88 ** 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 Fr Ra Rf Db Sg Sg Hs Mt Ds Rg Uub Uut Uug Uup Uuh Uus Uuo > 50 % 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 > 25–50 % * Lanthanides La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu > 10–25 % 1–10 % 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 ** Actinides Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr < 1% Figure 4. EOL-RR for sixty metals: The periodic table of global average end-of-life (post-consumer) functional recycling (EOL-RR) for sixty metals. Functional recycling is recycling in which the physical and chemical properties that made the material desirable in the first place are retained for subsequent use. Unfilled boxes indicate that no data or estimates are available, or that the element was not addressed as part of this study. These evaluations do not consider metal emissions from coal power plants. 19
  22. 22. Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report 1 2 H He 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Li Be B C N O F Ne 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe > 50 % 55 56 * 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 > 25–50 % Cs Ba Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn > 10–25 % 87 88 ** 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 1–10 % Fr Ra Rf Db Sg Sg Hs Mt Ds Rg Uub Uut Uug Uup Uuh Uus Uuo < 1% 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 * Lanthanides La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 ** Actinides Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Figure 5. The periodic table of global average recycled content (RC, the fraction of secondary [scrap] metal in the total metal input to metal production) for sixty metals. Unfilled boxes indicate that no data or estimates are available, or that the element was not addressed as part of this study. 20
  23. 23. Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report 1 2 H He 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Li Be B C N O F Ne 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe > 50 % 55 56 * 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 > 25–50 % Cs Ba Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn > 10–25 % 87 88 ** 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 1–10 % Fr Ra Rf Db Sg Sg Hs Mt Ds Rg Uub Uut Uug Uup Uuh Uus Uuo < 1% 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 * Lanthanides La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 ** Actinides Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Figure 6. OSR for sixty metals: The periodic table of global average old scrap ratios (OSR, the fraction of old [post-consumer] scrap in the recycling flow) for sixty metals. Unfilled boxes indicate that no data or estimates are available, or that the element was not addressed as part of this study. 21
  24. 24. Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report 5. Recycling Policy ■ Product designs that make disassem- bly and material separation difficult or Considerations impossible. ■ A high mobility of products and the un- The “metal recycling universe” is much more clear material flows that result. These are complex than is often realized. It is also rap- caused by multiple changes of ownership, idly evolving, and encompasses a number of and sequential locations of use spread challenges related to sustainable develop- around the globe. ment, including: ■ A generally low awareness about a loss of ■ Coping with fast growing streams of dis- resources, and missing economic recycling carded products and materials. incentives due to low intrinsic value per unit. Nevertheless, their combined mass ■ Recovery of post-consumer material re- flows have a big impact on metal demand sources, including scarce metals, there- (Hagelüken and Meskers, 2008). by contributing to resource conservation, supply security, and metal price stability. ■ Lack of an appropriate recycling infra- structure for end-of-life management ■ Adapting to the manufacture of new prod- of complex products in many developing ucts that contain increasingly complex countries and emerging economies. In in- mixes of materials, including composites. dustrialized countries many hibernating goods (in drawers and closets) and small ■ Protecting the environment and human devices going into the trash bin (e. g., mo- health from hazardous emissions caused bile phones) reduce significantly the recy- by inappropriate waste management or re- cling efficiencies. cycling practices. ■ Recycling