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  • 2. INTRODUCTION 序 T ransportation provides many personal, economic, and societal benefits and has always been central to how we live our lives. It enhances our personal freedom, gives us better “Over the past six months at World Expo 2010 Shanghai, GM has defined the direction of the automotive industry. We have shown the world the possibilities of a greener, safer, access to jobs and education, and enables us to enjoy many and more convenient society in which the automobile and new experiences. But as the global population expands and General Motors will continue to play an important role.” urbanization increases, there is growing concern about the role -Kevin Wale, President and Managing Director GM China of the automobile. How do we move around efficiently using Group less and cleaner energy? How do we protect our environment? How do we make our vehicles and roadways safer? How do we “在2010年上海世博会的六个月时间里,通用汽车定义了未来 reduce traffic congestion and make travel more convenient and 汽车工业的发展方向。我们向全世界展现了一个更环保、更安 enjoyable? 全、更便利的未来社会。通用汽车公司与未来的汽车将一起在 未来继续扮演重要的角色。”— 甘文维,通用汽车中国公司总 These are some of the key issues that General Motors is addressing 裁兼总经理 by using a host of new and advanced technologies – technologies that will profoundly change the look, feel, and operation of our vehicles. With its theme of “Better City, Better Life,” World Expo 2010 Shanghai offered an ideal venue for GM to present our vision of the future. 交 通为我们的个人生活、经济生活以及社会生活提供了诸 多便利,并决定着我们的生活方式。它使人类获得了更 大的个人自由度、更多的工作和接受教育的机会,以及更多的 The SAIC-GM Pavilion immersed Expo 2010 visitors in an 全新生活体验。然而随着世界人口的持续增长和城市化进程的 exciting visual and dynamic experience of urban personal 不断推进,人们对于汽车在交通生活中所担当的角色也日益关 mobility. It painted a powerful picture of what vehicles, urban 注。我们如何才能用更少更清洁的能源来实现更高效的交通出 communities and lifestyles could look like in 2030. GM also 行?我们应该如何保护我们的环境?我们如何才能使车辆和道 highlighted the technical and policy underpinnings for this 路更加安全?我们如何才能减少交通拥堵,使出行更便捷、更 future through a series of six sustainable mobility forums 充满乐趣? that explored tomorrow’s transportation challenges and the solutions for overcoming them. 通用汽车正在致力于开发大量前瞻性的新技术来解决这些关键 问题。这些技术将彻底改变车辆的外观、驾乘体验及工作原 During the forums, which were held on a monthly basis from 理。主题为“城市,让生活更美好”的上海2010世博会为通用 May through October, a distinguished lineup of speakers 汽车展示未来愿景提供了一个理想的平台。 examined many of the key elements required for a balanced and better urban future. The discussions covered everything 在上汽集团-通用汽车馆,我们带给世博参观者激动人心的城 from the role of business, government, and academia to the 市个人交通视觉和动态深度体验。它描绘了一幅2030年汽车、 importance of comprehending energy diversity, technology, 城市社区和生活方式的宏伟蓝图,提出了通用汽车为实现这一 vehicle and urban design, consumer behavior, and innovative 未来宏图所需要的技术和政策支撑。通过六场可持续城市交通 thinking in the creation and implementation of sustainable 系列论坛,我们探索了未来交通所面临的挑战和解决之道。 mobility solutions. 这一系列论坛在5月至10月间每月举办一次,我们邀请了相关 Taken together, these forums have provided a compelling vision 领域的诸多权威人士来检视和阐述一个进步且平衡发展的城市 of the future of the automobile and urban communities. This 未来所需的诸多要素。讨论范围涉及各个层面,从商界、政府 vision, which GM is proud to document in the GM Sustainable 和学术界所扮演的角色,到能源多样化、技术、车辆和城市设 Urban Mobility Blue Paper, serves as a roadmap to the 计、消费者行为以及创新性思维在制定并执行城市交通可持续 electrification, connectivity, automotive design, and advanced 发展解决方案中所起到的重要作用。 innovation strategies that will lead the world to sustainable urban mobility by 2030. 这一系列论坛为我们提供了一个关于汽车和城市社区未来的美 好愿景。在通用汽车的“城市交通可持续发展”蓝皮书中,这 We hope you find the future we have envisioned as fascinating 一愿景将成为集合电气化、车联网、创意设计和创新技术战略 and promising as we do. 的发展路线,引领世界迈向2030城市交通的可持续发展之路。 真诚地希望您能从我们的展望之中看到未来城市交通的巨大潜 力和迷人之处。 Kevin Wale President and Managing Director GM China Group November 2010 甘文维 通用汽车中国公司总裁兼总经理 2010年11月 通用汽车 第 1页 “2030城市交通可持续发展”蓝皮书
