K! THINK! REPORT 005/2010 THIN The Innovation Knowledge Foundation The Smart City vision: How Innovation and ICTcan build smart, “liveable”, sustainable cities. K! author: Donato Toppeta I October 2010THIN Abstract The Innovation Knowledge FoundationThe city is a core paradigm for the mankind, where trade, technology, art and culture converge in designingand building the solutions to the civilization risks. Most people on the earth already live in bigger citiesand urbanization is accelerating: it is growing the demand for a more efficient, sustainable, “liveable”model for cities.We can better face new threats, by looking at innovation and best practices, in re-inventing the cityorganization, leveraging ICT enabled nervous system, building smarter cities. In fact we know that thehuman population growth cannot be stopped, nor the expectation of a better life, that makes people movingto bigger towns and pressing local government and all stakeholders to get involved.The target of this research is very compelling: since a “smart city” is a complex multi-dimensional network of“system of systems”, and the cultural, economical, social and geographic constraints of each city are unique,then both an analytic and holistic approach are needed to describe a smart city.I think that a detailed taxonomy of the smart city’s components and stakeholders can help in decomposingthe problem in more manageable components. The top level classes of the proposed taxonomy, furtherdetailed in this document, are: Info-mobility and ITS (Intelligent Transport Systems) smart mobility, logistic andtechnology; Developing human resources and social capital: Smart People; Economics 2.0: Smart Economyfor competiveness, Quality and Sustainability of living; Ecosystem: Sustainable Environment, renewableenergy and other resources; E-democracy, e-Government 2.0, Smart Government.This document is the first step of a path, that will include for example smart city best practices, technologiesand vertical solutions, ICT proposition from leading companies and examples of innovative researches.The final scope is that of taking the best of each point of views, indentify low hanging fruits and longterm strategies, build a general framework, that is still flexible enough to be applied to specific needs andscenarios. K!THIN 1 The Innovation Knowledge Foundation
THINK! REPORT 005/2010 K! THINIntroduction: Smart City as a system of multipleThe town development, sub-systems The Innovation Knowledge Foundationfrom the Greece’s “polis”, “Climate change is not just about the IBM has already successfully stated that a “smart city” is environment. It is THE social, economicthe roman’s “urbis”, and political issue for every city in a complex infrastructure of “system of systems”; I wouldthe renaissances cities Europe and worldwide. Cities have a key like also to stress that this statement is true on multiple role to play in enabling local economieslike “Florence”, signs to anticipate and adapt to climate dimensions; the most obvious one is the territorial andmajor milestones in our change to achieve economic recovery administrative scale unit:civilization history, up and sustainable growth.” Mona Heiberg former Deputy Mayor • Neighborhoods, where the integrated design of new to the contemporary, of Copenhagen ones like Vauban (Freiburg) or Sjostad (Stockholm)global metropolis, where prove the effectiveness of the sustainable approach toadvanced services have urban planning,replaced industrial plants. The city is a core aggregationand socialization paradigm for the mankind, where trade, • Smaller territorial aggregations that share an technology, art and culture can help in designing and optimization approach in energy usage for smartbuilding the solutions to many core global issues (i.e. building with home automation, remote heating andeconomical double dip, fossil energy and other resources management, like in a condominium.exhaustion, environmental climate change and pollution, • Large, integrated, metropolitan areas resulting from social pressed by unemployment, poverty and demographic merging towns or the 1growth, cultural for radical changes in communication in role of fast trains and “During the past years, the digital revolution and the emergence of adigital life and globalization, biodiversity loss, etc.). high speed digital global internet connecting people, communication enterprises and – increasingly – objects,We can better face these threats by leveraging our ability to have generated a massive opportunity network that allow to “dematerialize” daily life in cities.”improve the efficiency and re-invent the organization and to lower the distance EBR 2010, Planning a SmarterICT enabled nervous system of smarter cities, because we barriers for work and Society - GIORGIO ANDREOLI,know that human population growth cannot be stopped CARLO MARIA MEDAGLIA services like shoppingeasily and quickly, nor the expectation of a better life, that and entertainmentkeep on moving people to bigger towns in search of work districts.and other services. There are many dimensions that describe the scope of a smart city such as: • Integration and interaction of different services and infrastructures, both physical and virtual • Smart utilities grids (not only the distributed electricity and gas grids with bidirectional flow in a distributed generation, that requires real time exchange of information, but also remote heating/cooling to leverage co/tri-generation, clean and grey water with detailed per user/usage billing that encourage collection and reuse, underground pipes for differentiated waste collection). • Public transportation and road network that aim to manage the mobility needs with an appropriate Intelligent Transport System (ITS) that takes care of congestion charging, reduce pollution and accident rate, manage parking, car and bike sharing, reserved lanes, digital signing, integrated payments by vehicle pollution category, etc. • ICT network that leverage high speed services, mobile advanced location based services, social networking and collaborative crowd sourcing, info-tainment, tele- working, remote assistance and medical surveillance for disabled or elderly people, touristic orientation and guidance. K!THIN 1 A very fast intercity railway (up to 350 km/h) is connecting Beijing and Tianjin in 27 min (180 km) anticipating 2 The Innovation Knowledge Foundation a slowly merge of the two metropolitan areas to a huge one. A futuristic project has been announced in the Beijing’s Mentougou District: the “straddling bus” that looks like a subway or light-rail train bestriding the road.