technologies and collection facil- Society’s response to these challenges is not ities that have not kept pace with complex very advanced, as indicated by the relative- and elementally diverse modern products. ly low global-level recycling statistics in this report. The numbers will vary from year to In practice, the effectiveness of recycling is year due to changes in a number of under- a consequence of three related factors. The lying factors: metal use a product lifetime first is economics, because the net intrinsic ago, share of different end use sectors, prod- value of the discarded materials must be high uct lifetimes, product composition, product enough to justify the cost and effort of recy- weight, and recycling efficiencies (van Schaik cling. Where that value is not present, incen- and Reuter, 2004; Reuter et al., 2005; Müller tives such as deposit fees or other cost sub- et al., 2006; Reck et al., 2010). sidies usually based on legal requirements may make it so, at least at the consumer Can recycling efficiencies be improved? That level. The second factor is technology: Does is, can materials cycles be transformed from the design of the discarded product, and the open (i. e., without comprehensive recycling) ways in which materials are joined or merged to closed (i. e., completely re-employed), or at enable or inhibit available recycling process- least to less open than they are at present? A es? The final factor is societal: Has a habit of major challenge is that open cycles are typi- recycling been established? Do public cam- cal for many metals in consumer goods such paigns promote recycling targets? To the de- as cars, electronics, and small appliances gree that these factors are addressed, im- (Hagelüken, 2007), due to: proved rates of reuse and recycling are likely. Many of these issues are discussed in detail in Graedel and van der Voet (2010). 22
  25. 25. Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report Closed cycles are typical for many industri- Policies involving recycled content goals are al goods such as industrial machinery, tools, intended to provide an incentive for recycling. and process catalysts. Although the required However, given the limited availability of sec- recycling technology does not differ much ondary metals, such an incentive serves no from that for consumer goods, the recycling real purpose (Atherton, 2007). The intent of efficiencies are usually much higher due to such policies could better be achieved by a high awareness of the involved stakehold- also encouraging a high old scrap ratio (i. e., ers, economic recycling incentives, transpar- the old scrap in the recycled content). Such ent and professional handling throughout the an approach would provide an incentive to product lifecycle, and a rather limited change increase the end-of-life recycling rate and of ownership and location of use. make fabrication processes more efficient. Nonetheless, so long as global metal use Policies and practices that could stimulate continue to increase and metals are used in improved recycling need to consider: products with extended lifetimes (Figure 7), even complete recycling can satisfy no more ■ Taking a holistic view on life cycles and than a modest fraction of demand. recycling chains in order to identify inter- actions and interlinkages between differ- A large research and data collection effort ent metal cycles and also between product is needed in the case of many of the metals and metal cycles. in order to locate missing information and to obtain more reliable recycling statistics. ■ Measuring discard streams to identify Measures of recycling performance are need- what is actually being lost. ed for informed policy directions and to eval- uate the effects of public policy and societal ■ Managing material throughout the recy- performance. In addition, in-depth research cling sequence. is necessary to develop new recycling tech- nologies and infrastructures for specific ap- ■ Employing effective and appropriate plications (especially emerging technologies). technologies. Despite the challenges of improving recycling ■ Carrying out each step of the recycling rates, however measured, recycling gener- sequence in an environmentally sound ally saves energy and minimizes the envi- manner. ronmental challenges related to the extrac- tion and processing of virgin materials. The ■ Enhancing interregional stakeholder co- data presented in this report, and the discus- operation to more effectively track global sions related