  • 3. Table of Contents 目录 THE CHALLENGE 挑战 3 THE VISION 愿景 4 THE BENEFITS 目标 6 Freedom from Petroleum and Emissions 零油耗与零排放 6 Freedom from Traffic Accidents 零交通事故 7 Freedom from Congestion 零交通拥堵 8 Fun and Fashionable Design 趣味时尚设计 9 Societal and Urban Benefits 社会和城市效益 10 THE SOLUTIONS 解决方案 11 Electrification 电气化 11 What is Vehicle Electrification? 什么是车辆电气化? 11 Key Enablers to the Expansion of Electrification 电气化发展的重要驱动因素 11 Chinese Government Support 中国政府的支持 12 GM’s Chevrolet Volt and Electric Vehicle Technology 通用汽车雪佛兰Volt沃蓝达和电动车技术 13 Mobility Internet 车联网 14 What is the Mobility Internet? 什么是车联网? 14 Telematics Infotainment Services 车载信息娱乐服务 15 What is Required 成功的关键要素 16 Redesigning the Urban Landscape 城市蓝图再规划 17 Sustainable Cities and Transportation Networks 可持续发展的城市和交通网络 19 What is Required 成功的关键要素 19 Design and Individualization 创意设计与个性化 20 Urban Realities - The Challenge for Designers of the Future 都市现状—未来设计家所面临的挑战 20 Individuality, Standing Out in a Crowd 出类拔萃的个性化 20 Technology and Innovative Vehicle Design 科技与创新汽车设计 21 What is Required 成功的关键要素 21 ROADMAP TO 2030: MOVING FROM TODAY TO TOMORROW 通往2030之路 22 DRIVING THE FUTURE 驱动未来 25 RECOMMENDATIONS 我们的建议 27 “Roadmap to 2030” GM Sustainable Urban Mobility Blue Paper Page 2
  • 4. THE CHALLENGE 挑战 P opulation growth represents a major challenge to the future of the automobile. By 2050, the world’s population is expected to top 9 billion people, over two-thirds of whom will be living in cities. Global population growth, rapid urbanization, and the universal aspiration for automobiles are driving a steady increase in vehicle demand. By 2030, the global vehicle parc is projected to surpass 1 billion. China is in the midst of rapid urbanization. Over 45 percent of its 1.3 billion people currently live in urban areas. Urban areas are projected to be home to 60 percent of the country’s population by 2030 and peak at almost 75 percent in 2050. At the same time, China’s vehicle parc is expected to surpass 200 million by the end of the next decade and reach 375 million by 2030. Rising urbanization combined with greater demand for four-wheeled transportation is putting greater stress on metropolitan areas and presenting significant challenges with By 2030, 60% of the world’s population will live in urban areas. As the urban population increases, traffic congestion in large metropolitan areas will respect to energy, the environment, safety, congestion and become an even bigger issue. land use. Contributing further to the urbanization challenge 2030年,世界上将有60%的人口居住在城市。随着城市人口的增加,大都会 is the increased consumption of food, water, land, and natural 地区的交通拥堵问题将日益严重。 resources such as fossil fuels and metals. 人 In today’s cities, people spend approximately 5.6 years of their 口增长将成为汽车工业未来的一个主要挑战。到2050 lives stranded in traffic. Seventy percent of car owners have 年,世界人口预计将达90亿,超过三分之二的人口将生 trouble finding parking at least once per day and 30 percent 活在城市中。全球人口增长、快速城市化进程和对拥有汽车的 of fuel is wasted while looking for a parking spot or waiting 普遍期望将推动世界汽车需求量的稳定增长。预计到2030年, in traffic. 全球汽车保有量将超过10亿辆。 These congestion problems also have an effect on traditional 中国正处于快速城市化的进程中。13亿人口中超过45%的人现 vehicle emissions and petroleum dependency. Over the past 在居住在城市。到2030年,这一比重预计将增至60%,而到 year, carbon dioxide emissions worldwide have surpassed 226 2050年将达到75%的高峰。与此同时,下一个十年间,中国的 billion cubic meters and more than 15 billion liters of oil have 汽车保有量预计将超过2亿辆,而到2030年,这一数字将达到 been consumed. 3.75亿辆。 Growing safety concerns are also plaguing global urban 城市化进程以及由此产生的对汽车和交通的巨大需求,使城市 transportation. A traffic accident occurs somewhere in the 面临更大的压力,在能源、环境、安全、交通拥堵和土地使用 world once every 30 seconds. More than 50 million people are 等方面都面临着巨大的挑战。城市化的挑战也导致了包括对食 injured annually as a result. 物、水、土地以及矿物燃料和金属等自然资源的更大消耗。 These challenges need to be addressed to create a future for 在当今的城市生活中,人们一生中浪费在交通堵塞上的时间累 more sustainable urban mobility. 积达到5.6年,每天有70%的驾驶者至少遇到一次找不到停车 位的问题,30%的燃料浪费在寻找停车位或堵车的过程中。 “Every year in China, we have 12 to 13 million people entering 交通拥堵问题也影响着传统车辆的尾气排放和对石油的依赖。 urbanized areas. In human history, there has never been such 在过去的一年,全世界二氧化碳排放量已经超过了2260亿立方 a large-scale migration. And it is being accompanied by a lot 米,燃油消耗量超过150亿升。 of problems.” – Feng Fei, Director General of Industry and Economy at the Development Research Center under China’s 困扰城市交通的另一大问题是愈发严峻的安全问题。全世界每 State Council 30秒钟就会发生一起交通事故,每年有5000万人在交通事故中 “每年,有1200万到1300万中国人从农村涌入城市。这么大 受到伤害。 规模的人口迁徙在世界历史上不曾出现过。对中国的城市化而 言,这就带来了众多问题。”— 冯飞,国务院发展研究中心产 要创建未来可持续的城市交通,则必须针对这些挑战寻求解决 业经济研究部部长 之道。 通用汽车 第 3页 “2030城市交通可持续发展”蓝皮书