THINK! REPORT 005/2010 K! THIN• Integration of public local administrative services urban infrastructure, with McKinsey estimating that 170 new with central private ones, to improve coordination, mass transit systems could be built in China by 2025. information sharing and dematerialization, cooperation If India urbanization keeps on growing as estimated with not for profit sector, accessibility and reduce the The Innovation Knowledge Foundation 500 new cities will born in the next two decades. Also in transaction cost and environmental payload. Africa large towns are growing quickly. Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia, established in 1889, is facing a majorThe impressive growth of Cities urban migration into the city since 1970s, driven mainlyand their environmental impact by unemployment, poverty, and declining agricultural productivity. The population is projected to roughly doubleCities consume approximately only 2% of earth ground by 2020 from 3.4 million in 2007. 27% of Ethiopia’s urban 2(density can also be an advantage for sustainability ) but 55% population lives in the capital city, and this process hasof the world population already live in towns and according created substantial pressure on the city’s infrastructure,to several institutions’ forecast the percentage will grow up housing, and urban services.to 70% (or 6.4 billion people) by 2050 (in Europe and North Cities are directly in charge of a growing environmentalAmerica the astonishing 80% has already been achieved and footprint, including: 71% of total Green House Gas thatIBM Business Value institute forecast that it may grow up to is altering the climate, and other pollutants such as88%). There are already more than 450 cities with at least particulate. Cities account for 60% of all water allocated1 million citizens (20 over for domestic human use, while human demand for water is10 millions), according to According to the study, worldwide population will jump from 6,615 billion in expected to increase six fold in the next 50 years and some“world atlas” the largest 2007 to 9,075 billion by 2050. Average municipalities lose up to 50% of precious water throughare Tokyo, Japan with 28 increase tax per year will be 1.1%, from 2005 to 2010. Throughout the same leaky infrastructure. Even where water is relatively plentiful,millions, Mexico City, period, the world’s urban population water pollution is increasingly a concern. Beijing, notoriousSan Paolo and Mumbai, – currently reaching half of the global inhabitants, unequally distributed among for water stress issues, is rapidly depleting groundwaterIndia 18-19 millions; but regions and continents – will register sources that are now 100m below sea level and threatenedthe extended concept of 2.0% of incremental taxes in our by saltwater intrusion. The solution to date, damming andmegalopolis involves up planet. Such increase will be 0.5% year after year in richer countries, diverting rivers (spending tens of billions of dollars), is tooto 200 million in the Indo- 2.5% in developing regions and slow and is also inadvertently causing water deprivation inGangetic Plain that groups 4.0% in less developed countries. The large cities’ population in Asian and southern China and other countries as well. Chinese can nowDelhi and other cities. 21 African countries will double from 2007 afford piped water, private bathrooms, washing machines,megacities account for 9 to 2030. homes with gardens, cars that need washing, and moreper cent of the world urban United Nation World Urbanization food, which needs water for growing. A different smarterpopulation; 97 of 100 the Prospects: economic and territorial implications management of water resources is needed implementingfastest growing cities are a more sustainable ‘cascade type water reuse’ with smartin growth markets, 8 in water distribution and collecting grids.China, 11 in India.McKinsey estimated in a report last year that an additional350 million people, more than the population of the U.S.,would move to the cities by 2015. More than 220 Chinesecities will have more than one million people (there are Figure : urban population by major geographical area (in per cent oF total population)currently only 35 in Europe). A new skyscraper seems to Source: United Nations, Dept. of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division:bloom in Shanghai every other month. China is pushing for World Urbanization Prospects, the 2009 Revision. K!THIN 2 Density for example makes economic sustainable the investment in public transportation, reduces the 3 The Innovation Knowledge Foundation need to use a private car to reach closer entertainment or work destinations, allows to implement centralized remote heating systems that take advantages of co-generation. This argument is extensively discussed in “Green metropolis” by David Owen, that compares the environmental footprint of an average New York citizen versus a generic U.S. resident.
