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     life cycle co2 measure - final report life cycle co2 measure - final report Presentation Transcript

    • Preparing for a Life Cycle CO2 MeasureA report to inform the debate by identifying and establishing the viability ofassessing a vehicle‟s life cycle CO2e footprintDate 25 August 2011 (superseding the previous version, dated 20 May 2011)Report RD.11/124801.5Project Q57627Confidential Low Carbon Vehicle PartnershipReport by Jane Patterson Marcus Alexander Adam GurrApproved Dave Greenwood www.ricardo.com RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011
    • Contents  Introduction  Strengths and Limitations of the existing tailpipe CO2 measure  Elements and Boundaries for evaluating life cycle CO2 emissions  Impact of Regulations on life cycle CO2 emissions  Consequences of Technology Evolution on life cycle CO2 emissions  Gaps, Accuracy and Further Work  Recommendations  Conclusions  Appendices Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 2
    • IntroductionLowCVP commissioned a study to identify and establish the viabilityof assessing a vehicle‟s life cycle CO2 footprint Background  The current metric for comparing the GHG emissions of European passenger cars is based on measuring the tailpipe CO2 emissions over the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC)  Legislative targets for reducing corporate fleet average CO2 are driving the development of low carbon technologies and alternative fuels  The tailpipe CO2 metric is insufficient for comparing the environmental impact of zero and ultra-low emission vehicles, such as electric (EV) and fuel cell vehicles (FCV), since it does not consider CO2 emissions resulting from the generation of the fuel, or those embedded within the vehicle production  There is growing demand from consumers for information on the carbon footprint of the goods and services they purchase Life cycle thinking is required to develop new measures for comparing the environmental impact of passenger cars  The purpose of this report is inform the debate by examining the feasibility of considering a vehicle‟s whole life cycle, exploring the options for developing new metrics, and explaining how this could be taken forward Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 3
    • IntroductionThis report endeavours to answer a series of questions related todeveloping new CO2 metrics Report Objectives 1. What are the strengths and limitations of the current gCO2/km metric for comparing the GHG-emissions of European passenger cars? 2. What elements contribute to a vehicle‟s life cycle CO2 emissions? 3. What is an appropriate boundary for the evaluation of a vehicle‟s life cycle CO2 emissions? 4. This question is in four parts: a. What international regulations apply to light duty vehicles in Europe? How might these regulations impact the vehicle‟s life cycle CO2 emissions? b. What CO2 emissions typically arise during the production, use and disposal of European passenger cars? How will evolving technologies, such as vehicle electrification, alter the balance of life cycle emissions between production, in-use and disposal? c. What is an appropriate balance of focus between the production, in-use and disposal phases for relevant combinations of new technologies? d. To what degree can the contributing elements currently be assessed? 5. What are the current gaps in understanding surrounding LCA of passenger cars? What is the present status of accuracy for assessing the elements contributing to a vehicle‟s life cycle emissions? What further work is required to achieve a fair life cycle CO2 measure for vehicles? 6. In Ricardo‟s opinion, what are the most appropriate forms for a new measure of CO2 emissions for European passenger vehicles? What timescales are desirable and practicable for transitioning to a new CO2 emission measure? Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 4
    • IntroductionExclusions  In accordance with the LowCVP‟s tender document, this study has not: – Assessed the suitability of existing drive cycles, but has reviewed the limitations already identified – Sought to define an improved test-cycle for determination of emissions arising from the in-use phase, but has identified and assessed the viability for measuring contributing elements for vehicle production, in-use and disposal – Considered metrics for different vehicle classes at this stage, but has focused on light duty vehicles – Considered individual components unless significantly relevant to life cycle emissions – Considered individual components unless causing a significant variation to life cycle emissions – Defined a metric to replace tailpipe CO2, but has recommend elements of a life cycle CO2 analysis for inclusion in a metric and define principles for determining which elements should be included and a gap analysis for determining them Source: LowCVP document “For Tender – Preparing for a lifecycle CO2 measure.doc” Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 5
    • IntroductionAbbreviations Abbr. Explanation Abbr. Explanation Abbr. Explanation AMT Automated Manual Transmission EREV Extended Range Electric Vehicle MPI Multi-Point (fuel) Injection Auto Automatic Transmission EV Electric Vehicle NEDC New European Drive Cycle B7 Diesel with up to 7%vol FAME FAME Fatty Acid Methyl Ester NiMH Nickel Metal Hydride B10 Diesel with up to 10%vol FAME FCV Fuel Cell Vehicle OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer B100 100% biodiesel FQD Fuel Quality Directive PAS Power Assisted Steering BoM Bill of materials GDI Gasoline Direct Injection PEM Proton Exchange Membrane CO2 Carbon Dioxide GHG Greenhouse Gas PFI Port Fuel Injection CO2e Carbon Dioxide equivalent GWP Greenhouse Gas Warming Potential PHEV Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle CVT Continuously Variable Transmission H&S Health and Safety TTW Tank-to-Wheels DCT Dual Clutch Transmission HC Hydrocarbons R&D Research and Development Department for Energy and Climate Homogeneous Charge Compression DECC HCCI RED Renewable Energy Directive Change Ignition United Nations Economic Commission for DI Direct Injection HEV Hybrid Electric Vehicle UN ECE Europe E10 Gasoline with up to 10%vol ethanol HVAC Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning V6 V 6-cylinder engine Executive Agency of the United Kingdom E20 Gasoline with up to 20%vol ethanol I4 In-line 4-cylinder engine VCA Department for Transport E85 Gasoline with up to 85%vol ethanol ICE Internal Combustion Engine VGT Variable Geometry Turbocharger International Organisation for EC European Commission ISO VVA Variable Valve Actuation Standardization ECU Engine Control Unit LCA Life Cycle Assessment VVT Variable Valve Timing EoL End-of-Life LCI Life Cycle Inventory WTT Well-to-Tank EPAS Electric Power Assisted Steering Li-Ion Lithium Ion WTW Well-to-Wheels ZEV Zero Emission Vehicle Source: Ricardo Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 6
    • IntroductionCarbon dioxide, greenhouse gases and Global Warming Potential Explanation of definitions  Greenhouse gas (GHG) is the collective term for the gases which are considered to contribute to global warming  Carbon dioxide (CO2) is considered to be one of the main contributors to global warming  However GHG also includes gases, such as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O)  Life cycle assessment studies frequently refer to carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e or CO2eq), which is a metric for comparing the emissions from various greenhouse gases depending on their Global Warming Potential (GWP) for a specified time horizon. The quantity of the gas is multiplied by its GWP to obtain its CO2e value  Examples of GWP for common GHGs is provided in the table below Global Warming Potential Greenhouse Gas (100 years time horizon) CO2 1 CH4 21 N2O 310  GWP is sometimes refered to as Climate Change Potential (CCP)  This study has focused on the vehicle„s life cycle impact in terms of CO2 and GHG emissions. However a vehicle can also impact the environment in other ways, such as air acidification (SO2 and NOx), water footprint, depletion of resources, human toxicity and air quality Source: IPCC (http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg1/en/ch2s2-10-2.html [last accessed 15 April 2011]); http://lct.jrc.ec.europa.eu/glossary Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 7
    • Contents  Introduction  Strengths and Limitations of the existing tailpipe CO2 measure  Elements and Boundaries for evaluating life cycle CO2 emissions  Impact of Regulations on life cycle CO2 emissions  Consequences of Technology Evolution on life cycle CO2 emissions  Gaps, Accuracy and Further Work  Recommendations  Conclusions  Appendices Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 8
    • Strengths and Limitations of the existing tailpipe CO2 measureThe current CO2 metric for comparing passenger cars is based onmeasuring tailpipe CO2 emissions over the NEDC  The current CO2 metric for comparing passenger cars in Europe is based on measuring the tailpipe CO2 emissions [gCO2/km] (EU Directive 2003/76) – The tailpipe CO2 test is based on the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC), which comprised of four ECE phases (urban driving) and one EUDC phase (extra-urban) – The test occurs in a controlled laboratory environment, using rolling road dynamometers for repeatability – The vehicle has to be „cold‟ at the start of the test, requiring a soak period of at least 6 hours before the test. The ambient temperature during testing has to be within 20°C and 30°C – For validation purposes, the test is overseen by an authorised person from the Type Approval Agency (e.g. VCA)  The EU is adopting a fleet average tailpipe CO2 target for new passenger cars (M1), with non-compliance penalties and super- credits for low emission vehicles (EU Regulation No 443/2009) – The requirement for fleet average 130 gCO2/km will phase in from 2012 to 2015 – A further 10 gCO2/km reduction is to come from additional measures such as gear shift indicators, more efficient air conditioning, low rolling resistance tyres, aerodynamics and biofuels – The long term target is fleet average 95 gCO2/km by 2020 Source: Ricardo EMLEG, InterRegs; LowCVP Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 9
    • Strengths and Limitations of the existing tailpipe CO2 measureStrengths of the current CO2 measure include the used of a defineddrive cycle, test procedures and reference fuel Strengths of the existing tailpipe CO2 measure Strengths Comments  The same drive cycle is used for all light duty vehicles, providing a common reference Fixed drive cycle  Historic data set exists from 1995 to present day – enabling tracking of overall reduction Defined reference fuels  Prevents differences in results due to different fuels  Clearly defined and understood Defined test procedure  Covers all necessary requirements for a variety of vehicles  Ensures each vehicle is tested using the same procedure „Cold‟ start emissions included  Covers the warm-up period of vehicle  All OEMs abide by same set of rules Level playing field  The results acquired are consistent and, therefore, create meaningful historical emissions trends  These strengths conversely can be seen as limitations … Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 10
    • Strengths and Limitations of the existing tailpipe CO2 measureLimitations of the existing tailpipe CO2 measure revolve around thelaboratory conditions not representing the real world conditions Limitations of the existing tailpipe CO2 measure Limitations Comments  No consideration of well-to-tank CO2 emissions, just tank-to-wheels Tailpipe only  Under this condition, EVs have zero tailpipe emissions at point of use  The current modal cycle (NEDC) is not representative of the range of real-world driving conditions Constrained drive cycle  Focuses on lower speeds (urban and extra urban), without considering higher speeds  It does not consider gradients, does not account for cornering, or how driver behaviour effects driving performance  The test ambient temperature (~25°C) is higher than average ambient temperature Unrepresentative environment across Europe  There is no allowance for climatic variation between regional markets  Effect of ancillaries is not considered – No HVAC loading No ancillaries – No electrical loads (e.g. lights) – No PAS/EPAS loads from steering inputs  Data is not publicly available Road load factors  Scope for differing interpretation of rules when defining road load factors  Little knowledge on effect of hybrids and electric vehicles Powertrain  Range provided for EV not representative Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 11