  • 5. THE VISION 愿景 In our vision for sustainable urban mobility, vehicles of the future will be increasingly powered by electricity, connected continuously to the communications infrastructure, electronically controlled, autonomously driven when desired, and flexibly designed to better meet specific usage requirements. 在我们对于未来可持续发展的城市交通愿景中,未来的汽车应该是由电力驱动,与通讯基础设施实时紧密相连,由电 子控制,可根据需要自动驾驶,并通过灵活的设计满足消费者的各种使用需求。 O ver the past 120 years, the “DNA” of the automobile has remained fundamentally unchanged. The convergence of a wide range of new technologies is leading to an 自 120年前汽车发明迄今,汽车的“DNA”属性并无实质 性的改变。而今天,大量新兴技术的融合正从根本上对 车辆进行前所未有的基因改造。当今汽车的最基本特征是:基 unprecedented shift in the genetic makeup of motor vehicles. 本由汽油提供动力、通过内燃机驱动、机械控制且必须完全由 Today’s automobiles continue to be powered primarily by 驾驶员操作行驶。一辆普通汽车重量为其驾驶员的20倍,加满 petroleum utilizing internal combustion engines, controlled 油能一次行驶500多公里,它能达到每小时160公里的时速,需 mechanically, and operated solely by the driver. A typical 要超过15平方米的停车位且90%的时间都被停放闲置。以上这 vehicle weighs 20 times as much as its driver, can travel over 些造成了汽车的高成本、高能耗和高自重以及空间使用效率低 500 kilometers without refueling, attains speeds well over 160 的结果。 kilometers per hour, requires more than 15 square meters for parking, and is parked more than 90 percent of the time. These 随着我们推进车辆电气化、车联网及重新设计的进程,汽车将 requirements drive substantial cost, energy, mass, and space 以崭新的面貌出现在世人眼前: inefficiency into the vehicle. • 这些汽车将使用电力和氢气作为动力,这些动力可不断由再 生资源产生。 As we electrify, connect, and redesign our vehicles, dramatically • 这些汽车将由电机驱动和电子控制。 different automobiles will begin to appear. • 这些汽车将通过半自动驾驶以避免交通事故和交通拥堵。 • These vehicles will be energized with electricity and • 这些汽车也可以全自动操作,进行自动驾驶和自动停车。 hydrogen, which will increasingly be produced from • 这些汽车可以通过无线通信技术与汽车或基础设施之间联 renewable sources. 系,精确定义与其它车辆和道路的相对位置。 • They will be propelled by electric motors and controlled • 这些汽车将根据不同用途来度身制定,包括短程城市交通和 electronically. 长途货运。 • They will be able to operate semi-autonomously to avoid crashes and traffic tie-ups. • They will also be able to operate fully autonomously, driving and parking themselves. • They will communicate wirelessly with each other and the infrastructure, and know precisely where they are in relation to other vehicles and the roadway. • They will be tailored to a range of specific uses, from short urban commutes to long-distance cargo hauling. With increasing electrification, electronification, and connectivity, the 120-year-old DNA of the automobile will give way to a new DNA that has the potential to dramatically change personal mobility. 随着电气化、电子控制和车联网的发展,具有120年历史的汽车传统“DNA” 将被新的“DNA”所取代,并为个人交通带来巨大改变。 “Roadmap to 2030” GM Sustainable Urban Mobility Blue Paper Page 4
  • 6. An example of a purpose-built urban vehicle is GM’s ElectricNetworked-Vehicle (EN-V) concept, demonstrated by GM at World Expo 2010 Shanghai. The three versions of the EN-V concept are from the left: Miao (Magic), Jiao (Pride), and Xiao (Laugh). EN-V is propelled by electric motors in each of its two driving wheels. Power is provided by rechargeable lithium-ion batteries that produce zero emissions. The concept vehicles can go 40 kilometers on a single charge, which is more than enough for the average urban commute. Its size and maneuverability would enable a parking lot to accommodate five times as many EN-Vs as typical automobiles. 通用汽车在2010上海世博会上展示的EN-V电动联网概念车就是特别研制的都市用车。由左至右,这三款EN-V电动联网概念车的名字分别为:妙、骄、 笑。EN-V 概念车由左右两侧车轮上的电机驱动,零排放、可重复充电的锂离子电池一次充电可供汽车行驶40公里,足够满足城市上班族的平日驾驶需求。因为 EN-V超小的体积和优异的可操控性,一个普通停车场能停放五倍于普通汽车数量的EN-V概念车。 Although future vehicles will be driven by society’s 未来的汽车将根据社会的需求设计,但是也会考虑到消费者个 requirements, they will also be shaped by consumer demand 体对于便捷和个性化的需求。所以在更高效、清洁、安全的同 for greater convenience and customization. As a result, besides 时,这些汽车也将是智能的、互联的、更具驾驶乐趣并具有众 being more energy efficient, cleaner, and safer, they will also 多特殊功能的。例如,为城市居民开发的都市用车,以及为年 be smart and connected, more fun to own and operate, and 幼者、残疾人和老年人开发的可自动驾驶的汽车。 offer many special-purpose solutions. For example, there will be city cars for urban dwellers and autonomous vehicles for the 新兴科技的融合也将使汽车创意设计成为可能,从而比以往更能 young, disabled, and elderly. 激发人们的热情,触动情感。由电机驱动的未来汽车将能够提供 强大的瞬间扭力,为人们带来独特的动态体验。通过使用新型材 The convergence of technology will also enable compelling 料,车辆的功能性将能被规划至极细层次。未来汽车将极具智能 designs that inspire passion and touch our emotions even more 自动调适性——避免撞车事故、对交通信息实时反应、在城市专 so than today. And because future vehicles will be propelled by 用车道或道路上自动驾驶、和其它车辆结队行驶、自动泊车。同 electric motors, they will deliver instant torque and unique 时,通过实时联网,汽车也可使我们始终与社会和他人沟通,满 driving dynamics. They will incorporate new types of materials 足我们的社交需求。 that enable functionality to be programmed down to the molecular level. They will be intelligent and adaptive – able to 每次重大的技术突破和革新都会带来相关产业的变革。汽车新型 avoid crashes, react to real-time traffic information, operate DNA的出现也为汽车产业提供了重大机遇,改变现有的个人交通出 autonomously on dedicated urban lanes or roads, platoon 行方式。