THINK! REPORT 005/2010 K! THINThe main risks that the Cities must An improved collaboration becomes possible when the stakeholders use a common language and create a sharedaddress vision of success for Smart Cities, improving community engagement through sustainability initiatives that The Innovation Knowledge FoundationThe increasing consumption of energy, soil and other non- stimulate innovation and economic recovery and preserverenewable resources, difficulty in waste management, the environment and the culture.acoustic pollution; altered microclimate, urban trafficcongestion, hard to provide home care for the elderly,poor security and social integration are some examplesof the growing cities’ issues that require timely andeffective solutions, with more and more difficult to findresources for local government, called upon to assumedirect responsibility. A good carbon management strategyin the town government is also essential for managing thepotential risks associated on a global scale with climatechange, that very often can have a massive impact on highdensity urban areas.These risks include:• Physical risks from the direct impacts of climate change, like severe weather events: heating is often up A proposed taxonomy for smart to 6 C higher in the city center (urban heat land effect), soil erosion and extreme precipitation, most towns are Cities near to river or the coast and therefore are exposed to flooding , ecosystem alterations that favor new Smart cities are those that are combining ICT and Web 2.0 invasive plants and pests with habitat destruction, technology with other organizational, design and planning fire exposure, etc. efforts to de-materialize and speed up bureaucratic processes and help to identify new, innovative solutions• Regulatory and Litigation risks from tightening national to city management complexity, in order to improve and international regulations like in EU: pollution due to sustainability and “liveability”. concentrated traffic and buildings’ heating is a serious New combined, holistic strategies (“look at the forest, concern not only for health consequences on citizens not the trees”) are needed to govern the change and but also for penalties that can be applied. Climate generate consensus, such as: the smart planning of the change-related law suits and public actions by NGOs infrastructures and distributed renewable energy, the like GreenPeace are now being seen in the US, EU and publication of incentives or the imposition of standards some other states. for energy efficiency in buildings, issuing of specific• Competitive risks from cities that have a better guidelines for governing the territory and supporting environmental reputation and a shared sustainability the economy, the choice of policies for promoting public approach versus ones whose citizens perceive a lack transport and measures for limiting the private traffic and of action to address climate change and pollution. the accident rate. This approach can be summarized by a Consumer sustainability awareness is a growing topic in simple but effective definition: “People want to live in smart the local political agenda, where the link with territory cities, with a higher quality of work, study, life and social is stronger. As the sustainability mandate expands, relations; capable of supporting the expectation of a better cities committed to social and environmental causes future, individually and collectively; compatible with the are likely to attract the top talent; also investors now planets finite resources and people’s human right.” look at sustainability performance. There could also be To help comparing and integrate different contribution consequences for economies dependent on tourism. I’ve built the following taxonomy of the ICT and innovation• Operational risks from changes like rising electricity role in the Smart City extending the original one from the prices or transportation costs linked to fossil fuels and 4 EUROCITY charter and European Smart Cities, an EU project other depleted natural resources, like potable water led by the Vienna University of Technology: (exposed to exhaustion and pollution), can have a direct impact on the OPEX of the local public administration. 1. Info-mobility and ITS: smart mobility, logistic and The increased “environmental refugees” pressure technology might also affect cities. 2. Developing human resources and social capital: Smart People K!THIN 3 Annapolis is surrounded by six bodies of water and was subjected to the destructive effects of a higher sea level on the 4 The Innovation Knowledge Foundation downtown area during a hurricane in 2003. New York City, Amsterdam and Venice are especially vulnerable to sea level rises and coastal storms while the City of New Orleans is below sea level and has already suffered catastrophic effects. 4 EUROCITIES and the European Commission have acknowledged - alongside initiatives like Smart 2020 and Information and Communication Technologies for Energy Efficiency, “ICT4EE” - the important contribution ICT can make to increasing energy efficiency, reducing emissions and generally realizing a sustainable, low-carbon society