to how the data are measured material flows. and how they might change over time given certain technological or societal approaches, Flow provide information likely to be useful in mov- ing society toward a more efficient level of re- Total flow into use source utilization in the future. The informa- tion in this report clearly reveals that in spite of significant efforts in a number of countries and regions, many metal recycling rates are Flow from recycling discouragingly low, and a “recycling society” appears no more than a distant hope. This t1 t2 Time is especially true for many specialty metals which are crucial ingredients for key emerg- Figure 7. The time delay in the recycling of metals in ing technologies. Policy and technology initia- products. tives to transform this situation are urgently needed. 23
  26. 26. Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report References ISO. 2006. Environmental Management – Life Cycle Assessment – Requirements and Guidelines. ISO 14044: 2006(E), Geneva. Atherton, J. 2007. Declaration of the metals industry on recycling principles, International Meskers, C.E.M. 2008. Coated Magnesium – Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 12: 59 –60. Designed for Sustainability, The Hague: PhD thesis, Delft University of Technology, ISBN Bailey, R., B. Bras, and J. K. Allen. 2008. 978-9-064643-05-7. Measuring material cycling in industrial sys- tems. Resources Conservation and Recy- Müller, D. B., T. Wang, B. Duval, and T.E. cling 52(4): 643 –652. Graedel. 2006. Exploring the engine of an- thropogenic iron cycles. Proceedings of the Castro, M.B.G., J.A.M. Remmerswaal, M.A. National Academy of Sciences of the United Reuter, and U.J.M. Boin. 2004. A thermody- States of America 103(44): 16111 –16116. namic approach to the compatibility of mate- rials combinations for recycling. Resources, Reck, B.R., and R.B. Gordon. 2008b. Nickel Conservation, and Recycling, 43: 1 –19. and chromium cycles: Stocks and flows pro- ject Part IV. JOM, 60 (7): 55 –59. Eurometaux, 2006. Recycling rates for met- als. European Association of Metals (Eurome- Reck, B.K., M. Chambon, S. Hashimoto, and taux). Brussels, Belgium. http://www.euro- T.E. Graedel. 2010. Global Stainless Steel Cy- metaux.org/Publications/BrochuresandLeaf- cle Exemplifies China’s Rise to Metal Domi- lets.aspx. Last accessed, August 2010. nance. Environmental Science & Technology 44(10): 3940 –3946. Gaustad, G., Olivetti, E., and Kirchain, R. 2010. Design for recycling: Evaluation and efficient Reuter, M.A., U.M. J. Boin, A. Van Schaik, E. alloy modification. Journal of Industrial Ecol- Verhoef, K. Heiskanen, Y. Yongxiang, and G. ogy 14 (2): 286 –308. Georgalli, eds. 2005. The metrics of materi- al and metal ecology. Vol. 16, Developments Graedel, T.E., and E. van der Voet, Eds. 2010. in mineral processing. Amsterdam: Elsevier Linkages of Sustainability, Cambridge, MA: Science. MIT Press. Sibley, S.F. and W.C. Butterman. 1995. Met- Graedel, T.E., Allwood, J., Birat, J.-P., Bu- als recycling in the United States. Resourc- chert, M., Hagelüken, C., Reck, B.K., Sibley, es Conservation and Recycling 15(3 –4): S.F., and Sonnemann, G. 2011. What Do We 259 –267. Know About Metal Recycling Rates? Journal of Industrial Ecology, DOI: 10.1111/j.1530– Sibley, S.F. 2004. Flow studies for recycling 9290.2011.00342.x. metal commodities in the United States. Reston, VA: US Geological Survey. Hagelüken, C. 2007. The challenge of open cycles, R’07, 8th World Congress, L.M. Hilty, Van Schaik, A. and M.A. Reuter. 2004. The X. Edelmann, A. Ruf (eds.), CD-ROM. time-varying factors influencing the recycling rate of products. Resources Conservation Hagelüken, C., and C.E.M. Meskers. 2008. and Recycling 40(4): 301 –328. Mining our computers, Electronics Goes Green Conf, 2008, H. Reichl, N. Nissen, Van Schaik, A. and Reuter, M.A. 2010. Dy- J. Müller, O. Deubzner (eds), pp. 585 –590, namic modeling of e-waste recycling system Stuttgart. performance based on product design. Min- erals Engineering 23: 192 –210. 24
  27. 27. Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report 25