融合了新兴科技的汽车DNA将把汽车转变成为交通、能 with other vehicles, and park themselves – all while meeting 源、信息等网络的联接点,并带来与产品和服务相关的新商机,同 our social networking needs because they will be connected to 时强调和重申个人交通发展的积极社会意义:更多的个人自由、更 everything all the time. 好的个体安全保障以及全球经济和就业率的增长。就像最初汽车的 发明所带来的变革一样,个人交通的再次革新最终将改变我们的城 Just as paradigm-shifting breakthroughs have transformed 市生活和出行方式。 other industries, the creation of a new automobile DNA presents a major opportunity for the automotive industry to “Our goal is to promote the development of human reinvent personal mobility. The convergence of technologies society toward an even more harmonious one with any that make up the new DNA will transform vehicles into new technology, regardless of what it is. Actually, the interconnected nodes on transportation, power, and development of the transportation system is one of the information networks. It will drive new product- and service- key issues confronting human society.” – Yang Xiaoguang, related business options and opportunities. It will accentuate Director, Department of Transportation Engineering, and and reaffirm the societal positives of personal mobility: Director, ITS Research Center, Tongji University enhanced personal freedom, increased personal security, and “不管出现的是什么新技术,我们的目标都是促进人类社会往 global economic and employment growth. Ultimately – just 更加和谐的方向发展。事实上,交通运输系统的发展是当今人 like the first automobiles – the reinvention of personal mobility 类社会所面临的关键问题之一。”— 杨晓光,同济大学交通运 will change how we live in our cities and how we move about 输工程学院交通工程系主任、同济大学智能交通运输系统研究 in our world. 中心主任 通用汽车 第 5页 “2030城市交通可持续发展”蓝皮书
  • 7. THE BENEFITS 目标 As we electrify, connect, and redesign our vehicles to create a new DNA, driving in the future will become cleaner, safer, less petroleum-dependent, more convenient, and more fun and fashionable than ever before. 随着汽车不断实现电气化、车联网及创新设计,新型汽车DNA将使未来汽车更清洁、更安全,更少依赖石油,更便 捷、更有乐趣、更时尚。 Freedom from Petroleum and Emissions 零油耗和零排放 E lectric drive enables vehicles that produce zero tailpipe emissions. These vehicles can be energized by an array of domestically produced energy sources, many of which can be 电 力驱动使汽车实现零尾气排放。这些汽车可以使用一系 列当地生产的能源,其中许多是可再生的能源。它们也 提供了多样化而高效的能源生产和储存方式,包括电池和氢燃 renewable; they also support a diversity of efficient energy 料电池。 generation and storage options, including batteries and hydrogen fuel cells. 电动车可以在住宅、停车库和停车场等提供充电设备的地方进 行充电。 Powered by these options, electric vehicles can be recharged at home, in parking garages, and at parking spaces equipped with 通过车联网技术实现的自动驾驶能大大提高车流量,从而进一 charging facilities. 步增加能源使用的效率。事实上,通过优化交通车流,哪怕车 辆的平均行驶速度每小时只提高几公里,这些汽车的燃油经济 Autonomous driving, enabled by connectivity, can further 性的提高都将是相当可观的。在与无所不在的信息网、金融网 increase energy efficiency by dramatically improving traffic 及电网紧密联系的情况下,电力市场可采用动态的“高峰”价 flow and throughput. In fact, optimizing traffic flow so that 格系统。车辆经过编程,可以用智能化方式购电,同时供电设 average speeds can be increased by even just a few kilometers 施利用动态定价技术优化整个电网的使用效率。 per hour can yield a substantial improvement in fuel economy for all affected vehicles. And with ubiquitous connectivity to information and financial networks as well as to the electric grid, the electricity market can adopt dynamic “congestion” pricing. Vehicles programmed to intelligently buy electricity and the electricity infrastructure can use dynamic pricing techniques to optimize usage of the overall electric grid. EN-V can automatically search for a nearby charging station located directly off of a major highway. EN-V电动联网概念车可以自动搜寻设于高速公路附近最近的充电站。 “Roadmap to 2030” GM Sustainable Urban Mobility Blue Paper Page 6
  • 8. EN-Vs are able to avoid accidents due to their 360-degree vehicle sensing capability. 通过自身360度感知能力,EN-V电动联网概念车能避开交通事故。 Freedom from Traffic Accidents 零交通事故 A utonomous vehicle technology will enable vehicles to “sense” what’s around them and act to either avoid a crash or decelerate to a low enough speed that any impact will 自 动驾驶技术将使汽车能“感知”周围情况,从而避免撞 车或减速至更安全的行驶速度以降低碰撞可能导致的伤 害。此项技术能在根本上消弭车辆碰撞时由速度和冲击力带来 do less harm. This capability can ultimately eliminate vehicle 的人员伤亡或财产损失。汽车甚至可以设计在轻微碰撞时适度 collisions at speeds and forces that cause injury or property 变形,从而把伤害降到最低限度,车皮也可进行特殊设计以承 damage. Should a light collision occur, the vehicles may even 受相互之间的轻微摩擦。当前,通用汽车公司已拥有的车对 be designed to deform lightly under low-impact conditions, 车、车对道路设施信息交换技术,可作为实现自动驾驶的核心 and their skins could be designed to allow them to brush lightly 技术。 