THINK! REPORT 005/2010 K! THIN3. Economics 2.0: Smart Economy for competiveness • Tracking dangerous goods with intelligent access4. Quality and Sustainability of living permissions, disabled people’s assisted mobility5. Ecosystem: Sustainable Environment, renewable and video surveillance with automatic detection of energy and other resources The Innovation Knowledgesituations and alarm for security services, abnormal Foundation6. E-democracy, Government 2.0, Smart Government while protecting privacy. Crowd Sourcing for collectingIt’s very difficult to compile an exhaustive list of the demand for minor maintenance (holes in the streets,solutions and technologies that can be associated to each hidden or damaged signs, illegal parking, blockedmain entry of the ICT role in Smart City, since it keeps on drains, lights out, gas or liquid oil leaks, wildlife inevolving due to the innovation, plus some components that danger, etc.), ideas to improve services or offers ofhave broad impacts on several factors. collaboration. • Mathematical models and computer assisted simulation to compare different road and transportInfo-mobility and ITS (Intelligent infrastructure scenarios (based on regulatory andTransport Systems) smart mobility, enabling technology), in order to predict environmental and social effects and evaluate the expected economicallogistic and technology outcomes. • Venice: from the Doges to a digital city 2.0: the network of channels and pedestrian road in the city, the Green• Integrated, variable charging schemes for transport Port with cold ironing, and the broad-band digital and other services (e.g. transit & parking tolls, vehicle 5 communication as linking elements of new services licensing and compliance, infotainment and touristic (i.e. e-commerce, tele-work, etc.) and infrastructure of services, etc.) based on direct infrastructure cost smart city with a rich history and a mass tourism. Most and LCA (Life Cycle Analysis) of environmental cost, towns where built over a river or near a port, some have automatic fares collection and micro payments via a web of water channel (i.e. Amsterdam, New York, proximity cards and mobile phone (NFC, SMS), etc. Zhouzhuang, etc.); many are rediscovering the role of• Enhanced travelers information services (CRM water links not only for tourism and landscape, but also integrated): Searching, by smart-phone, mobile for transport and heating or cooling (heat pumps). Clean devices, touch screen and gesture interfaces, for stops, and grey water infrastructure has a growing importance connections, destinations and estimated real time since water will be the most critical resource in the arrival time by public transport, bike sharing and car future. pooling availability, van sharing (for goods optimized loading and delivery path), events reservation and touristic monuments self guided tours, search for nearest bus / taxi, browse for local shops or restaurants, location based social community, games and services, etc.• Detection and analysis of traffic flows and intelligent management of signage, giving priority to emergency and public transport (taking into account their demand and delay), automatic detection of drive code violations and road danger (such as traffic lights failures, flooding, fog, explosions, etc.). Geo-location and automatic alarm in case of incident, reporting accidents to vehicles and signposts information, machine to machine communication. Geo-referenced driving charging by time shift, pollution, number of vehicle’s passengers (pooling), integrated insurance, driving rules enforcements, service provided (goods smart delivery, health assistance), etc. Business Intelligence for managing a growing amount of sensor based data that can provide insight by multi-modal, real time analysis. K!THIN 5 According to Eurostat 2009 households in urban regions tend to have higher Internet access rates than in rural ones. At 5 EU-27 level, 65 % of households in densely populated areas have access to the Internet, while only 51% in less populated The Innovation Knowledge Foundation areas. In general, regions with big cities (e.g. Lisbon, Madrid, Barcelona, Rome, Milan, Vienna, Budapest etc.) are islands in the surrounding regions owing to higher levels of Internet access.