  28. 28. Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report Appendix A. Non-Ferrous Metals Most Common Uses (The non-ferrous metals contain no iron, and are used in quantities second only to the fer- for the Metals of the rous metals) Periodic Table Mg – Magnesium is used in construction and transportation Al – Aluminium is used principally in con- struction and transportation Ti – Titanium is used in paint and transpor- Ferrous Metals tation Co – Cobalt’s major uses are in superalloys, (The ferrous metals are predominantly iron- catalysts, and batteries based, and mostly magnetic) Cu – Copper sees wide use in conducting electricity and heat V – Vanadium is used in HSLA (high Zn – Zinc’s major use is in coating steel (gal- strength-low alloy) steels vanizing) Cr – Chromium is the chief additional con- Sn – Tin’s major uses are in cans and solders stituent of stainless steels Pb – Lead’s main use is in batteries Mn – Manganese is present at 0.3 –1.0 % in nearly all steels Fe – Iron is the basis and chief constituent of all the ferrous metals Precious Metals Ni – Nickel is often a constituent of stainless steels and superalloys (The precious metals have historically been Nb – Niobium is used in HSLA steels and prized for their relation to wealth and status, superalloys but are increasingly employed in technologi- Mo – Molybdenum is employed in high-per- cally-sophisticated products) formance stainless steels Ru – Ruthenium major uses are electronics (hard disk drives) and process catalysts/ electrochemistry. Rh – Rhodium’s major use is in auto catalysts Pd – Palladium’s major use is in auto cata- lysts Ag – Silver’s principal uses are in electronics, industrial applications (catalysts, batter- ies, glass/mirrors), and jewelry Os – Osmium sees very occasional use as a catalyst, but has little industrial impor- tance. Ir – Iridium’s major uses are electro-chem- istry, crucibles (for mono-crystal grow- ing) and spark plugs. Pt – Platinum’s major use is in auto catalysts Au – Most gold is used in jewelry, but some in electronics 26
  29. 29. Recycling Rates of Metals – A Status Report Specialty Metals W – Tungsten’s principal use is in cemented carbide cutting tools (The specialty metals are typically present in Re – Rhenium is a superalloy component industrial and consumer products in small employed largely in (gas) turbines (per- amounts, but for their specific physical and haps 60 % of use), and catalysts chemical properties. The use of specialty Hg – Mercury retains its use in chlorine/ metals is increasingly related to high-level caustic soda production; in other appli- product efficiency and function) cations it is being phased out Tl – Thallium sees occasional use in medical Li – Lithium’s major use is in batteries equipment Be – Beryllium’s principal use is in electron- Bi – Bismuth’s principal uses are as a met- ics allurgical additive and an alloy constitu- B – Boron is used in glass, ceramics, and ent. magnets Sc – Scandium is used in aluminium alloys Ga – Gallium’s principal use is in electronics: ICs, LEDs, diodes, solar cells The Lanthanides Ge – Germanium is used in night vision (infrared) lenses (30 %), PET catalysts La – Lanthanum is usually employed as a (30 %), fiber optics, and solar cell con- battery constituent centrators Ce – Cerium is used largely as a catalyst As – Arsenic metal is used in semiconduc- Pr – Praseodymium is used in glass manu- tors (electronics, photovoltaics) and as facture and magnets an alloying element; arsenic oxide is Nd – Neodymium is used in magnets used in wood preservatives and glass Sm – Samarium is used in magnets manufacture Eu – Europium is used as a phosphor Se – Selenium is employed in glass manu- Gd – Gadolinium is used in ceramics and facture, manganese production, LEDs, magnets photovoltaics, and infrared optics Tb – Terbium is used in magnets Sr – Strontium is used in pyrotechnics, fer- Dy – Dysprosium is used in magnets rite ceramic magnets for electronics Ho – Holmium is used in magnets Y – Yttrium is used as a phosphor Er – Erbium is a major constituent of fiber- Zr – Zirconium’s principal use is in nuclear optic amplifiers reactors Tm – Thulium has no significant uses Cd – The principal use of cadmium is in bat- Yb – Ytterbium is used as a phosphor teries (85 %), and in pigments (10 %) Lu – Lutetium is used as a scintillator in In – Indium’s principal use is as a coating in computerized tomography flat-panel displays Sb – Antimony is used as a flame retardant (65 % of use), and in lead acid batteries (23 %) Te – Tellurium’s uses include steel additives, solar cells, and thermoelectrics Ba – Barium in the form of BaSO4 is used as a drilling fluid (perhaps 80 % of use) and as a filler in plastic, paint and rubber (about 20 %) Hf – Hafnium is used in nuclear reactors and to a small degree in electronics. Ta – Tantalum’s principal use is in capacitors in electronics 27

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