against each other. The building blocks of autonomous vehicle technology can be seen today in GM’s vehicle-to-vehicle and 从安全角度看,汽车的电气化提供了更精确的底盘控制,使车 vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2V or V2X) communications. 辆反应更灵敏,从而更容易避免碰撞。通用汽车的稳定循迹控 制系统(StabiliTrak)有效地降低了某些特定类别碰撞的发生 From a safety perspective, vehicle electrification provides the 频率。此外,当每个车轮的扭矩都可以由轮毂电机单独控制 foundation for more precise chassis control, which will make 时,底盘控制则能对车辆安全进一步发挥更大的作用。 vehicles more responsive and help them better avoid collisions. The benefits are already being seen today with electronic 从社会的角度看,减小碰撞的力度及碰撞的可能性都会带来众 stability control systems like GM’s StabiliTrak, which are highly 多好处,而且是可行的。因为都市用车将比传统汽车更小更 effective in reducing the frequency of certain types of collisions. 轻,介于行人、自行车、摩托车和汽车、卡车与巴士中间。它 If the torque in each wheel can be individually controlled using 们的行驶速度将被设计为相对较低且在可预测的范围,同时智 wheel motors, the potential for chassis controls to increase 能设计能使其避免许多碰撞。 vehicle safety will be even greater. “General Motors’ solution is not only autonomous driving, From a societal perspective, reducing both the energy of but autonomy on demand. The fact is if you look at roads, a crashes and the likelihood of crashes offers major benefits and lot of people are doing things other than driving. The issue is should be possible because urban use vehicles will be smaller not driver distraction. The issue is driving is the distraction.” and lighter than conventional vehicles – falling somewhere – Alan Taub, Vice President of GM Global Research and in the middle of the spectrum that ranges from pedestrians, Development bicycles, and motorcycles through cars, trucks, and buses. They “通用汽车的解决方案不仅是自动驾驶,更是按需求选择自动 will be designed to drive at relatively low and more predictable 驾驶。现实是,现在在路上开车的很多人在开车的同时也在做 speeds, and their intelligence will enable them to avoid many 别的事情。其实不是这些事情让司机分心,而是开车本身是让 more collisions. 人分心的事情。”— 陶蔼伦,通用汽车全球研发副总裁 通用汽车 第 7页 “2030城市交通可持续发展”蓝皮书
  • 9. Automated parking and retrieval help save time and fuel costs. 自动停车及取车技术帮助节省时间和能源。 Freedom from Congestion 零交通拥堵 C onnectivity between vehicles and the roadside infrastructure can significantly reduce variations in travel times and speeds. Even at low but relatively constant speeds 车 辆之间及车辆和道路周边设施的联网能大大降低行车时 间和速度的变量。无论是在市中心行驶还是往返于市 郊,2030年的汽车即使在时速48公里以下的速度平稳持续低速 below 48 kilometers per hour, the vehicles of 2030 will be able 行驶,也会比现今的普通汽车具有更高的平均时速。因为在诸 to realize higher average speeds than is typical for today’s cars, 如上海、东京、伦敦等大城市,现在车辆的平均时速其实只有 whether traveling in downtown areas or commuting from the 15到25公里。此外,门到门两点之间的旅行时间也会因为自动 suburbs. That is because the average traffic speed in the centers 停车和取车功能而进一步缩短。 of major cities like Shanghai, Tokyo, and London is around 15- 25 kilometers per hour. Door-to-door times can be further 未来联网汽车的智能化管理也能加快城市道路车流量,甚至将 reduced with automated parking and retrieval features. 高于任何现有的公共交通和个人车辆使用流量的总和。汽车可 以利用它们的联网通信来和其它车辆结队行驶。它们可以成为 Intelligent management of networked vehicles can also enable 一个整体的行驶系统且保持常态间隔地行驶,也可以随时脱离 very high throughput on urban roads, probably higher than any 队伍单独行驶。车上的智能系统以及与路边基础设施无线通讯 current combination of public transportation and automobiles. 的沟通,使大量汽车同时穿过十字路口,就像大群飞鸟能在飞 Vehicles will be able to platoon with other vehicles using 行中各自转向而不发生碰撞。 virtual communication linkages. This will allow them to drive together as a system while maintaining constant separation; 车联网能针对拥堵和停车空间提供动态或实时的价格资讯。由 however, they will also be able to separate from the platoon 于大量汽油事实上都是消耗在寻找停车位上,所以更容易地找 whenever they wish. With on-board intelligence and the ability 到停车位将对交通拥挤、节省燃油和出行时间产生深远影响。 to communicate wirelessly with the roadside infrastructure, a “swarm” of vehicles will ideally be able to cross an intersection simultaneously, just as a flock of birds can turn in flight without colliding. Connectivity also enables dynamic or real-time pricing for congestion and parking spaces. Since a large percentage of fuel is consumed searching for parking in congested urban areas, the ability to find parking more quickly could have a substantial effect on reducing congestion, energy use, and overall travel time. EN-Vs seamlessly avoid crashing into other vehicles while traveling through a busy intersection. EN-V电动联网概念车可以无缝地穿过忙碌的路口而避免与其它车辆的碰撞。 “Roadmap to 2030” GM Sustainable Urban Mobility Blue Paper Page 8