THINK! REPORT 005/2010 K! THINDeveloping human resources and • Incubators linked to universities, chambers of commerce, analysts and consulting companies,social capital: Smart People professional services, etc. The Innovation Knowledge Foundation • Tailor services for the citizen, including emphasis on • Lifelong learning systems and computer assisted education and training leveraging on-line tools and permanent education, e-books loan, support forums crow sourcing. and expert advice in collaboration with the third sector, information on trends in employment opportunities • Modular decentralized offices (virtual satellite offices) and meeting for facilitation in re-skilling, incentives with broadband access, equipped to support tele-work for employment and development of the labor market and able to provide ancillary services (e.g. secretary, linked to SME and new technologies, micro-credit for regular mail, canteen or kitchen area) plus opportunities entrepreneurship. for socialization and training.• Tele-medicine services, management of fire, flooding and • Cloud computing from decentralized Green Data Centers anti-theft alarms (integrated with home automation), where smart power management, optimized HVAC and mobility assistance and prevention of social isolation dynamic power grow (containerized Data Centers) can for elderly, disabled and chronical illnesses. be leveraged.• Discussion groups, social networking and collaborative • Logistics systems of neighborhood for withdrawal order design (e.g. Ning, Kublai, LinkedIn, Xing, Architizer, online (often associated with preference for biological Sermo, BootB, Skypso, etc.) for entrepreneurs. and local goods) and lowered packaging impact. Incubators for start-up in collaboration with • Infrastructure for fixed and mobile broadband, smart universities, venture capitalists, business angels, grid for the integration of renewable distributed research institutions, etc. generation and accumulation (e.g. BetterPlace) as a • Location based proximity services (plus affinities and step towards the Internet of Things. profile) to provide advertisement, digital signage, tourist information, social networking, etc. Quality and Sustainability of living• Eco-tourism services, virtual museums, augmented reality, digital art and new media co-creation and • WebGIS systems for smart urban development enjoyment, custom guides, live assisted translation planning, simulation and analysis, with services and and cultural mediation, exploration games. balanced flow analysis of needs and risks (flood, earthquake, etc.), in order to manage densification and achieve a sustainable social, environmental andEconomics 2.0: Smart Economy for generational mix. moderncompetiveness • Software for CAD including energy dynamic flow and optimization, acoustic verification, certification• Complementary marketplace for jobs in not for profit and efficiency and sustainability adjustment (LEED, 6 organizations (volunteermatch.org, socialidarity.it, etc), BREEM, ITHACA, etc.), security and building core-level km0 and Fair-trade products, farmers’ markets, bank planning, investment return rate estimator tools. of time, cooperative buying groups (or investment or production), micro-credit and social lending (e.g. ZOPA, • Thankless water heaters, solar water heaters, Prestiamoci.it, Jak bank, Terzovalore.com, etc.), crowd geothermal heating systems, cool-roofs, rooftop based fund raising, cash converters / swap shops, photovoltaic, residential wind systems, home energy neighborhood e-auctions & bartering sites. monitoring systems & home automation, smart domestic appliances.• Internet based temporary aggregation of services; partners and customers for creative solutions are • Integrated solutions for remote management, remote achievable by Web 2.0 in SaaS mode (e.g. ZOOPPA, heating and cooling co/tri-generation and renewable Zoes). energy integration, accounting for drinking water usage, groundwater management, charging by volume• “Co-working” building (like “the Hub”) with reservation and categories of the waste collection with effective of space and equipment rental, professional services incentives to minimize packaging, increase reuse and provided in tele-work arrangements, support of recycle, energy (heat or bio-gas) extraction. “nomadic computing workers”. 7 8 • Co-housing and co-working , micro-nurseries. K!THIN 6 For example the following web sites helps in matching volunteers and not for profit organizations in U.S.A. http://www.volunteermatch.org/ and Italy http://www.socialidarity.it The Innovation Knowledge Foundation 7 Co-housing is a type of collaborative housing in which residents actively participate in the design and operation of their own neighborhoods 6 and have access to extensive common facilities (i.e. open space, courtyards, a playground and a room with industrial based, high efficiency washing machines, etc.). Examples of cohousing are: Swan’s Market - Oakland – CA, Eastern village - Washington DC, Older women’s CoHo - London – U.K., Sanpolino Brescia – Italy. 8 Co-working is a community of professionals, usually with workplace flexibility, that share a common physical workspace, values and relations or services while having independent activities. Co-workers often have in common a nomadic work style, attention to sustainability and use of social networking and web services. Two examples are the network “The Hub” a “places for people who change things” in 12 cities of 4 continents and the network “Cowo”.