    • Strengths and Limitations of the existing tailpipe CO2 measureComparing the current tailpipe CO2 measure with the real worldexperience suggests real world typically exceeds NEDC results  In 2009 TNO analysed records of fuel-card usage in the Netherlands to understand the differences between real world driving and the test-based, published fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 data – In general, fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 was higher than the official, published fuel consumption from the NEDC test – Real world tailpipe CO2 could be 15-40% higher, depending of fuel type, technology and usage pattern – In the Netherlands, the real world use is approximately 20% urban, 35% extra-urban and 40% motorway driving. The NEDC is split 35% urban and 65% extra-urban driving (by distance travelled) – Therefore, the differences between published and real world CO2 can be attributed, in part, to the greater share of motorway driving in the real world experience  AutoCar regularly review new passenger cars for the benefit of their readers. The vehicles are assessed by experienced drivers, who perform a similar set of driveability tests for each vehicle. AutoCar publish the average fuel consumption of the vehicle experienced during the test drive, along side the fuel consumption stated by the vehicle manufacturer. This data provides an indication of the difference between the published fuel consumption values and the “real world” experience. Tailpipe CO2 can be calculated from the fuel consumption, depending on the fuel type – A comparison of NEDC results with AutoCar experience is provided in the next slide – For the selected examples, real-world vehicle CO2 emissions appear to be ~20% worse than the certified figures Source: Ligterink and Bos (2010); AutoCar Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 12
    • Strengths and Limitations of the existing tailpipe CO2 measureReal world tailpipe CO2 could be 5-40% higher than the NEDC CO2measure for conventional passenger cars … SELECTED EXAMPLES Fuel Consumption Tailpipe CO2 Segment Vehicle Fuel NEDC AutoCar Test NEDC AutoCar Test Difference [L/100km] [L/100km] [gCO2/km] [gCO2/km] [%] Hyundai I10 Gasoline 5 7.5 120 180 33% A: Mini Fiat Panda Gasoline 4.3 5.5 103.2 132 22% Mini Gasoline 6.9 9.5 165.6 228 27% Renault Clio Gasoline 6.6 8 158.4 192 18% B: Small Seat Ibiza Gasoline 6.2 7.9 148.8 189.6 22% Ford Fiesta Gasoline 6.5 8.3 156 199.2 22% C: Lower Audi A3 Gasoline 9.1 12.2 218.4 292.8 25% Medium Ford Focus Gasoline 6.4 8.4 153.6 201.6 24% D: Upper BMW 3-series Diesel 5.7 7.1 151.1 188.2 20% Medium Ford Mondeo Diesel 6.1 7.2 161.7 190.8 15% BMW 5-series Diesel 6.2 7.8 164.3 206.7 21% E: Executive Mercedes C-class Gasoline 6.1 8 146.4 192 24% Bentley Continental Gasoline 17.1 20.3 410.4 487.2 16% F: Luxury Jaguar XJ Gasoline 7.2 10.2 172.8 244.8 29% BMW 7-series Gasoline 7.2 9.7 172.8 232.8 26% Nissan 370Z Gasoline 10.4 10.9 249.6 261.6 5% G: Sports Mazda MX-5 Gasoline 8.2 11.8 196.8 283.2 31% Audi TT Gasoline 10.3 12.6 247.2 302.4 18% Land Rover Freelander Diesel 7.5 10.1 198.8 267.7 26% SUV BMW X5 Diesel 8.7 10.7 230.6 283.6 19% Suzuki Grand Vitara Diesel 9.1 11.3 241.2 299.5 19% Ford S-max Diesel 6.4 9.1 169.6 241.2 30% MPV Mazda 5 Diesel 5.2 8.1 137.8 214.7 36% Vauxhall Zafira Gasoline 7.3 10.8 175.2 259.2 32% Source: AutoCar; Ricardo Analysis Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 13
    • Strengths and Limitations of the existing tailpipe CO2 measure… and for hybrids SELECTED EXAMPLES Fuel Consumption Tailpipe CO2 Segment Vehicle Fuel NEDC AutoCar Test NEDC AutoCar Test Difference [L/100km] [L/100km] [gCO2/km] [gCO2/km] [%] D: Upper Honda Insight Gasoline Hybrid 4.6 7.1 110.4 170.4 35% Medium Toyota Prius Gasoline Hybrid 4 5.9 96 141.6 32% SUV Lexus RX450h Gasoline Hybrid 6.3 9.7 151.2 232.8 35% Fuel Consumption Tailpipe CO2 Consumption Segment Vehicle Fuel NEDC AutoCar Test NEDC AutoCar Test Difference [kWh/100km] [kWh/100km] [gCO2/km] [gCO2/km] [%] D: Upper Nissan Leaf Electricity 17.3 19.9 0 0 15% Medium G: Sports Tesla Roadster Electricity 17.4 26.7 0 0 54% Source: AutoCar; Ricardo Analysis Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 14
    • Contents  Introduction  Strengths and Limitations of the existing tailpipe CO2 measure  Elements and Boundaries for evaluating life cycle CO2 emissions  Impact of Regulations on life cycle CO2 emissions  Consequences of Technology Evolution on life cycle CO2 emissions  Gaps, Accuracy and Further Work  Recommendations  Conclusions  Appendices Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 15
    • Elements and Boundaries for evaluating life cycle CO2 emissionsA vehicle‟s life cycle can be divided into four “blocks” – productionof the vehicle, production of the fuel, “in-use”, and disposal “Fuel” Generate Distribute - Fossil fuel production Distribution network efficiency - Electricity generation - Power lines - Hydrogen production - Pipelines - … - Tankers - … RIP Production “In-Use” Disposal Assessment of - Tailpipe CO2 from driving Assessment of environmental impact of environmental impact of producing the vehicle from - Impact from maintenance “end of life” scenario, raw materials to complete and servicing including re-use of product components, recycle of materials and landfill Source: Ricardo Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 16
    • Elements and Boundaries for evaluating life cycle CO2 emissionsMaterial selection, energy use, production processes and supplychain logistics all contribute to the CO2 emissions from production Elements from vehicle production contributing to life cycle CO2 emissions Materials Design & Vehicle Production & Logistics People Development Specification Processes Energy  R&D / prototypes  Vehicle size /  Material  Manufacturing  Supply chain  Number of  Test rigs segment selection processes  Types of workers  Design process  Vehicle mass  Geographic  Manufacturing / transport  Daily commute  Powertrain source of factory efficiency  Distance  Heat and light for  Supplier technology material  Location travelled offices / factory selection  Technology  Extraction  Waste produced  Packaging  H&S  Homologation options process considerations testing  Re-use of waste  Geography – E.g. Choice of  Recycled content material  Environmental battery, (primary vs. legislation electric motor, secondary) considerations etc.  Material  Advertising and  Number of availability sales marketing components  Energy mix  Business trips to  Model variant visit suppliers, etc. Production Source: Ricardo Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 17
    • Elements and Boundaries for evaluating life cycle CO2 emissionsThe vehicle specification determines the design of the vehicle, andits resulting embedded emissions Elements from vehicle production contributing to life cycle CO2 emissions Materials Design & Vehicle Production  Luxury segments tend to use more expensive materials, and have People & Logistics more Development Specification Processes equipment onboard the vehicle, which may contribute to raising the embedded Energy emissions from vehicle production  R&D / prototypes  Vehicle size /  Material  Manufacturing  Supply chain  Number of  Test rigs segment selection processes  Types of workers  Design process  Vehicle mass  Geographic greater  Manufacturing / material (and energy) required to commute  The the mass, the more transport  Daily make the source ofvehicle, implying higher embedded emissions factory efficiency  Distance  Supplier  Powertrain  Heat and light for technology materialSize and massLocation (and its components) known to OEM (e.g./ BoM)   of vehicle travelled offices factory selection   Some data may be available within public domain Extraction  Homologation  Technology  Waste produced  Packaging  H&S options process considerations testing  Re-use of waste  Geography – E.g. Choice of  Recycled content  This influences the components on the vehicle material  Environmental battery, (primaryThe powertrain technology, and its associated components, is known by the  vs. legislation These elements electric motor, secondary) OEM considerations are generally etc.  Material  Advertising and considered to Number of availability   Again, this is known by the OEM, who controls the supply chain marketing sales be outside the components  Energy mix  Business trips to  Detail of the components (e.g. battery cell chemistry) may be known only by LCA boundary  Model variant visit suppliers, the Tier 1 supplier. This may mean the Tier 1 supplier has to complete a for a typical cradle-to-gate LCA study for the OEM etc. passenger car  The base model tends to have basic features and fittings  While the premium version has more gadgets, plush interior (e.g. leather), and alloy wheels Production Source: Ricardo Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 18
    • Elements and Boundaries for evaluating life cycle CO2 emissionsSelection of materials, production processes and location have astrong impact on the embedded CO2 from vehicle production Elements from vehicle production contributing to life cycle CO2 emissions Materials  Design & Strong influence on embedded Vehicle Production  Most of the data for these elements & Logistics People Development emissions Specification Processes would be available to OEM / Tier 1, Energy  Usually decided by OEM or supplier although some investigative work  R&D / prototypes  Vehicle size /  Material  Manufacturing may be required Number of  Supply chain  segment  Test rigs may not) be known by selection processes  Some LCI databases include  Types of workers May (or material supplier  Vehicle mass  Geographic  Manufacturing / emission factors for different transport  Daily commute  Design process source of production processes factory efficiency  Distance Some geographic /  Powertrain  Supplier region specific  Heat and light for technology material  Location travelled offices / factory selection available LCI data  Technology  Extraction  Waste produced  LCA tools allow  H&Suser to  Packaging for the  Homologation options process include the re-use considerations of waste material Extraction process dependent on  testing  Re-use of waste  Geography – E.g. Choice of geographical source, and cost  Recycled content material within the LCA model of the vehicle  Environmental battery, (primary vs. legislation electric motor, secondary) considerations  Strong influence on carbon intensity  Emission factors on the carbon intensity of most common etc.  Material of material automotive materials are readily available in Life Cycleand  Advertising Number of availability sales marketing  Information may, ormay not, be Inventory (LCI) databases components available from material / Tier 1  Energy mix  Business trips to  These factors take into consideration the emissions resulting supplier  Model variant visit suppliers, from the extraction process, and may average variations due etc. to the geographical source of the raw material  Data available, although national, or  Some proprietary LCI databases require users to purchase a regional averaging may be required licence, while others are freely available within the public  Some LCI databases contain generic domain carbon intensity data for different  However emission factor values vary between LCI databases Production types of energy Source: Ricardo Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 19
    • Elements and Boundaries for evaluating life cycle CO2 emissionsThe logistics of the supply chain can impact the embedded CO2emissions from vehicle production Elements from vehicle production contributing to life cycle CO2 emissions Materials Design & Vehicle Production & Logistics People Development Specification Processes Energy  LCA studies suggest transport of parts along the supply chain has a relatively small contribution to life cycle CO emissions  R&D / prototypes  Vehicle size / 2  Material  Manufacturing  Supply chain  Number of  Data on the logistics of the supply chain would be known by the OEM / Tier 1 segment selection processes workers  Test rigs  Types of supplier  Design processdatabases contain data on CO emissions resulting from transport /  Several LCI  Vehicle mass  Geographic  Manufacturing transport  Daily commute source of 2 factory efficiency  of goods. Again, Powertrain betweenmaterial Supplier values can vary databases, depending on  Distance  Heat and light for information source, technology and year selection global region  Location travelled offices / factory  Technology  Extraction  Waste produced  Packaging  H&S  Homologation options process considerations testing  Re-use of waste  Geography – E.g. Choice of  Recycled content material  Environmental battery, (primary vs. legislation electric motor, secondary) considerations etc.  Material  Advertising and  Number of availability sales marketing components  Energy mix  Business trips to  Model variant visit suppliers, etc. These elements are generally considered to be outside the LCA boundary for a typical passenger car Production Source: Ricardo Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 20
    • Elements and Boundaries for evaluating life cycle CO2 emissionsThe proposed element boundary for production includes vehiclespecification, materials, energy, production processes and logistics Elements from vehicle production contributing to life cycle CO2 emissions Materials Design & Vehicle Production & Logistics People Development Specification Processes Energy  R&D / prototypes  Vehicle size /  Material  Manufacturing  Supply chain  Number of  Test rigs segment selection processes  Types of workers  Design process  Vehicle mass  Geographic  Manufacturing / transport  Daily commute  Powertrain source of factory efficiency  Distance  Heat and light for  Supplier technology material  Location travelled offices / factory selection  Technology  Extraction  Waste produced  Packaging  H&S  Homologation options process considerations testing  Re-use of waste  Geography – E.g. Choice of  Recycled content material  Environmental battery, (primary vs. legislation electric motor, secondary) considerations etc.  Material  Advertising and  Number of availability sales marketing components  Energy mix  Business trips to  Model variant visit suppliers, Proposed Element Boundary etc.  Can be measured / known  Could be measured / known Production  Difficult to measure / has to be assumed Source: Ricardo Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 21