  • 10. Fun and Fashionable Design 趣味时尚设计 W ith the electrification and connectivity of vehicles, vehicle design will undergo a renaissance as many regulatory constraints are modified or eliminated. This will open up new 通 过电气化和车联网技术的融合,汽车设计将经历一场复 兴,许多原有的限制将不复存在或被修订,这将使车辆 能够采用独特的造型设计并应用新兴材料。当所有汽车都装载 possibilities for unique forms and materials. While all vehicles 了同样的电力驱动平台,并可以无线联接、自动操作时,高度 could contain the same electric drive platform, be wirelessly 个性化的车型能满足高档市场需求,同时标准车型则可以提供 connected and be capable of autonomous operation, highly 给大众市场。比如,电子变色挡风玻璃显示器的设计能满足高 distinctive versions could address the luxury market while 档消费者的需求,而帆布顶与简易手持显示器组合的设计则更 standardized versions could supply lower-end segments. For 适合有成本意识的消费大众。在一个交通工具可个性化的世界 example, electrochromic windshields for projecting a display 里,我们的汽车终究会成为时尚的代名词。 could cater to the desires of luxury buyers, while canvas tops and no-frills handheld displays could satisfy the cost-conscious. 车辆电气化带来的最重大的改变之一就是轮毂电机的使用。将 In a world where mobility can be personalized, cars and trucks 动力推进系统转移到汽车的两侧后,车辆将有更多空间放置电 will be the ultimate fashion statement. 池,且能缩小体积,而这正是都市用车的一个重要考量因素。 除了提供推进动力,轮毂电机也能将刹车、转向、扭矩向量和 One of the most dramatic changes possible with vehicle 稳定性控制整合到汽车的每个角落,从而创造新的移动方式, electrification is the use of wheel motors. By moving the 例如“蟹式”的路边平行停靠和“原地旋转”般的随机灵动 propulsion system to the corners of the vehicle, more space is 性。一般而言,轮毂电机能提供车辆的大多数特性,包括加速 made available for batteries and vehicle size can be minimized, 轰鸣、制动感和转向增益等。 which is an important consideration for a city car. In addition to providing propulsion, wheel motors can also integrate 由于电池电动汽车内部简单且标准化构造,他们比传统的汽油动 braking, steering, torque vectoring, and stability control into 力车和混合动力车少了很多部件。基于这一优势,汽车设计者可 each corner of the vehicle and create new ways of moving, such 以将车辆成本、重量、复杂性和能源要求做最小化处理。这能简 as “crab-like” (sideways) parallel parking and “turn on a dime” 化供应链和组装过程、降低成本,并且便于针对客户需求大量定 maneuverability. In essence, wheel motors can provide most of 制,如同个人电脑能够在线配置和线上购买一样。 the vehicle’s character, including acceleration noise, brake feel, and steering gain. Since battery-electric vehicles are inherently simple and modular in their construction, they can have significantly fewer parts than conventional gasoline-powered vehicles and hybrid- electric vehicles. By taking advantage of these reductions, vehicle designers will be able to minimize vehicle cost, weight, complexity, and energy requirements. This can simplify the supply chain and assembly processes, driving down costs and facilitating mass customization in response to user needs – an approach that is similar to the way personal computers can be configured and purchased online. EN-V users will be able to customize their vehicles to fit their personal style. EN-V电动联网概念车的驾驶者能够根据个人风格喜好定制汽车。 通用汽车 第 9页 “2030城市交通可持续发展”蓝皮书
  • 11. Societal and Urban Benefits 社会和城市效益 A t the vehicle level, electrification and connectivity will provide enhanced personal mobility in terms of faster trips and reduced trip time variation, easier maneuverability 在 车辆层面来看,电气化和车联网能提供个人交通更快捷 的出行方案、更稳定的旅途时间、更简化的操控性和停 车,以及个性化的驾驶体验。这两种技术的结合能减少车辆碰 and parking, and a personalized ride experience. The synergy of 撞进而最终避免碰撞。这反过来也使设计小型轻便的汽车成为 these two technology streams also will enable crash avoidance 可能,而轻巧的设计益加有助于电力驱动、电池和氢气储存系 and, ultimately, cars that do not crash. This, in turn, will make 统的使用。 it possible to design smaller, lighter vehicles that are more conducive to electric drive, batteries, and hydrogen storage 在城市层面来看,更小型的电力联网汽车能让城市更具能源经 systems. 济效益,并且在生产和供给电力的能源上更具选择性。因此, 城市将也拥有更清洁的空气、更少的交通事故、更大的交通流 At the urban level, smaller electric networked vehicles will help 量和更高的生产力。少了嘈杂和拥堵,我们的城市将变得更开 cities become more energy efficient. Municipalities also will 放、更人性化和更迷人。 have a greater number of choices in the energy sources they use to generate and provide electricity. Cities, therefore, will 在国家和全球层面上来说,包括氢、电、灵活燃料等的能源多 have cleaner air, fewer accidents, improved traffic throughput, 样化可以减少对石油的依赖。使用更高能源效率和可再生的燃 and increased productivity. They will feel more open, livable, 料可以大大减少汽车尾气中温室气体的排放。智能车辆和道路 and attractive, with less noise and congestion. 可以减少交通事故并提高个人交通的安全性。 At the country and global levels, diversified energy sources 有时人们会认为全球的可持续发展需要减少城市的个人交通。 including flexfuels, hydrogen, and electricity will reduce 然而,这忽略了个人交通对于现代城市的经济、社会和文化生 dependence on petroleum. Higher energy efficiency and use 活的必要性。