THINK! REPORT 005/2010 K! THINEcosystem: Sustainable E-democracy, e-Government 2.0,Environment, renewable energy Smart Governmentand other resources The Innovation Knowledge Foundation • Green and fair-trade public procurement, LCA based assessment of the supply chain. Local sourcing • Smart traffic control systems to prioritize the traffic incentives and fair trade for imported goods. Integrated, mobility by category and needs (e.g. quick, pleasant, accessible, vertical portals that help to shift from narrow and effective public and emergency transportation, opportunistic behaviors to a long term sustainable pedestrian and cycle safety, increased autonomy of the vision and transparency. disabled, reduced traffic contribution to air and noise • Collaborative discussion groups (such as Ning, RCM: pollution, prevented traffic jams). PartecipaMI, straight lines, E21-OpenDCN: citymap, • Charging the private traffic according to the 9 barcamp, citycamp , Online Jam, etc.). Tools for environmental impact and infrastructure use (pollution, e-democracy and direct communication with public occupation of public property, and time zone, etc.). institutions, cultural sector and the third sector, online Tele-heating combined with cogeneration and heat surveys & widely communicated results. pumps to reduce pollution, effective management and continuous monitoring of water and sewer to promote • Information sharing platforms based on cloud water conservation. Efficient lighting (in particular solid computing, common standards and automated state lighting and stabilization and dimmering for street workflow for solving cross-cutting issues and lower lighting and indoor). bureaucracy delay and transaction cost among city districts and agency boundaries. Systems of direct• Integrated administration and control of the supply and secure access by internet to local information and chain to identify and prioritize local (km 0, farmer public services. De-materialization of bureaucracy by markets) products or fair trade ones, adopt green privacy and legal validity of e-documents, automated procurement policies, reduce packaging and waste and workflow and business intelligence. increase the percentage of recycling/reuse. • Social media and crowd sourcing for more frequent • Tracking of the production and labeling (RFID, QR-Code) involvement of all stakeholders in tactical planning and of the products to promote the awareness of: feedback on strategy. Internet saloons (training open o Sustainability ethic (prevention of child labor and spaces to combat digital divide of elder people). respect for trade union rules, etc.) • Ecosystem of caregivers working together, resulting in o Environmental sustainability (total CO2, full, integrated electronic medical record about each hazardous or non-renewable, LCA, etc.) patient for emergency, and increase the quality of care. Central smart reservation medical services with o Health safety (carcinogenic or allergenic unique, automatic compatible donors, beds, analytical components, fat content, etc.). instruments and specialists, all while reducing costs.• Transparent systems for monitoring and forecasting of Emergency management and coordination of sanitary the quality of air and water, noise and electromagnetic forces, epidemiology (better detect, track, prepare for pollution, with internet based open reporting and and stay ahead of disease outbreaks also by Internet citizens’ feedback to identify potential leakage in the analytics). measurement system. • Improve city safety by reducing crime and emergency • Connected green spaces/parks and wildlife corridors, response time. Estimation and risk prevention systems Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems and smart alerting based on the location, occupation and exposure irrigation systems to prevent flooding and contamination to risk (e.g. sensitivity to pollution, extreme summer of ground-water. Vertical farm, green roofs. heating).• Smart grid optimization of distributed generation from • Social gaming (like criticalcity.org), portals and renewable sources and peak load management, energy collective involvement on good practice (e.g. trading benefits extended to end users (integration StoptheFever.org, ClimateChange, GenerazioneClima), with home automation) adventure-based learning, urban gardens.• Smart wireless sensor for pollution, noise, traffic and • Tools to help matching between unemployed workers other environmental data, up to MEMS and working opportunities with focused retraining support and mentoring. K!THIN 9 CityCamp is a FREE unconference, a barcamp focused on innovation for municipal 7 The Innovation Knowledge Foundation governments and community organizations. Content for CityCamp is not programmed for a passive audience. Participants are expected to play active roles in sessions. This provides an excellent format for creative, open exchange geared toward action. The first CityCamp was held January 23-24, 2010 in Chicago, IL.