    • Elements and Boundaries for evaluating life cycle CO2 emissionsWell-to-tank CO2 emissions from the fuel depend on the primaryenergy source, production process and the refuelling infrastructure Elements from fuel well-to-tank contributing to life cycle CO2 emissions Distribution & Primary Energy Processing People Infrastructure  Primary energy of fuel  Type of fuel / energy vector  Method of distribution /  Employees  Primary energy source /  Selected production transportation  H&S considerations location process(es) – Pipelines, tankers, road,  Environmental legislation  Energy extraction process  Process efficiency etc. considerations (e.g. mining, farming, etc.)  Waste  Infrastructure chain  Embedded emissions  Production of by-products  Embedded emissions associated with mining / along with fuel associated with refuelling extraction facilities stations  Fuel quality requirements  Embedded emissions  Fuel additive packs  Embedded emissions associated with electricity  Fuel supplier associated with production generation facilities  Fuel distributer  Feedstock availability for  Energy mix used during  Restrictions on fuel renewable fuels processing transportation  Electricity mix available (e.g. Fossil vs. Renewable) Fuel Source: Ricardo Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 22
    • Elements and Boundaries for evaluating life cycle CO2 emissionsThe choice of primary energy source has a strong influence on thefuel production process and associated WTW CO2 emissions Elements from fuel well-to-tank contributing to life cycle CO2 emissions Distribution & Primary Energy Processing People Infrastructure  Gasoline and diesel are produced from crude oil  However alternative energy vectors, such as biofuels, electricity and hydrogen, can be  Primary energy of fuel  Type of fuel / energy range of different energy sources. The choice of primary energy will impact produced from a vector  Method of distribution /  Employees  Primary energy source /  the fuel‟s CO2 emission factor (e.g. wind vs. coal for electricity H&S considerations Selected production transportation generation) location process(es) – Pipelines, tankers, road,  Environmental legislation  Energy extraction process  Process can influence the processesetc.  This efficiency required to extract the raw energy, and how it is processed considerations (e.g. mining, farming, etc.)  Waste the required fuel / energy vector into  Infrastructure chain  Embedded emissions  Production of by-products  Embedded emissions associated with mining /  This is generally accounted forassociated with refuelling along with fuel in the available LCI databases and WTW pathways (e.g. extraction facilities CONCAWE) stations  Fuel quality requirements  Embedded emissions  Fuel additive packs  Embedded emissions associated with electricity  Fuel supplier associated with production for in the publically available carbon intensity data for the national  This may be accounted generation electricity grid facilities  Fuel distributer  Feedstock availability for  Energy mix used during  Restrictions on fuel renewable fuels processing 2 emission factors for biofuels depend on the mix of feedstocks used to make the fuel  E.g. CO transportation  Electricity mix available Agency publish data on the feedstock mixes used to produce biofuels  The Renewable Fuels (e.g. Fossil vs. in UK consumed Renewable)  The impact of direct change in land use is already accounted for in several LCI datasets for biofuels  However discussions are on-going nationally and internationally regarding how the impact of indirect land Fuel use change (iLUC) should be accounted for Source: Ricardo Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 23
    • Elements and Boundaries for evaluating life cycle CO2 emissionsDifferent processes can be used to make the fuel / energy vector,which will impact the WTW CO2 emissions Elements from fuel well-to-tank contributing to life cycle CO2 emissions  This will determine the fuel processing options Distribution & Primary Energy Processing People Infrastructure  Existing LCI databases and WTW pathways (e.g. CONCAWE) contain emission factor data for a range of different fuels and  Primary energy of fuel  Type of fuel / energy vector their associated production processes  Method of distribution /  Employees  This is assumed and transportation  Primary energy source /  Selected production  H&S considerations accounted for in the  –There are different methods for allocating the CO 2 emissions location process(es) Pipelines, tankers, road,  Environmental legislation existing LCI databases by by-product  Energy extraction process  Process efficiency etc. considerations and WTW pathways (e.g. mining, farming, etc.)  Infrastructure chain carbon intensity of the fuel This can impact the  Waste  Embedded emissions  Production of by-products  Embedded emissions associated with mining / along with fuel This will influence the amount for processing needed to  associated with refuelling extraction facilities stations the fuel produce  Fuel quality requirements It is unclear how much  Embedded emissions  Fuel unclear if existing LCI databases and WTW pathways  It is additive packs of the embedded  Embedded emissions consider the impact of fuel quality requirements on the WTT associated with electricity  Fuel supplier associated with production CO2 emissions of the fuel generation of the emissions production facilities are facilities  Fuel distributer  Feedstock availability for  Energy mix used during  Restrictions on fuel renewable fuels the accounted for in  The energy mix and electricity mix can be accounted for in the LCI databases and processing transportation and WTW pathways LCI databases WTW analysis of fuels  Electricity mix available  Data is available from a variety of sources (e.g. LCI databases,  The impact of this (e.g. Fossil vs. Renewable) government agencies, etc.), but values can vary depends on the  The carbon intensity of the electricity grid varies throughout the amount of fuel day, depending on electricity demand and the supply strategy. produced over the Therefore, annual averages tend to be used lifetime of the facility Fuel  Marginal plant or mean CO2 intensity could arguably be used Source: Ricardo Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 24
    • Elements and Boundaries for evaluating life cycle CO2 emissionsThere are different methods for transporting the fuel from source ofprimary energy, through production, to the refuelling station Elements from fuel well-to-tank contributing to life cycle CO2 emissions Distribution & Primary Energy  The LCI databases and WTW analysis pathways do Processing People Infrastructure account for distribution and transportation methods  PrimaryCONCAWE pathways contain a of fuel / energy vector  E.g. energy of fuel  Type range of options  Method of distribution /  Employees for transporting fuel products transportation  Primary energy source /  Selected production  H&S considerations location process(es) – Pipelines, tankers, road,  Environmental legislation  This is known by the fuel suppliers etc.  Energy extraction process  Process efficiency considerations (e.g. mining, farming, etc.)  Waste  Infrastructure chain   Less data is available for embedded emissions Embedded emissions  Embedded emissions  Production of by-products associated with mining refuelling stationswith fuel associated with the / along associated with refuelling These elements are extraction facilities stations generally considered to  Fuel quality requirements  Embedded emissions by fuel supplier. These are  Additive packs differ  Fuel additive packs be outside the LCA  Embedded emissions boundary for assessing associated with electricity in the standard WTW generally not considered  Fuel supplier associated with production the well-to-tank pathways generation facilities  Fuel distributer emissions  Feedstock availablity for  Energy mix used during  Restrictions on fuel renewable fuelsdatabases and WTW pathways do not  Existing LCI processing transportation distinguish between fuel suppliers and distributers  Electricity mix available  Also, it is likely that a vehicle will used fuels from a (e.g. Fossil vs. Renewable) variety of different fuel suppliers over its lifetime. Therefore an “average” is required Fuel Source: Ricardo Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 25
    • Elements and Boundaries for evaluating life cycle CO2 emissionsThe proposed boundary for the fuel well-to-tank pathway includeselements regarding primary energy, processing and infrastructure Elements from fuel well-to-tank contributing to life cycle CO2 emissions Distribution & Primary Energy Processing People Infrastructure  Primary energy of fuel  Type of fuel / energy vector  Method of distribution /  Employees  Primary energy source /  Selected production transportation  H&S considerations location process(es) – Pipelines, tankers, road,  Environmental legislation  Energy extraction process  Process efficiency etc. considerations (e.g. mining, farming, etc.)  Waste  Infrastructure chain  Embedded emissions  Production of by-products  Embedded emissions associated with mining / along with fuel associated with refuelling extraction facilities stations  Fuel quality requirements  Embedded emissions  Fuel additive packs  Embedded emissions associated with electricity  Fuel supplier associated with production generation facilities  Fuel distributer  Feedstock availability for  Energy mix used during  Restrictions on fuel renewable fuels processing transportation  Electricity mix available Proposed Element Boundary (e.g. Fossil vs. Renewable)  Can be measured / known  Could be measured / known Fuel  Difficult to measure / has to be assumed Source: Ricardo Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 26
    • Elements and Boundaries for evaluating life cycle CO2 emissionsCO2 emissions from the “in-use” phase depend on the vehicletechnology, fuel, and how the vehicle is driven Elements from use phase contributing to life cycle CO2 emissions Maintenance & Vehicle Specification Fuel Driver Geography Servicing  Vehicle size / type  Fuel type / energy  Ownership model  Location  Service interval  Kerb weight vector(s)  Owner affluence  Terrain (e.g. hills vs.  Oil and coolant  Powertrain  Fuel specification  Driving habits flat) changes architecture and  Fuel quality  Duty cycle(s)  Climate and weather  Replacement parts technology  Fuel supplier conditions – Tyres, brake discs  Length of journeys  Tailpipe emissions  Fuel additive packs  Types of road (e.g.  Component durability  Number of journeys and aftertreatment motorway vs. urban) / failure  Standard grade vs. per day  Vehicle performance Premium product  Traffic management  Service personnel  Annual mileage [km]  Model variant  Fuel availablity – Roundabouts,  Heat and light for  Vehicle loading (e.g.  Load capacity traffic lights and garage facilities  Fuel price passenger mass, junctions  Target price  Fuel taxation luggage mass)  Vehicle life time – Speed bumps [years]  Fuel consumption  Actual, real-world  Care of vehicle (e.g. [L/100km] regular checking of – Speed limit fuel consumption fluid levels and tyre changes  Tailpipe CO2 emissions [g/km] pressure, etc.)  Road congestion  Use of onboard gadgets (e.g. GPS)  Use of air conditioning In-Use Source: Ricardo Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 27
    • Elements and Boundaries for evaluating life cycle CO2 emissionsThe manufacturer‟s vehicle specification has a strong influence onthe published fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 data Elements from use phase contributing to life cycle CO2 emissions  Vehicle specification is determined by the vehicle manufacturer Maintenance & Vehicle Specification  Fuel Driver Geography Much of this information is available within the public domain, usually in Servicing marketing brochures or technical specification documents for the vehicles  Vehicle size / type  Fuel type / energy  Ownership model  Location  Service interval  Kerb weight vector(s)  Owner affluence  Terrain (e.g. hills vs.  Oil and coolant  Powertrain  Fuel specification  Driving habits flat) changes architecture and  Fuel quality  Duty cycle(s)  Climate and weather  Replacement parts  These elements strongly influence the vehicle‟s NEDC based fuel consumption technology  Fuel supplier conditions – Tyres, brake discs and tailpipe CO2 emissions of journeys  Length  Tailpipe emissions  Fuel additive packs  Types of road (e.g.  Component durability  Number of journeys and aftertreatment motorway vs. urban) / failure  Standard grade vs. per day  Vehicle performance Premium product  Traffic management  Service personnel  Annual mileage [km]  Model variant  Fuel availablity – Roundabouts,  Heat and light for  Vehicle loading (e.g.  Load capacity traffic lights and garage facilities  Fuel price passenger mass, junctions legislation drive  Target price  Fuel Fuel consumption data is published, for the reference fuel and  taxation luggage mass)  Vehicle life time cycle (NEDC) – Speed bumps [years]  Fuel consumption  Actual, real-world  Care of vehicle (e.g. [L/100km]  Some fuel economy improvements mayof possible Speed limit regular checking be – through improvements in fuel consumption the fuel (e.g. higher RON) levels and tyre fluid changes  Tailpipe CO2 emissions [g/km] pressure, etc.)  Road congestion  Tailpipe CO2 emissions [g/km] multiplied by assumed life time mileage provided  Use of onboard an indication of vehicle‟s in-use(e.g. GPS) gadgets tank-to-wheel CO2 emissions  Use of air conditioning In-Use Source: Ricardo Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 28