也有人说汽车拥有权造成了社会公平性问题,但 of renewable fuels will dramatically decrease greenhouse gas 是减少汽车而形成的个人交通成本增长,会为“有无交通权” emissions from the automobile fleet. Intelligent vehicles and 这一命题造成更大的社会鸿沟。与抑制个人交通需求相反,一 roadways will reduce traffic accidents and increase the safety 个更加现实可行的解决途径是使个人交通变得更低价、更安 of personal transportation. 全、更环保和更能源高效。 It is sometimes argued that global sustainability requires a reduction in urban personal mobility. However, this ignores the fact that personal mobility is crucial to the economic, social, and cultural life of modern cities. It is also sometimes said that automobile ownership generates a social equity problem. Increasing the cost of personal mobility by making it scarce will actually create a larger gap between the mobility “haves” and “have-nots.” Instead of resisting the demand for personal mobility, a more realistic and equitable solution is to make it less expensive, safer, more environmentally benign, and more energy efficient. Intelligent vehicles will help increase the efficiency of urban infrastructure through autonomous driving, platooning, and prioritized lanes for emergency vehicles. 通过自动驾驶、结队行驶、为紧急车辆安排优先车道,未来的智能汽车可以增加城市交通基础设施的使用效益。 “Roadmap to 2030” GM Sustainable Urban Mobility Blue Paper Page 10
  • 12. THE SOLUTIONS 解决方案 Electrification 电气化 What is Vehicle Electrification? 什么是车辆电气化? Vehicle electrification is where the motor vehicle is powered partially or fully by electric motors. The path to electrification includes traditional hybrids, plug-in hybrids, battery-electric vehicles, and range-extended electric vehicles where incremental electric power can be generated by combined power sources. One of the key features of the path to electrification is that electric power can be generated by a wide variety of new energy sources: natural gas, clean coal, nuclear power, and renewable resources like hydro, wind, and solar power. But regardless of the source, the power can be delivered through a common electric grid infrastructure. 汽车的电气化是指汽车部分或全部由电机驱动。汽车的电气化发展过程包括传统混合动力车、插电式混合动力车、电 池电动汽车和增程型电动汽车等由不同的能源所产生的电力所驱动的汽车。电气化之路的主要特点之一是电力可以由 多种新能源产生:天然气、清洁煤、核能、以及水能、风能、太阳能等可再生资源。但不论其来源是何处,电力都可 由普通电网输送。 I t is becoming increasingly clear that the electrification of the motor vehicle is an important option for addressing many urban transportation issues, including energy consumption, 有 一点越来越清楚,汽车电气化是解决包括能源消耗、温 室气体排放以及空气和噪音污染在内的城市交通问题的 一个重要途径。尽管世界各地的汽车制造商和政府机构在电力 greenhouse gas emissions, and air and noise pollution. 驱动汽车方面已取得了巨大进步,但要让电动汽车得到广泛采 While automakers and government institutions around 用,仍有许多关键的挑战有待克服。 the world have made great progress on electrically driven vehicle solutions, a number of critical challenges must still be 电气化发展的重要驱动因素 overcome to enable their widespread adoption. Key Enablers to the Expansion of Electrification 充 电:必须解决大量电动汽车同时充电给电网带来的冲 击。如果将中国现有的汽车全部替换为电动车,国家需 要将其现有电力总装机容量翻番。但是,如果我们充分利用智 C harging: A critical challenge that must be resolved is the impact of potentially large numbers of electric vehicles being charged on the power grid at the same time. If all existing 能电网,避开用户高峰时段,在用电低谷时段充电,这个问题 是可以得到解决的,并且由此可能提高电力系统的利用效率。 automobiles in China were replaced by electric vehicles, 成本与便利性:锂离子电池大约70%的成本来自于电池组,而 the country would need to double its electricity-generation 电池组超过一半的成本来自于原材料。因此降低电池原材料成 capacity. Maximizing the smart grid during peak and valley 本是降低电池成本的关键。解决方式之一是大批量生产以降低 hours should help remedy this challenge. 成本,预计2020年生产的汽车中约有五分之一为电动车。降低 电池成本、提高便利性的另一个方式是转换商业模式,如电池 Cost and Convenience: About 70 percent of the cost of a 租赁或交换,以及电池的梯次利用,即电动车车辆使用周期结 lithium-ion battery is in the cell bundle and more than half 束后,其电池仍然具有很大价值,可以用于固定型发电系统等 of the cost of a cell bundle is for the raw materials. Any cost 其它储能用途。 reduction effort, therefore, should focus on decreasing the cost of the cells. Volume-driven cost reductions can be expected, assuming that one in every five new vehicles produced is “It is the battery in electric vehicles that offers us an electrified to some extent by 2020. Another way to bring down opportunity to make use of the vehicles as electrical appliances. Together with flexible technology, we will make the battery cost and improve convenience for consumers is the development of a smart grid more meaningful.” – Lai through alternative business models such as battery leasing Xiaokang, Director, Institute of Superconductivity, China or swapping schemes. At the end of an electric vehicle’s life, Electric Power Research Institute its battery will still have great value, enabling it to be reused for other energy storage applications such as load leveling for “对于电动汽车电池来说,它这种用电器既有一部分刚性的要 stationary power. 求,而我们又可以用柔性技术来解决问题,这就让我们有一个 使智能电网的发展更有意义的机遇。”— 来小康,中国电力科 学研究院超导电力研究所所长兼电工与新材料研究所副所长 通用汽车 第 11 页 “2030城市交通可持续发展”蓝皮书