THINK! REPORT 005/2010 K! THINNext Step for this researchThe next steps of this research will be the collection of The Innovation Knowledge Foundationdetailed descriptions of several emblematic best practicesof smart city (e.g. Freiburg, Stockholm, Curitiba, Masdar,Songdo, Melbourne, Amsterdam, Boulder, etc.), innovativetowns and eco-districts. Those examples allow to proof thefeasibility of smart cities, where ICT and innovation are theenabling components of the new paradigm of sustainable,ICT empowered city, on multiple dimensions: economical,environmental, social and cultural.Additionally, many European and Global Organizations and Companies, with a specific, but not exclusive, focuson ICT ones (e.g. IBM, CISCO, ACCENTURE, etc.), that drive the Smart City revolution, have already proposed veryinteresting models but that till now they are available onlyon separate documents.There are also some technologies and vertical solutions,such as in building, transportation and energymanagement or e-government that are strongly involved inthe transformation of a town in a smart city, with ICT thatis often a winning additional tool to find new, cheaper andsmarter solution to old and rising problems.Finally a stakeholder map will be provided to identify mostof the actors involved in a smart city.The final scope of this broad research is that of taking thebest of each point of view, indentify low hanging fruitsand long term strategies, in order to support a generalframework, that is still flexible enough to be applied tospecific needs and scenarios. Still a document, evenrich of recent content, as I attempted to write, cannot beexhaustive on this topic, for this reason I’m inviting you toparticipate to the World Smart City Forum, to discuss bothin person and by internet based virtual collaboration tools,the future of the network of smart cities, the true laboratoryof our future. K!THIN 8 The Innovation Knowledge Foundation
References THINK! REPORT 005/2010Accenture - 2009 - The Accenture Intelligent City Network, AccentureAndrea Caragliu, Chiara Del Bo, Peter Nijkamp - 2009 - Smart cities in Europe - University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics,Business Administration and Econometrics.Connected Urban Development - 2009 - Climate Changes: Cities in Action - CUD-Metropolis-CISCODaniel Castro - 2009 - What’s Next for Open Government? - The Informatition Technology & Innovatition FoundatitionDavid Owen - 2009 - Green Metropolis - Riverhead BooksEurocities - 2010 - Eurocities in 2009: annual reportEurocities - 2009 - EUROCITIES Response to European Commission Survey on ICT4EE - www.eurocities.euEuropean Communities - 2010 - Eurostat regional yearbook 2009 - epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/publications/regional_yearbookGérald Santucci - 2009 - Smart networks, objects, buildings and people: Empowering the Internet for Smarter CitiesGerry Mooney - 2010 - Smarter Transportation - IBM Smarter Cities Virtual ForumGiorgio Andreoli, Carlo Medaglia - 2010 - Planning for a Smart Society - EBRIBM - 2010 - SmarterCities: Learning from Leaders - The SmarterCities Leadership SeriesIBM Institute for Business Value - 2010 - A vision of smarter cities - How cities can lead the way into a prosperous and sustainablefutureIBM Institute for Business Value - 2009 - Intelligent transport - How cities can improve mobilityICT4EE - 2010 - ICT for Energy Efficiency - Report on the session “Smart Sustainable Cities”Joel Kotkin - 2010 - The World’s Smartest Cities - www.Forbes.com/smartcitiesMonique Meche - 2009 - ICT: Enabling the Sustainable City and Community - CISCORosabeth Moss Kanter, Stanley S. Litow - 2009 - Informed and Interconnected: A Manifesto for Smarter Cities - Harvard BusinessSchool (working paper)United Nations - 2010 - 2009 Revision of World Urbanization Prospects (+ on-line DB) - www.un.org/esa/population/unpop.htmVienna Univ. of Technology, Delft Univ. of Technology, Univ. of Ljubljana - 2008 - Smart cities Ranking of European medium-sized cities - www.smart-cities.euWeb SiteCovenant of Mayors - www.eumayors.euEnvironment Directorate-General of the European Commission- European Green Capital - www.europeangreencapital.euIBM Smarter Planet: Smarter Cities - www.ibm.com/smarterplanet/us/en/sustainable_cities/ideas/ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability - www.iclei.orgPort of Venice - www.port.venice.it/enUN Global Compact - www.unglobalcompact.org K!THIN 9 The Innovation Knowledge Foundation