    • Elements and Boundaries for evaluating life cycle CO2 emissionsVariations in the fuel / energy vectors used by the vehicle mayimpact the real world results Elements from use phase contributing to life cycle CO2 emissions Maintenance & Vehicle Specification Fuel Driver Geography Servicing  The vehicle will be designed, and optimised, for a specified fuel(s), e.g. gasoline or diesel  Vehicle size / type  Fuel type / energy  Ownership the fuel specification may change during  Service interval However model  Location the vehicle‟s lifetime (e.g.  Kerb weight vector(s) allowable biofuel content),Terrain will impact the WTT Oil and coolant  Owner affluence  which (e.g. hills vs.  CO2 factor  Powertrain  Fuel specification  Driving habits flat) changes architecture and  Fuel quality In Europe, the current fuelClimate and weather  Duty cycle(s)  specifications for diesel  Replacement parts and gasoline are defined technology  Fuel supplier in EN of journeys EN 228:2008 590:2009 and conditions – Tyres, brake discs  Length  Tailpipe emissions  Fuel additive packs  Types of road (e.g.  Component durability  Number of journeys and aftertreatment motorway vs. urban) / failure  Standard grade vs. per day fuel suppliers claim their fuel will improve fuel consumption Some  Vehicle performance Premium product  Traffic management  Annual mileage [km] the fuel supplier‟s additive pack, which is personnel This is often due to  Service added to the  Model variant  Fuel availablity – Roundabouts,  Heat and light for  Vehicle loading (e.g. fuel  Load capacity traffic lights and garage facilities  Fuel price passenger mass, junctions  Target price  Fuel taxation luggage mass)  Vehicle life time  In advance, it is difficult to – Speed bumps know exactly what fuel blends will be available  Fuel consumption  Care of vehicle (e.g. [years]  Actual, real-world during the vehicle‟s life, and Speed limit – what fuel supplier the owner(s) will prefer [L/100km] fuel consumption regular checking of fluid levels and tyre changes  Tailpipe CO2 emissions [g/km] pressure, etc.)  Road congestion  Use of onboard gadgets (e.g. GPS)  Use of air conditioning In-Use Source: Ricardo Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 29
    • Elements and Boundaries for evaluating life cycle CO2 emissionsDriver behaviour adds variability into the in-use CO2 results Elements from use phase contributing to life cycle CO2 emissions Maintenance & Vehicle Specification  The vehicle manufacturer Fuel has little or no Driver Geography Servicing control over what happens to the vehicle after it is sold  Driving habits and patterns can have a  Vehicle size / type  Fuel type / energy  Ownership model  Location  Service interval strong influence on the real-world fuel  Kerb weight vector(s)  Owner affluence  Terrain (e.g. hillsachieved by the driver economy vs.  Oil and coolant  Powertrain  Fuel specification  Driving habits flat) All drivers are different, which adds changes architecture and  Fuel quality  Duty cycle(s)  Climate and weatherthe data variability into  Replacement parts technology  Fuel supplier conditions – Tyres, brake discs  Distanced travelled over the lifetime of  Length of journeys  Tailpipe emissions  Types The greater the mass, the higher durability of road (e.g.  Component the fuel the vehicle has a stronginfluence over packs Fuel additive  Number of journeys  and aftertreatment motorway vs. urban) consumption and CO/2failure emissions the lifetime CO2 emissionsStandard in-  from the grade vs. per day  Vehicle performance Premium product use phase of the vehicles life  Traffic Vehicle loading will vary for each journey  management  Service personnel  Annual mileage [km]  Model variantmileage of a vehicle depends The lifetime  Fuel availablity over the lifetime ofthe vehicle,light for it – Roundabouts, Heat and making  Vehicle loading (e.g. on a large number of factors (as listed in  Load capacity traffic lights to measure accurately difficult and garage facilities  Fuel price passenger mass, the elements) junctions  Assumptions could be made to compare  Target price  Fuel taxation luggage mass)  Vehicle life time  Therefore average or assumed data is usage scenarios – Speed bumps [years]  Fuel consumption  Actual, real-world  Care of vehicle (e.g. used in LCA studies [L/100km] regular checking of – Speed limit fuel consumption fluid levels and tyre changes can impact the vehicle‟s fuel economy  This  Tailpipe CO2 emissions [g/km] pressure, etc.)  Road congestion  But it is difficult to quantify the impact  Use of onboard gadgets (e.g. GPS)  These require energy, and therefore  Use of air increase the fuel consumption of the conditioning vehicle In-Use Source: Ricardo Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 30
    • Elements and Boundaries for evaluating life cycle CO2 emissionsGradients, weather conditions, road layout and traffic congestioncan all impact in-use fuel consumption Elements from use phase contributing to life cycle CO2 emissions Vehicle geography of a vehicle‟s use is highly variable and virtually Local Specification  Maintenance & Fuel Driver Geography impossible to accurately quantify Servicing  During design and development, vehicle manufacturers usually assume  Vehicle size / then consider Fuel type / energy an average, type  worst case scenarios such Ownership model  as mountainous  Location  Service interval regions or Autobahn style driving  Kerb weight vector(s)  Owner affluence  Terrain (e.g. hills vs.  Oil and coolant  Powertrain  Fuel specification  Driving habits flat) changes varies by Climate architecture and  Fuel quality  Duty cycle(s)  Climate and weather  Replacement parts region and season technology  Fuel supplier conditions – The ambient discs Tyres, brake  Length of journeys  Tailpipe emissions  Fuel additive packs  Number of journeys  Types of road (e.g.  Component can conditions durability and aftertreatment  Standard grade vs. per day motorway vs. urban) / failure on the impact  Vehicle performance  Traffic management vehicle‟s fuel Premium product  Annual mileage [km]  Service personnel consumption  Model variant  Fuel availablity Traffic management systems which require the vehicle to brake – Roundabouts,  Heat and light for  Vehicle loading (e.g.  Load contribute to higher Fuel price can capacity fuel consumption and CO2 emissions traffic lights and garage facilities passenger mass, junctions  Target price UK, there is  Fuel taxation between the use of Across the great variability luggage mass)  Vehicle life time roundabouts, traffic lights and filter junctions, making it difficultvehicle (e.g. – Speed bumps  Fuel consumption  Actual, real-world  Care of to [years] quantify and account for the impact [L/100km] regular checking of – Speed limit fuel consumption fluid levels and tyre changes  Tailpipe CO2 emissions [g/km] pressure, etc.)  Road congestion  Use of onboard gadgets (e.g. GPS)  Use of air conditioning In-Use Source: Ricardo Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 31
    • Elements and Boundaries for evaluating life cycle CO2 emissionsMaintenance and servicing could increase the embedded emissionsof the vehicle, depending on what components are replaced Elements from use phase contributing to life cycle CO2 emissions Maintenance & Vehicle Specification  The vehicle manufacturer Fuel Driver Geography can specify the service interval and maintenance schedule for the Servicing vehicle, but they cannot make the vehicle owner comply with this schedule  The MOT ensures older vehicles remain road worthy  Vehicle size / type  Fuel type / energy  Ownership model  Location  Service interval  Kerb weight vector(s)  Owner affluence  Terrain (e.g. hills vs.  Oil and coolant  Powertrain tear of components depends on many factors, such as on driving style,flat) Wear and  Fuel specification  Driving habits distance changes travelled, and the weather Fuel quality architecture and   Climate and weather  Replacement parts  Duty cycle(s) technology  Fuel supplier conditions – Tyres, brake discs  Length of journeys  Tailpipe emissions  Fuel additive packs  Types of road (e.g.  Component durability  Number of journeys and aftertreatment motorway vs. urban) / failure  Standard grade vs. per day The environmental impact Premium product usually included within LCA studies Traffic management  Vehicle performance of workers is not   Service personnel  Annual mileage [km]  Model variant  Fuel availablity – Roundabouts,  Heat and light for  Vehicle loading (e.g.  Load capacity traffic lights and garage facilities  Fuel price passenger mass, junctions  Target price  Fuel taxation luggage mass)  Vehicle life time – Speed bumps [years]  Fuel consumption  Actual, real-world  Care of vehicle (e.g. [L/100km] regular checking of – Speed limit fuel consumption  The actual lifetime of the vehicle has a strong influence on the in-use CO2 emissions fluid levels and tyre changes  Tailpipe CO2  It is difficult to foretell the length of vehicle lifepressure, etc.)  Road congestion emissions [g/km]  This is usually assumed to be 10 years in LCA studies  Use of onboard gadgets (e.g. GPS)  Use of air conditioning In-Use Source: Ricardo Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 32
    • Elements and Boundaries for evaluating life cycle CO2 emissionsThe proposed boundary for assessing in-use CO2 could include allthese elements, or … Elements from use phase contributing to life cycle CO2 emissions Maintenance & Vehicle Specification Fuel Driver Geography Servicing  Vehicle size / type  Fuel type / energy  Ownership model  Location  Service interval  Kerb weight vector(s)  Owner affluence  Terrain (e.g. hills vs.  Oil and coolant  Powertrain  Fuel specification  Driving habits flat) changes architecture and  Fuel quality  Duty cycle(s)  Climate and weather  Replacement parts technology  Fuel supplier conditions – Tyres, brake discs  Length of journeys  Tailpipe emissions  Fuel additive packs  Types of road (e.g.  Component durability  Number of journeys and aftertreatment motorway vs. urban) / failure  Standard grade vs. per day  Vehicle performance Premium product  Traffic management  Service personnel  Annual mileage [km]  Model variant  Fuel availablity – Roundabouts,  Heat and light for  Vehicle loading (e.g.  Load capacity traffic lights and garage facilities  Fuel price passenger mass, junctions  Target price  Fuel taxation luggage mass)  Vehicle life time – Speed bumps [years]  Fuel consumption  Actual, real-world  Care of vehicle (e.g. [L/100km] regular checking of – Speed limit fuel consumption fluid levels and tyre changes  Tailpipe CO2 emissions [g/km] pressure, etc.)  Road congestion  Use of onboard  Can be measured / known gadgets (e.g. GPS)  Could be measured / known  Use of air  Difficult to measure / has to be conditioning In-Use Proposed Element Boundary assumed Source: Ricardo Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 33
    • Elements and Boundaries for evaluating life cycle CO2 emissions… focus on the NEDC results and Product Categorisation Rules for acommon comparison Elements from use phase contributing to life cycle CO2 emissions Maintenance & Vehicle Specification Fuel Driver Geography Servicing  Vehicle size / type  Fuel type / energy  Ownership model  Location  Service interval  Kerb weight vector(s)  Owner affluence  Terrain (e.g. hills vs.  Oil and coolant  Powertrain  Fuel specification  Driving habits flat) changes architecture and  Fuel quality  Duty cycle(s)  Climate and weather  Replacement parts technology  Fuel supplier conditions – Tyres, brake discs  Length of journeys  Tailpipe emissions  Fuel additive packs  Types of road (e.g.  Component durability  Number of journeys and aftertreatment motorway vs. urban) / failure  Standard grade vs. per day  Vehicle performance Premium product  Traffic management  Service personnel  Annual mileage [km]  Model variant  Fuel availablity – Roundabouts,  Heat and light for  Vehicle loading (e.g.  Load capacity traffic lights and garage facilities  Fuel price passenger mass, junctions  Target price  Fuel taxation luggage mass)  Vehicle life time – Speed bumps [years]  Fuel consumption  Actual, real-world  Care of vehicle (e.g. [L/100km] regular checking of – Speed limit fuel consumption fluid levels and tyre changes  Tailpipe CO2 emissions [g/km] pressure, etc.)  Road congestion  Use of onboard  Can be measured / known gadgets (e.g. GPS)  Could be measured / known  Use of air  Difficult to measure / has to be conditioning In-Use Proposed Element Boundary assumed Source: Ricardo Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 34
    • Elements and Boundaries for evaluating life cycle CO2 emissionsEmissions from vehicle end-of-life largely depend on what happensto the vehicle and its components Elements from vehicle end-of-life contributing to life cycle CO2 emissions Vehicle Re-Use & Logistics Processing Waste People Specification Recycling  Vehicle size /  Vehicle collection  Process for  Recycability of  Quantity of  Employees in segment  Transport of vehicle vehicle waste material logistics chain  Vehicle mass vehicle / disassembly components  Waste disposal  Employees of  Powertrain components to  Crushing  Actual quantiy of method (e.g. waste disposal technology EoL facility  Process for material / Landfill vs. facilities  Distributions of sorting materials components energy recovery)  People vs  Technology recycled / components recycled  Disposal of machines for options (e.g. battery type) materials /  Processing  Components waste fluids sorting materials components efficiency suitable for re-  Disposal of  H&S  Number of  Geographical use or re- electrical and considerations components  EoL process location of EoL manufacturing battery  Model variant effectiveness  Environmental facility (e.g.  Allocation of components considerations  Materials  Cleaning Europe vs BRIC) credit for  Hazardous  Methods for  Energy required recycling / re-use substances joining parts  Available energy together mix used RIP Disposal Source: Ricardo Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 35
    • Elements and Boundaries for evaluating life cycle CO2 emissionsElements related to the vehicle specification determine what couldhappen during the EoL phase Elements from vehicle end-of-life contributing to life cycle CO2 emissions  Vehicle specification is determined by the vehicle manufacturer Vehicle Re-Use &  Logistics Processing Much of this information is available within the public domain, usually inWaste People Specification Recycling marketing brochures or technical specification documents for the vehicles  Vehicle size /  Vehicle collection  Process for  Recycability of  Quantity of  Employees in segment  Transport of vehicle vehicle waste material logistics chain  Vehicle mass disassembly components vehicle / of technology may influence disposal process  Waste disposal  Employees of  Choice  Powertrain components to  Crushing  Actual quantiy of method (e.g. waste disposal technology EoL facility  Process for material / Landfill vs. facilities  Distributions of sorting materials components energy recovery)  People vs  Technology recycled / components recycled  Disposal of machines for options (e.g. battery type) materials /  Processing  Components waste fluids sorting materials components efficiency suitable for re-  Disposal of  H&S  Number of  Geographical use or re- electrical and considerations components  EoL process location of materials will be easier to re-use ormanufacturing  Some EoL effectiveness recycle than others battery  Environmental  Model variant facility (e.g.  Allocation of components considerations  Materials  Cleaning Europe vs BRIC) credit for  Hazardous  Methods for  Energy required recycling / re-use substances joining parts  Available energy  The vehicle may or may not be designed for easy disassembly together mix used  This will influence the quantity of parts that could be re-manufactured RIP These elements are generally considered to be outside the LCA Disposal boundary for a typical passenger car Source: Ricardo Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 36
    • Elements and Boundaries for evaluating life cycle CO2 emissionsGeographical location and the processes used to dismantle andrecycle the vehicle could have a large impact on EoL CO2 emissions Elements from vehicle end-of-life contributing to life cycle CO2 emissions  As Vehicle for Logistics Processing  Re-Use & These processes will require energy, which will People Waste result in Specification production, it Recycling CO2 emissions is likely that  Little data is currently available on the energy required to  the transport Vehicle size /  Vehicle collection  Process for  Recycability of a vehicle and process its materials dismantle  Quantity of  Employees in logistics segment  Transport of vehicle vehicle waste material logistics chain  associated Vehicle mass vehicle / disassembly components  Waste disposal  Employees of with vehicle components to  Crushing  Actual quantiy of method (e.g. waste disposal  Powertrain will end-of-life technology EoL facility  Process for material / Landfill vs. facilities have a small components energy recovery)  People vs  Technology to contribution  Distribution of sorting materials recycled / components recycled  Disposal of machines for options (e.g. the life cycle battery type) CO2 materials /  Processing  Components waste fluids sorting materials emissions components efficiency suitable for re-  Disposal of  H&S  Number of  Geographical use or re- electrical and considerations components  EoL process location of EoL manufacturing battery  Model variant effectiveness  Environmental facility (e.g.  Allocation of components considerations  Materials  Cleaning Europe vs BRIC) credit for  Hazardous  Methods for  Energy required recycling / re-use substances joining parts  Available energy together mix used RIP  This could have a large impact on the processes used to dismantle and sort materials (e.g. machine vs. by hand) Disposal  It will also impact on the energy mix available for processing the vehicle and its components Source: Ricardo Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 37
    • Elements and Boundaries for evaluating life cycle CO2 emissionsIt is likely that most of the vehicle will be re-used or recycled, with asmall quantity of waste material for landfill Elements from vehicle end-of-life contributing to life cycle CO2 emissions  Under the End-of-Life Directive, >85% of the vehicle (by  Under the ELD, Vehicle mass) should be re-used or recycled Re-Use & <15% of the Logistics Processing Waste People Specification Recycling vehicle should go  But this does not mean that 85% of the vehicle is re-used or recycled at the end of its life to landfill or energy  Vehicle size /  Vehicle collection  Process for  Recycability of  Quantity of  recovery Employees in  Some national statistics are available on vehicle re-use segment and recovery rates  Transport of across Europe vehicle vehicle waste material logistics chain  Vehicle mass vehicle / disassembly (http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/waste/ components  Waste disposal  Employees of data/wastestreams/elvs)  Powertrain components to  Crushing  Actual quantiy of method (e.g. waste disposal technology EoL facility  Process for material / landfill vs. energy facilities  Distributions of sorting materials components recovery)  People vs  Technology  Some LCI  Currently there is much debate within the automotive recycled / components recycled  Disposal of machines for options (e.g. databases contain community regarding what could happen to the battery battery type) materials /  Processing  Components waste fluids sorting materials pack at the EoL of a plug-in vehicle default values for components efficiency suitable for re-  Disposal of  H&S  Number of the CO2 emissions  Geographical use or re- electrical and considerations components  EoL process associated with manufacturing  Should the credit for re-use or of EoL be assigned to the  Model variant location recycling effectiveness battery  Environmental landfill or energy facility (e.g. using the materials? old product, or to the new product  Allocation of components considerations recovery systems  Materials  Cleaning Europe vs BRIC) credit for  Hazardous  Methods for  Energy required recycling / re-use substances joining parts  Available energy  Standards and together mix used legislation is available on how hazardous RIP materials and electrical components should be treated in a waste Disposal disposal facility Source: Ricardo Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 38
    • Elements and Boundaries for evaluating life cycle CO2 emissionsIdeally, LCA of the vehicle end-of-life should consider the logistics,energy and processes required to dispose of the vehicle Elements from vehicle end-of-life contributing to life cycle CO2 emissions Vehicle Re-Use & Logistics Processing Waste People Specification Recycling  Vehicle size /  Vehicle collection  Process for  Recycability of  Quantity of  Employees in segment  Transport of vehicle vehicle waste material logistics chain  Vehicle mass vehicle / disassembly components  Waste disposal  Employees of  Powertrain components to  Crushing  Actual quantiy of method (e.g. waste disposal technology EoL facility  Process for material / Landfill vs. facilities  Distributions of sorting materials components energy recovery)  People vs  Technology recycled / components recycled  Disposal of machines for options (e.g. battery type) materials /  Processing  Components waste fluids sorting materials components efficiency suitable for re-  Disposal of  H&S  Number of  Geographical use or re- electrical and considerations components  EoL process location of EoL manufacturing battery  Model variant effectiveness  Environmental facility (e.g.  Allocation of components considerations  Materials  Cleaning Europe vs BRIC) credit for  Hazardous  Methods for  Energy required recycling / re-use substances joining parts  Available energy together mix used Proposed Element Boundary  Can be measured / known RIP  Could be measured / known A vehicle LCA study is likely to be conducted during the pre-production or launch phase of a new vehicle model. There is some uncertainty regarding Disposal  Difficult to measure / has to be how well these EoL elements can be quantified ~10 years in advance assumed Source: Ricardo Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 39
    • Contents  Introduction  Strengths and Limitations of the existing tailpipe CO2 measure  Elements and Boundaries for evaluating life cycle CO2 emissions  Impact of Regulations on life cycle CO2 emissions  Consequences of Technology Evolution on life cycle CO2 emissions  Gaps, Accuracy and Further Work  Recommendations  Conclusions  Appendices Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 40
    • Impact of Regulations on life cycle CO2 emissionsSome legislation is directly designed to reduce a passenger car‟senvironmental impact but with unintended consequences … Relative effect on life cycle CO2 emissions Legislation In-use Commentary Production Disposal WTT TTW Renewable Energy Directive  Set European targets for increasing use of (Directive 2009/28/EC) / Fuel Quality Directive -  ? - renewable energy in transport fuel, and for decreasing GHG emissions of fuels (Directive 2009/30/EC)  Driver for uptake of new “low carbon” technologies, e.g. hybridisation and Tailpipe CO2 (Regulation No 443/2009)  -    electrification Many of these technologies increase the embedded emissions of the vehicle, while significantly decreasing tailpipe CO2  Driver for aftertreatment and advanced combustion technologies Tailpipe Emissions (Directive 2003/76/EC)  -    Often strategies compromise on fuel consumption to reduce tailpipe emissions of CO, HC, NOx and particulate  The objective of most Type Approval legislation is to improve safety Other Type Approval legislation* (as defined by Directive 2007/46/EC)  -    This legislation can lead to increasing the number of components within the vehicle, which increases vehicle mass and embedded CO2 emissions End-of-Life Directive (Directive 2000/53/EC) ? - -   Driver for improving the re-usability and recyclability of automotive components Legend:  Increases CO2 emissions  Decreases CO2 emissions - No significant impact on CO2 emissions ? Unknown impact Intended impact * A list of Type Approval legislation is supplied in the Appendices Source: European Commission, IFQC, Ricardo analysis Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 41
    • Impact of Regulations on life cycle CO2 emissions… while other legislation, not aimed at vehicle CO2, has an indirecteffect on vehicle life cycle CO2 emissions  Examples of legislation that may have a positive or negative effect on the life cycle CO2 emissions of a passenger car: – Environmental Legislation applying to material extraction and processing, or manufacturing • Overall, likely to have a positive effect on environmental impact, but may compromise on CO2 emissions to achieve targets – Health and Safety Legislation applying to material extract and processing, manufacturing, or handling and transport of materials and components • May restrict “best CO2 reduction” option – Shipping restrictions on transport of potentially hazardous materials and components, such as battery cells – Emissions Trading Scheme (Directive 2009/29/EC) – State Aid Rules • May delay the market introduction of new and novel low CO2 technologies due limited government capability to bridge the commercialisation valley of death / mountain of risk – Intellectual Property and Patents • May restrict the availability of good solutions depending on who owns the “rights” – Employment Law – Taxation and Incentives – Highway regulations, road restrictions and traffic management • E.g. Spain reducing national speed limit Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 42
    • Contents  Introduction  Strengths and Limitations of the existing tailpipe CO2 measure  Elements and Boundaries for evaluating life cycle CO2 emissions  Impact of Regulations on life cycle CO2 emissions  Consequences of Technology Evolution on life cycle CO2 emissions  Gaps, Accuracy and Further Work  Recommendations  Conclusions  Appendices Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 43
    • Consequences of Technology Evolution on life cycle CO2 emissionsInternational Standards already exist for defining the Life CycleAssessment (LCA) process  The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) process is outlined ISO 14040:2006 Life Cycle Assessment Framework (general principles) and 14044:2006 (guide for practitioners) Goal & Scope – LCA considers the entire life cycle of a product or service, from cradle- Definition to-grave – It is a relative approach, structured around a functional unit, which defines what is being studied Inventory – LCA studies are inherently complex. Therefore transparency is Interpretation Analysis important to ensure proper interpretation of the results – LCA considers many types of environmental impact, not just CO2 emissions Impact – Several databases are available containing Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) Assessment data on the environmental impact of different materials, energy sources and manufacturing processes  Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs) are defined by ISO 14025. An EPD must be based on a product LCA, use Product Category Rules (PCR) for the relevant product type, and be verified by a third party  In October 2008, BSI British Standards published PAS 2050, a Publicly Available Specification “for the assessment of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of goods and services”. This process for using LCA techniques to calculate the “carbon footprint” (CO2 equivalent) of a product or service was co-sponsored by the Carbon Trust and UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA)  An international standard for carbon footprinting is currently under discussion (ISO 14067) Source: ISO 14040:2006, PAS 2050, “Product carbon footprinting: the new business opportunity” published by Carbon Trust www.carbontrust.co.uk; SPMJ Technology Consulting Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 44
    • Consequences of Technology Evolution on life cycle CO2 emissionsMany OEMs are already conducting Life Cycle Assessment studiesof their vehicles that comply with ISO 14040 and ISO 14044  Many OEMs conduct Life Cycle Assessment studies of their vehicles as part of their Environmental Management strategies – VW began investigating LCA in the early 1990s – Toyota started using LCA in 1997. Since 2004, LCA has been implemented for all new passenger car models, as well as those undergoing a model change – PE International‟s published customer list for their GaBi LCA tool includes Audi, Daimler, Fiat, Ford, GM, Honda, Renault, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Toyota, VW, Volvo Bosch, Continental, Delphi, Siemens, Valeo, and Anglo Platinum  Several OEMs have published the results from their LCA studies to inform customers, shareholders and other stakeholders – Although certificates of validity show the LCA is based on reliable data and conforms to ISO 14040, it is not clear if different OEMs use the same set of assumptions or input data sets Certificates from relevant technical inspection organisations show that the LCA has been based on reliable data, and conforms to the requirements of ISO standards 14040 and 14044 Sources: The Polo Environmental Commendation, VW, 2009 ; Prius Environmental Declaration, Toyota, 2009; www.gabi-software.com/uk-ireland/customers/ Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 45
    • Consequences of Technology Evolution on life cycle CO2 emissionsOEM LCA studies suggest passenger car life cycle CO2 emissionsare 20-80 tonnes, depending on segment and lifetime mileage Life Cycle Assessment of Passenger Cars – Baseline Data from Literature Lifetime Life Cycle Life Cycle [%] Vehicle Description Mileage Total CO2e Source [km] [tonnes CO2] Production In-Use Disposal Diesel 1.6L TDI, 55 kW VW Polo 23 20.6% 79% 0.4% VW (2009) (un-laden weight 1157 kg) Gasoline 1.4L MPI, 63 kW VW Polo 29.5 ~17% ~83% <1% VW (2009) (un-laden weight 1104 kg) 150,000 VW Passat Diesel 2.0L TDI, 103 kW 32.4 19% 80% 1% VW Estate B6 (un-laden weight 1510kg) VW Passat Gasoline 1.6L FSI, 85 kW 38.2 18% 81% 1% VW Estate B6 (un-laden weight 1403kg) Hatchback 1.8L VVTi V Toyota Prius 150,000 - 26% 71% 3% Toyota (un-laden weight 1420kg) Mercedes- Mercedes- A150 Gasoline 1.5L, 70 kW, with 32 16% 83% <1% Benz Benz A-Class ECO start-stop system (2008) Mercedes- Mercedes- E 220 CDI BlueEFFICIENCY 300,000 48 18% 82% 1% Benz Benz E-Class Diesel 2.1L, 125 kW (2009a) Mercedes- Mercedes- Gasoline 3.5L V6 205 kW Benz S400 78 14% 85% <1% Benz 15 kW motor, Li-ion battery (2009b) Hybrid Sources: VW, Toyota, Mercedes-Benz – [See Appendices for further information on these sources] Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 46
    • Consequences of Technology Evolution on life cycle CO2 emissionsVehicle hybridisation and electrification can reduce life cycle CO2emissions, but this increases embedded emissions from production  One of the main drivers for the development of automotive technology today is reducing the in-use CO2 emissions. The trend is towards hybridisation and electrification  The introduction of battery packs, electric motors and power electronics into a passenger car increases the embedded CO2 emissions associated with the vehicle‟s production, while significantly reducing the tailpipe CO2 emissions from the use phase  This leads to a shift in the life cycle balance between production and use phases SELECTED EXAMPLES Lifetime Life Cycle Life Cycle [%] Vehicle Description Mileage Total CO2e Source Production In-Use Disposal [km] [tonnes CO2] Conventional 64.6 13% 87% HEV Based on Toyota Corolla type 46.1 18.8% 81.3% Samaras Not and PHEV 30 vehicle 240,000 43.9 20.8% 79.2% considered Meisterling PHEV 60 Li-Ion battery technology 43.4 23.2% 76.8% (2008) PHEV 90 43.9 24.6% 74.9% Standard Car C-segment vehicle (e.g. VW Golf) 150,000 40.3 12.9% 87.1% C-segment vehicle (e.g. VW Golf), Not Gauch et al. EV with 300 kg, 30 kWh Li-Ion battery 150,000 19.5 34.7% 65.3% considered (2009) pack Source: Samaras and Meisterling (2008); Gauch et al. (2009) – [See Appendices for further information on these sources] Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 47
    • Consequences of Technology Evolution on life cycle CO2 emissionsTo investigate further, Ricardo has compared estimates of life cycleCO2 emissions for a range of vehicle technologies and fuels  Comparing results from different LCA studies can be difficult if the assumptions and input data are not the same  Therefore, in order to evaluate how evolving technologies will alter the balance of emissions between production, in-use and disposal phases, Ricardo has produced high level estimates of life cycle CO2 emissions for different vehicle architectures. Information on the methodology used is provided in the Appendices  Three comparison sets have been prepared. In each set, the options are compared to a mid-size gasoline passenger car Comparing Technologies Comparing Vehicle Size Comparing Biofuels  Mid-size gasoline  Mid-size gasoline  Mid-size gasoline with E10  Mid-size plug-in hybrid vehicle  Small gasoline  Mid-size gasoline with E20 (PHEV)  Mid-size diesel  Mid-size gasoline with E85  Mid-size extended range electric  Large diesel  Mid-size diesel with B7 (FAME) vehicle (EREV)  Large diesel, with downsized ICE  Mid-size diesel with B10 (FAME)  Mid-size pure electric vehicle (EV)  Mid-size diesel with B100 (FAME)  Mid-size fuel cell vehicle (FCV)  Vehicle specifications based on Ricardo roadmap projections for 2015 Health Warning  Assumed lifetime mileage 150,000 km The charts on the following slides are based on high level estimates of life  Baseline gasoline assumed to be E10 (10%vol ethanol), in line with current fuel specifications cycle CO2, and provide an indication  Baseline diesel assumed to be B7 (7%vol FAME), in line with current fuel specifications of expected future trends. The results do not come from detailed LCA  Electricity grid mix assumed to be 500 gCO2e/kWh (2010 values published by DECC) studies conducted in accordance with  Further information about vehicle and fuel specifications is provided in the Appendix 2 ISO 14040 Source: Ricardo Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 48
    • Consequences of Technology Evolution on life cycle CO2 emissionsRicardo results show hybrids and EVs will have lower life cycle CO2emissions, but embedded emissions will be more significant Comparing Technologies  Predicted improvements in the Mid-Size Gasoline 23% 73% conventional ICE powertrain designed to reduce in-use tailpipe CO2, will naturally help to lower the life cycle CO2 Mid-Size Gasoline emissions compared to current values 31% 66% Full Hybrid  Life cycle CO2 reductions for Mid-Size Gasoline hybridisation and electrification could be 35% 39% 23% 10-20% (compared to a mid-size PHEV gasoline passenger car in 2015) Mid-Size Gasoline  However, embedded CO2 from 36% 28% 33% EREV production will increase, due to the addition of components such as Mid-Size EV 46% 52% advanced battery packs, electronic motors and power electronics – For an EV, nearly half the life cycle Mid-Size FCV 31% 68% CO2 could result from production 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 Lifecycle CO2 Emissions [kgCO2e] Vehicle specifications based on roadmap projections for 2015. Assumed lifetime mileage 150,000 km. Fuels E10 and B7. Production Fossil Biofuel Electricity Disposal Electricity carbon intensity assumed to be 500 gCO2/kWh. Further details on assumptions is provided in the Appendix 2 Source: Ricardo Analysis – See Appendix 2 for input assumptions Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 49
    • Consequences of Technology Evolution on life cycle CO2 emissionsDiesel and gasoline passenger cars have similar life cycle CO2emissions, which generally increase with vehicle size Comparing Vehicle Size  As expected, larger cars have higher life cycle CO2 emissions Small gasoline 21% 76%  The embedded CO2 for diesel vehicles is higher than the embedded CO2 for gasoline vehicles. However, since Mid-size gasoline 23% 73% tailpipe CO2 emissions are generally lower, the life cycle CO2 emissions for gasoline and diesel passenger cars are Mid-size diesel 26% 70% very similar (assuming lifetime mileage is 150,000 km)  Adopting downsizing ICE technology Large diesel 28% 69% will help to reduce life cycle CO2 emissions, although this is mainly due to improvements in fuel economy Large diesel, with leading to lower tailpipe CO2 31% 65% downsized ICE 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 Lifecycle CO2 Emissions [kgCO2e] Vehicle specifications based on roadmap projections for 2015. Assumed lifetime mileage 150,000 km. Fuels E10 and B7. Production Fossil Biofuel Electricity Disposal Electricity carbon intensity assumed to be 500 gCO2/kWh. Further details on assumptions is provided in the Appendix 2 Source: Ricardo Analysis – See Appendix 2 for input assumptions Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 50
    • Consequences of Technology Evolution on life cycle CO2 emissionsIncreasing the biofuel content helps to reduce Well-to-Wheel CO2emissions … Comparing Alternative Fuels  The higher the biofuel content, the Mid-size gasoline lower the WTW CO2 emissions 23% 73% with E10 resulting from the use of fuel Mid-size gasoline  The actual level of saving is dependent 25% 70% on the feedstock and production with E20 processes used to make the biofuel Mid-size gasoline  As WTW CO2 emissions reduce, the 36% 33% 30% with E85 embedded CO2 emissions from production and disposal become a Mid-size diesel with more significant part of the whole life 26% 70% B7 (FAME) cycle CO2 metric Mid-size diesel with 26% 69% B10 (FAME) Mid-size diesel with 39% 59% B100 (FAME) 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 Lifecycle CO2 Emissions [kgCO2e] Vehicle specifications based on roadmap projections for 2015. Assumed lifetime mileage 150,000 km. Fuels E10 and B7. Production Fossil Biofuel Electricity Disposal Electricity carbon intensity assumed to be 500 gCO2/kWh. Further details on assumptions is provided in the Appendix 2 Source: Ricardo Analysis – See Appendix 2 for input assumptions Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 51
    • Consequences of Technology Evolution on life cycle CO2 emissions… for conventional and alternative powertrain technologies Comparing Technologies with Alternative Fuels  The WTW CO2 reductions achieved Mid-Size Gasoline 25% 70% through increasing the use of biofuels also applies to other powertrain technologies Mid-Size Gasoline 32% 62%  Reducing the carbon intensity of the UK Full Hybrid electricity mix also helps to reduce the Mid-Size Gasoline WTW CO2 emissions for plug-in 39% 41% 16% vehicles PHEV  But, as a consequence, CO2 emissions Mid-Size Gasoline from production become more 42% 30% 24% EREV significant – For an EV, >50% of life cycle CO2 Mid-Size EV 57% 40% could result from production  Note: In this study it has been assumed that hydrogen is produced by steam methane Mid-Size FCV 31% 68% reforming of natural gas. If produced from renewable sources, its carbon intensity would be significant reduced by ~90% 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 Lifecycle CO2 Emissions [kgCO2e] Vehicle specifications based on roadmap projections for 2015. Assumed lifetime mileage 150,000 km. Fuels E20. Production Fossil Biofuel Electricity Disposal Electricity carbon intensity assumed to be 310 gCO2/kWh. Further details on assumptions is provided in the Appendix 2 Source: Ricardo Analysis – See Appendix 2 for input assumptions Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 52
    • Consequences of Technology Evolution on life cycle CO2 emissionsThe technology evolution to plug-in vehicles will lead to higherembedded CO2 emissions due to the addition of new components Embedded CO2 Emissions [kgCO2e] Mid-Size Gasoline Mid-Size Gasoline EREV Mid-Size EV Vehicle Glider 1.6% 5.1% Engine, including 0.7% 6.1% 2.2% aftertreatment 3.4% 8.0% 4.8% Transmission and 4.5% Driveline 14.2% Fuel System 46.3% 20.9% 54.7% 43.1% Battery 72.5% 0.5% Motor 7.6% 2.0% Power Electronics 1.7% 5.6 tCO2e 7.5 tCO2e 8.8 tCO2e Assembly Energy  For a standard family gasoline passenger car, >70% of the embedded CO2 emissions result from the non- powertrain components (the vehicle glider)  However this balance will change with the additional components required for hybridisation and electrification. For an extended range EV, the battery could account for >20% of the embedded CO2 emissions. While for an EV, the battery could represent >40% of the embedded CO2 emissions from production Vehicle specifications based on roadmap projections for 2015. Further details on assumptions is provided in the Appendix 2 Source: Ricardo Analysis – See Appendix 2 for input assumptions Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 53
    • Contents  Introduction  Strengths and Limitations of the existing tailpipe CO2 measure  Elements and Boundaries for evaluating life cycle CO2 emissions  Impact of Regulations on life cycle CO2 emissions  Consequences of Technology Evolution on life cycle CO2 emissions  Gaps, Accuracy and Further Work  Recommendations  Conclusions  Appendices Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 54
    • Gaps, Accuracy and Further WorkCurrent gaps in understanding surrounding LCA revolve around theLCI data for materials, processes, fuels and energy Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) Real World Use  Quantifying the difference in results due  What is the extent of the variability to different LCI datasets and LCA tools introduced by a population of different  Assessing environmental impacts of users? new automotive materials, such as – E.g. Impact of using air conditioning, composites impact of low tyre pressures, etc.  Assessing environmental impacts of  What is the realistic lifetime for a future advanced production processes vehicle?  In addition to CO2, what other – How far will it travel? environmental impacts should be considered? – E.g. water footprint, toxicity, etc. Gaps in Vehicle End-of-Life Understanding Future Fuels & Energy Vectors  What really happens at the end of a  What will be the future biofuel content vehicle‟s life? for gasoline and diesel?  What will happen to new technologies – What biofuel mix will be used? (e.g. EV)? • What will be the feedstock mix? – What disposal processes will be – What will be the carbon intensity of required? these fuels? – How can these be modelled within  What will be the future carbon intensity an LCA study? of the electricity grid?  How should the environmental impact – Marginal vs. Mean? be allocated between old and new products? Source: Ricardo Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 55
    • Gaps, Accuracy and Further WorkThe detail of the methodology employed by the LCA user can have asignificant impact on the life cycle results EXAMPLE  It is possible to conduct two LCA studies of the same product, Results from LCA study of two gear boxes, which both comply with the ISO 14040 standards, but have using two different LCA tools very different results 200 CO2 emitted during life cycle [kg]  Variability in LCA results can be a consequence of: – Functional unit definition (e.g. lifetime mileage) 150 – LCA boundary, determining what has been included or excluded from the study – Assumptions employed 100 – Life Cycle Inventory data set, and associated data quality • LCI databases define emission factors for materials, 50 energy and processes • When selecting LCI data, the user should consider the geographical horizon, time horizon, precision, 0 completeness and representativeness of the LCI data Gear Box 1 Gear Box 2 – Method for allocating environmental impact of co-products LCA Tool 1 LCA Tool 2 • If a process produces more than one product, the environmental impact can be split between the products In the above example, an LCA study was conducted produced of two gear boxes, one with an aluminium casing and the other with a steel casing. The study was – Choice of LCA software tool repeated using two different LCA software tools, • Several commercial LCA tools available, in addition to with the same bill of materials for the gear boxes. The differences in results is primarily due to the in-house tools developed by vehicle manufacturers LCA tools using different LCI databases Source: Ricardo (2008) Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 56
    • Gaps, Accuracy and Further WorkPeer review and sensitivity analysis are recommended to ensure useof a rigorous process and to quantify variability of results  ISO 14040 recommends that LCA studies are peer reviewed to ensure an appropriate methodology has been used  Conducting sensitivity analysis can help to identify which elements could contribute most to result variability, and to understand the range  Some LCI databases have data quality indexes to help users identify if the selected data is suitable for the application being investigated However even with peer review and sensitivity analysis LCA results from different studies can still be significantly different depending on input data sets and assumptions Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 57
    • Gaps, Accuracy and Further WorkThe LCA community is already active in initiatives to improveaccuracy, data quality and use of consist methodology Existing LCA Initiatives  There are several organisations engaged in activities to improve the accuracy of life cycle assessment and to establish common methodologies and data sets so products can be compared on a “like with like” basis EXAMPLES  European Platform on Life Cycle Assessment (http://lct.jrc.ec.europa.eu) – The aim is to support businesses and public authorities in the implementation of Sustainable Consumption and Production – In March 2010 the European Commission published their ILCD handbook – Their Life Cycle Thinking website and LCA Forum is hosted by the European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Environment and Sustainability (JRC-IES)  UNEP Life Cycle Initiative (http://lcinitiative.unep.fr) – An international life cycle partnership set up by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) – Their main mission is to bring science-based Life Cycle approaches into practice worldwide  The Carbon Label Company (www.carbon-label.com) – Set up by the Carbon Trust in 2007 – Primary objective is to help businesses to measure, certify, reduce and communicate the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of their products and services Source: EC JRC-IES, UNEP Life cycle Initiative; The Carbon Trust and the Carbon Label Company Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 58
    • Gaps, Accuracy and Further WorkFurther work is required, engaging with OEMs, LCA practitionersand vehicle drivers, to close the gaps in life cycle understanding Suggestions to LowCVP for Future Work  Open the dialogue with vehicle manufacturers – Encourage OEMs to publish the results (and their methodology/assumptions) from their LCA studies. This will provide a benchmark of the current life cycle CO2 emissions of European passenger cars, split between production, in-use and disposal  Make contact with LCA networks and initiatives – Many of these networks are already active in trying to improve the quality of life cycle inventory data – Work with the existing initatives to develop a standard / default LCI dataset for the automotive industry  Investigate the variability of vehicle use to understand the range between extremes – E.g. Consumer surveys to understand travel patterns, driver styles, typical vehicle loading, use of on-board heating and air conditioning – Conduct sensitivity studies to appreciate the impact of different use patterns on life cycle emissions  Research vehicle end-of-life to understand what really happens during vehicle disposal – What will be the impact of new technologies, such as advanced battery packs? – How will new materials impact re-use and recyclability?  Make LCA part of the process – Get life cycle thinking embedded within the design process – Allow LCA results to drive reduction in both cost and CO2 footprint (“Clean „n‟ Lean”) Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 59
    • Contents  Introduction  Strengths and Limitations of the existing tailpipe CO2 measure  Elements and Boundaries for evaluating life cycle CO2 emissions  Impact of Regulations on life cycle CO2 emissions  Consequences of Technology Evolution on life cycle CO2 emissions  Gaps, Accuracy and Further Work  Recommendations  Conclusions  Appendices Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 60
    • RecommendationsEurope currently has specific targets for reducing the environmentalimpact of a vehicle during the fuel, use and disposal phases, … “Fuel” The Renewable Energy The fleet average tailpipe Directive and Fuel Quality CO2 target is encouraging Directive have set targets for vehicle manufacturers to increasing renewable energy in develop low carbon transport, and reducing GHG Generate Distribute technology emissions from fuel - Fossil fuel production Distribution network efficiency - Electricity generation The End-of-Life Vehicle - Power lines - Hydrogen production Directive is encouraging re- - Pipelines - … use and recycling of Currently, there are no - Tankers automotive components, automotive targets specifically - … which should help to reduce aimed at reducing CO2 from the environmental impact of production of the whole vehicle disposal RIP Production “In-Use” Disposal Assessment of - Tailpipe CO2 from driving Assessment of environmental impact of environmental impact of producing the vehicle from - Impact from maintenance “end of life” scenario, raw materials to complete and servicing including re-use of product components, recycle of materials and landfill Source: Ricardo Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 61
    • Recommendations… but there are no specific CO2 targets for the production of thewhole vehicle Recommendations for a life cycle CO2 measure  Consider a new CO2 metric based on the GHG emissions emitted during vehicle production [tCO2e] – The vehicle‟s life cycle CO2 can then be calculated for a defined use, fuel and disposal scenario  Consider targets aimed at reducing the life cycle CO2 [tCO2e]. For example: – Cap on production CO2, dependent on vehicle segment – Reduction target for production or life cycle CO2, compared to an appropriate baseline – Maximum “pay back period” for trading increased embedded emissions against reductions in tailpipe / WTW CO2 emissions  Consider the fiscal and regulatory framework in which vehicles are sold, used and disposed – Allocation of incentives / regulation to best influence commercial and consumer behaviours for lowest life cycle CO2 Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 62
    • Contents  Introduction  Strengths and Limitations of the existing tailpipe CO2 measure  Elements and Boundaries for evaluating life cycle CO2 emissions  Impact of Regulations on life cycle CO2 emissions  Consequences of Technology Evolution on life cycle CO2 emissions  Gaps, Accuracy and Further Work  Recommendations  Conclusions  Appendices Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 63
    • ConclusionsFuture CO2 metrics will need to consider a vehicle‟s whole life cycle,but work is required to obtain common methodologies and data sets Conclusions  The vehicle‟s embedded CO2 from production and disposal is becoming a greater portion of the life cycle CO2 emissions  Current regulatory frameworks do not recognise this  Standards, guidelines and manuals already exist for conducting Life Cycle Assessment and Environmental Product Declarations of products such as passenger cars – However input data, boundary conditions and assumption can vary between LCA studies  Life Cycle Inventory databases exist containing information on the carbon intensity of materials, energy, production processes and fuels – Some databases are freely available within the public domain, while other proprietary databases require users to purchase a licence – Values can vary between databases depending on the geographical horizon, time horizon, data source, completeness and representativeness of the LCI data  For a life cycle CO2 measure to be regulated, work will be required to standardise the process detail, life cycle boundary, and input data, such that results from different manufacturers are directly comparable  Key areas for further investigation include: – Development of a common LCI dataset to be used by the automotive industry – Impact of different in-use assumptions, especially around drive cycles and use of ancillary functions – Obtain a better understanding and modelling of the environmental impact of vehicle end of life, especially for new technologies such as electric vehicles Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 64
    • Contents  Introduction  Strengths and Limitations of the existing tailpipe CO2 measure  Elements and Boundaries for evaluating life cycle CO2 emissions  Impact of Regulations on life cycle CO2 emissions  Consequences of Technology Evolution on life cycle CO2 emissions  Gaps, Accuracy and Further Work  Recommendations  Conclusions  Appendices Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 65
    • Appendix 1References www.ricardo.com RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011
    • References / Bibliography  Burnham, A. and M. Wang, Y. Wu. (2006). Development and Applications of GREET 2.7 – The Transportation Vehicle-Cycle Model. ANL/ESD/06-05; Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL: 2006.  Committee on Climate Change (2008). Building a low-carbon economy – the UK’s contribution to tackling climate change. The First Report of the Committee on Climate Change. The Stationery Office (TSO), London, UK, December 2008. Available to download from: http://www.theccc.org.uk/reports/ [last accessed 4 April 2011]  CONCAWE, EUCAR, and European Commission Joint Research Centre (2007). Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Future Automotive Fuels and Powertrains in the European Context. WELL-to-TANK Report. Version 2c, March 2007  Eurostat (2011). End-of-life vehicles (ELVs) Re-Use and Recovering Rate. European Commission website. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/waste/data/wastestreams/elvs [last accessed 4 April 2011]  Gauch, M., Widmer, R., Notter, D., Stamp, A., Althaus, H.J., Wäger, P. (2009). Life Cycle Assessment LCA of Li-Ion batteries for electric vehicles. Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research.  Krinke, S. (2003). Quality of LCI data: Industry needs, reasons and challenges for the future. VW Group research, Recycling and Life-Cycle Assessment, 20-21 October 2003, International Workshop on Quality of LCI Data, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany  Ligterink, N. E., and Bos, B. (2010). Passenger car CO2 emissions in tests and in the real world – an analysis of business user data. TNO Report MON-RPT-2010-00114, Delft, the Netherlands, 19 January 2010  Mercedes-Benz (2007). Environmental Certificate A-Class. Mercedes-Benz, March 2008  Mercedes-Benz (2009a). Lifecycle Environmental Certificate for the E-Class. Mercedes-Benz, April 2009  Mercedes-Benz (2009b). Lifecycle Environmental Certificate for the S 400 HYBRID. Mercedes-Benz, May 2009  Notter, D. A., Gauch, M., Widmer, R., Wager, P., Stamp, A., Zah, R., and Althaus, H.J. (2010). Contribution of Li-Ion Batteries to the Environmental Impact of Electric Vehicles. Environmental Science Technology, 44 (17), pp 6550–6556, 2010. Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 67
    • References / Bibliography  Samaras, C. and Meisterling, K. (2008). Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles: Implications from Policy. Carnegie Mellon University. Environmental Science & Technology, 2008, May 2008 pp 3170-3176  Schmidt et al. (2004). Life Cycle Assessment of Lightweight and End-of-Life Scenarios for Generic Compact Class Passenger Vehicles. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, p405-416, 2004  SMMT (2010). 11th annual sustainability report. The Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders, UK, 2010 (2009 data)  Yamato, M. (2005). Eco-Vehicle Assessment System (Eco-VAS): A Comprehensive Environmental Impact Assessment System for the Entire Development Process. Environmental Affairs Division. TOYOTA Technical Review Vol. 54 No. 1 Nov. 2005  VW (2007). The Passat Environmental Commendation – Background Report. Volkswagen AG, Germany, November 2007  VW (2009). The Polo Environmental Commendation. Volkswagen AG, Germany, June 2009 Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 68
    • Appendix 2Further information on Ricardo analysis of impact of technology evolution onlife cycle CO2 emissions www.ricardo.com RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011
    • Appendix: Ricardo analysis of impact of technology evolution on life cycle CO 2 emissionsRicardo derived a set of vehicle specifications designed to produceequivalent performance characteristics by vehicle size Vehicle Specifications based on Technology Roadmap projections for 2015 EV Driving Vehicle Mass Tailpipe CO2 Vehicle Vehicle Description Range * [kg] [gCO2/km] [km] Mid-Size Gasoline 1.4L 91kW I4 DI engine with VVT and FGT 1340 kg 109 gCO2/km - 1.4L 91kW I4 DI engine with VVT, 1.8 kWh NiMH battery Mid-Size Gasoline Full Hybrid pack, 56 kW Motor 1430 kg 84 gCO2/km - 1.4L 91kW I4 DI engine with VVT, 4.8 kWh Li-ion battery Mid-Size Gasoline PHEV back, 56 kW Motor 1460 kg 47 gCO2/km 20 km 1.0L 44kW I3 PFI engine, 13.4 kWh Li-ion battery back, 72 Mid-Size Gasoline EREV kW Motor 1510 kg 35 gCO2/km 55 km Mid-Size EV 32.2 kWh Li-ion battery back, 71 kW Motor 1480 kg 0 gCO2/km 180 km 73 kW PEM fuel cell system, 1.8 kWh Li-ion battery back, Mid-Size FCV 67 kW Motor 1410 kg 0 gCO2/km - Small Gasoline 1.0L 59kW I3 PFI engine with VVT 1080 kg 103 gCO2/km - Mid-Size Diesel 2.0L 101kW I4 engine with VGT Turbo 1420 kg 105 gCO2/km - Large Diesel 3.0L 123kW V6 engine with VGT Turbo 1720 kg 113 gCO2/km - Large Diesel, with downsized 2.0L 123kW I4 engine with 2 stage turbocharging 1680 kg 90 gCO2/km - ICE and reduced vehicle weight * Depth of battery discharge for calculating EV range assumed to be 50% for PHEV and EREV, and 70% for EV Source: Ricardo Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 70
    • Appendix: Ricardo analysis of impact of technology evolution on life cycle CO 2 emissionsA variety of alternative fuels were considered … Fuel Specifications, and assumptions regarding Well-to-Tank CO2 emissions (1/2)  The study has considered three grades of gasoline: • E10 containing 10%vol, 7%energy ethanol • E20 containing 20%vol, 14%energy ethanol • E85 containing 80%vol, 73%energy ethanol, to allow for seasonal and regional variations – Ethanol is assumed to be from a range of feedstocks (70% sugar cane, 20% sugar beet, 8% wheat, 2% corn) – Carbon intensity of ethanol is assumed to be 28.7 gCO2e/MJfuel, derived from RED typical values – Carbon intensity of gasoline is assumed to be 83.8 gCO2e/MJfuel, RED default value  The study has considered three grades of diesel: • B7 containing 7%vol, 6%energy FAME • B10 containing 10%vol, 9%energy FAME • B100 containing 100%vol, 100%energy FAME – FAME is assumed to be from a range of feedstocks (40% soy, 25% oilseed rape, 15% tallow, 10% palm, 10% other) – Carbon intensity of FAME is assumed to be 43.4 gCO2e/MJfuel, derived from RED typical values – Carbon intensity of diesel is assumed to be 83.8 gCO2e/MJfuel, RED default value Source: Ricardo, UK Renewable Fuels Agency, European Renewable Energy Directive Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 71
    • Appendix: Ricardo analysis of impact of technology evolution on life cycle CO 2 emissions… including electricity and hydrogen Fuel Specifications, and assumptions regarding Well-to-Tank CO2 emissions (2/2)  Electricity for plug-in vehicles assumed to be from UK National Grid – 2010 UK electricity carbon intensity assumed to be 500 gCO2e/kWh, 139 gCO2e/MJ (DECC) – 2020 UK electricity carbon intensity assumed to be 310 gCO2e/kWh, 86 gCO2e/MJ (CCC Scenario)  Hydrogen was assumed to be from industrial sources, produced using steam methane reforming – Carbon intensity for hydrogen assumed to be 99.7 gCO2e/MJfuel Source: Ricardo, DECC, Committee on Climate Change (CCC), CONCAWE Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 72
    • Appendix: Ricardo analysis of impact of technology evolution on life cycle CO 2 emissionsRicardo have developed a top-down methodology for estimating lifecycle CO2 emissions for a range of vehicle technologies Ricardo‟s methodology for calculating high level estimates of life cycle CO2 emissions Vehicle Fuel In-Use Disposal Total Production Production  Divide vehicle into  Build a vehicle  Use energy  For this study,  Sum together the key sub-systems simulation model to consumption data, assume CO2 CO2 emissions from  For each system, predict fuel split by fuel type, emissions from each phase to obtain determing the consumption, energy from Use phase Disposal is 5% of the total life cycle system mass and requirements, and  Identify carbon CO2 emissions from CO2 emissions of the split by material tailpipe CO2 intensity for each fuel production [kgCO2e] vehicle [kgCO2e] emissions [kgCO2e]  Calculate embedded – Use RED/FQD emissions typical values associated with the  Calculate the Well- materials used to-Wheels CO2  Estimate embedded emissions resulting emissions resulting for the use of each from production fuel [gCO2e/km] processes (e.g.  Multiply by life time energy mix) For this study, life time mileage to obtain mileage assumed to be  Sum together to total CO2 emissions 150,000 km * calculate embedded from Use and Fuel CO2 emissions for [kgCO2e] vehicle production [kgCO2e] * The Product Category Rule for passenger cars currently states lifetime mileage as 150,000 km. This project has not assessed if this definition is appropriate for current and future passenger car technologies Source: Ricardo Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 73
    • Appendix: Ricardo analysis of impact of technology evolution on life cycle CO 2 emissionsOther assumptions used in Ricardo‟s high level analysis of life cycleCO2 emissions from passenger cars Other assumptions  Ricardo„s top-down methodology provides a high level estimate of the production, in-use and disposal CO2 emissions of a generic vehicle, useful for providing an indication of future trends in life cycle CO2. This process does not currently confirm with ISO 14040  Assume tailpipe CO2 is equal to tailpipe CO2e, since tailpipe emissions other GHGs will be very small  For EVs, EREVs and PHEVs, assume the battery does not need to be replaced during the vehicle lifetime – This study has not investigated the likelihood of a Li-ion or NiMH battery pack lasting the lifetime of a plug-in vehicle HIGH LEVEL ESTIMATE Mid-Size Gasoline 23% 73%  If the battery has to be replaced during the vehicle‟s life, then the embedded Mid-Size EV CO2 emissions will increase, as (without battery 31% 66% illustrated in the chart left replacement) Mid-Size EV (with battery 55% 43% replacement) 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 Vehicle specifications based on roadmap projections for Lifecycle CO2 Emissions [kgCO2e] 2015. Assumed lifetime mileage 150,000 km. Fuels E10 and B7. Electricity carbon intensity assumed to be 500 gCO2/kWh. Further details on assumptions is provided in Production Battery Replacement Fossil Biofuel Electricity Disposal the Appendices Source: Ricardo Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 74
    • Appendix 3Vehicle Type Approval www.ricardo.com RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011
    • Appendix: Vehicle Type ApprovalRegulations are enforceable by law, while codes and standards tendto be voluntary unless referred to in regulations Definitions  A directive is a legislative act of the European Union, which requires member states to Directives transport it into national law, without dictating the means of achieving that result  A regulation is a legislative act which becomes immediately enforceable as law. It is a Regulations statutory document, legally binding and has to be adhered to  It is self-executing and do not require any implementing measures  A code is a collection of laws or rules, specifying the minimum standard to adhere to Codes  Usually voluntary, but depends on its jurisdiction  A Technical Standard is an establish norm or requirement, usually defined in a formal document Standards  Developed by Standards Organisations, with diverse input, usually voluntary, but might become mandatory if adopted by government  Standards are not legally binding unless refered to in a regulation Source: Ricardo Legal Department; Wikipedia Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 76
    • Appendix: Vehicle Type ApprovalVehicle Type Approval is granted to a vehicle that meets a minimumset of regulatory, technical and safety requirements What is European Vehicle Type Approval?  Vehicle Type Approval is the procedure whereby a Member State certifies that a type of vehicle satisfies the relevant administrative provisions and technical requirements relating to: – Active and passive safety – Protection of the environment – Performance and other issues  The objective of Vehicle Type Approval is: – To enable vehicles to be put on the market according to common requirements – To ensure the proper functioning of the internal market in the EU  The concept is also applicable to components and systems  Within the Europe Community, the framework for the type approval of motor vehicles is defined in EC Directive 2007/46/EC  The EC Whole Vehicle Type Approval system (ECWVTA) means that if manufacturers can obtain approval for a vehicle type in one Member State, the vehicle can be marketed within the EU without further tests or checks, subject to presenting a certificate of conformity  Automotive EC Directives and UN ECE Regulations require third party approval (e.g. UK VCA) Source: European Commission Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 77
    • Appendix: Vehicle Type ApprovalTo obtain European Type Approval, a vehicle has to comply with~50 EC Directives Europe: Application Standards for Vehicle Type Approval Environment 01. Sound Levels EC 2007/34 02. Emissions EC 2003/76 11. Diesel Smoke EC 2005/21 39. Fuel Consumption EC 2004/3 40. Engine Power EC 1999/99 41. Diesel Emissions EC 2008/74 Active Safety Passive Safety 05. Steering Equipment EC 1999/7 19. Safety Belt Anchorage EC 2005/41 07. Audible Warning EC 70/388 16. Exterior Projections EC 2007/15 35. Wash / Wipe EC 94/68 15. Seat Strength EC 2005/39 Lighting Equipment Other Directives 13. Antitheft EC 95/56 14. Protective Steering EC 91/662 21. Reflex Reflectors EC 97/29 27. Towing Hooks EC 96/64 32. Forward Vision EC 90/630 03. Fuel Tank EC 2006/20 22. Side, Rear and Stop lamps EC 97/30 04. Rear Registration Plate EC 70/222 08. Rear Visibility EC 2005/27 12. Interior Fittings EC 2000/4 23. Direction indicator lamps EC 1999/15 18. Statutory Plates EC 78/507 46. Tyres EC 2005/11 31. Safety Belts EC 2005/40 24. Rear registration plate lamp EC 97/31 36. Heating systems 2004/78 17. Speedometer and Reverse Gear EC 25. Headlamps (including bulbs) EC 10. Radio Interference Suppression EC 06. Door Latches and hinges EC 2001/31 97/39 1999/17 2009/19 34. Defrost / Demist EC 78/317 38. Head restraints EC 78/932 26. Front fog lamps EC 1999/18 44. Masses and Dimensions EC 95/48 09. Braking EC 2002/78 45. Safety glazing EC 2001/92 28. Rear fog lamps EC 1999/14 50. Mechanical Couplings EC 94/20 20. Lighting Installation EC 2008/89 53. Frontal impact EC 1999/98 29. Reversing Lamps EC 97/32 33. Identification of Controls EC 94/53 54. Side impact EC 96/27 30. Parking Lamps EC 1999/16 37. Wheel Guards EC 94/78 Source: www.vca.gov.uk Q57627 Client Confidential – LowCVP 25 August 2011 RD.11/124801.5 © Ricardo plc 2011 78