  • 13. Commonality: To ensure the ready acceptance of electric 通用性:为确保消费者接受电动车,需要对电池和充电设施制 vehicles, common standards for batteries and charging 定通用标准。通用的标准能面对不断变化的工业需求,让电池 facilities are required. Common standards will make it easier 的交换更加便利。 for utilities to address changing industry needs and enable battery swapping. 合作:要使电动汽车为大众消费者普遍接受,需要广泛、可靠 的基础设施。建设这些基础设施需要多方合作,包括政府、汽 Cooperation: Without a comprehensive, reliable infrastructure, 车厂商和供应商、能源和公共事业部门。合作还有利于制定电 electric vehicles will not be more than niche products. The 动汽车技术的全球标准及全球统一的准则和规定。 creation of such an infrastructure requires cooperation among key stakeholders, including governments, automotive companies and suppliers, and utilities. Collaboration among these groups will also support the development of global standards for electric vehicle technology and the formulation of unified global guidelines and regulations. Chinese Government Support 中国政府的支持 T he Chinese government has made the electrification of the automobile a priority, launching several important programs. The government has introduced electricity-based 中 国政府已将汽车电气化作为一项优先项目,并在国家发 展战略中推出多项重要计划,包括推动电力公共交通、 强调发展个人交通中紧凑型电动车、并不断发展混合动力和节 public transit, put a special emphasis on compact electric 能内燃机。 vehicles for personal transportation, and continued progress on hybrid-electric and energy-efficient internal combustion 中国政府的目标是到2015年中国电动汽车保有量达到50万至 engines. 100万辆。中国政府确定了“三纵三横”的研发布局,即以混 合动力汽车、纯电动汽车和燃料电池汽车为“三纵”,以电 The government’s goal is to have from 500,000 to 1 million 机、电控和电池为“三横”。中国政府还将投入60亿元人民币 electric vehicles on China’s roads by 2015. This will be realized 大力促进电池研发,主要集中在提高电池的能量密度和功率密 through its “Three Verticals and Three Horizontals” strategy. 度的同时降低成本。另外,中国在电机的关键材料稀土矿产方 The Three Verticals encompass three vehicle platforms – hybrid- 面也具有无可比拟的资源优势。 electric, pure battery-electric and fuel cell-electric vehicles – while the Three Horizontals are the common building blocks 除了汽车技术,政府也在逐步建设电动车所需的充电设施。中 required across all of these platforms – electric motors, power 国四个国家部委共同启动了“十城千辆”(十城千辆节能与新 controls, and battery technology. The Chinese government 能源汽车示范推广应用工程)计划,并已列入国家“十二五” is investing more than RMB 6 billion in advanced battery 规划。中国国家电网已经和多个地市级以上政府签署了建设电 development, with a focus on increasing both the energy 动车充电设施的协议。中国政府计划到2010年末在27个城市建 density and power density of batteries developed in China 立75个充电站和6000个充电桩。这个项目总的目标是到2016 as well as bringing down costs. China has a natural resource 年建设1万个充电站。 advantage in critical materials for electric motors. Beyond vehicle technology, the government is also taking steps “The Chinese government is encouraging energy-efficient to create the charging infrastructure required for electric-drive vehicles on a large scale. Progress will be made not only in vehicles. The “1,000 New-Energy Vehicles in 10 Cities” program electrification but also in energy-efficient internal combustion is being jointly promoted by four government ministries and engines, and the energy consumption of vehicles will be commissions as part of China’s 12th Five-Year Plan, which is substantially reduced.” – Yu Zhuoping, Director, Tongji being finalized. The State Grid has already signed agreements University Automotive Institute with many governments above the prefecture level to construct electric vehicle charging facilities. By the end of 2010, “大家看到了中国政府现在在大规模地推广节能车,而且所做 的努力不光是在电动化方面,也体现在节能内燃机方面,整体 the government hopes to have 75 charging stations and 6,000 工作应该说是个齐头并进的过程,以使车用能源的消耗最大程 charging poles in 27 cities. The overall goal of the program is to 度地降下来。”— 余卓平,同济大学汽车学院院长 have about 10,000 charging stations by 2016. “Roadmap to 2030” GM Sustainable Urban Mobility Blue Paper Page 12
  • 14. GM’s Chevrolet Volt and Electric Vehicle Technology 通用汽车雪佛兰Volt沃蓝达和电动车技术 G M is rolling out the Chevrolet Volt electric vehicle with extended-range capability as part of its path to electrification. It will be introduced in China in the second 通 用汽车计划于今年年底在美国推出雪佛兰Volt沃蓝达增 程型电动车,该车将于明年下半年在中国上市。Volt沃 蓝达电动车在解决对能源的依赖和保护环境等问题的同时,关 half of 2011. The Volt is a “customer’s car” because it does not 注人的开车习惯,无须让车主对车的使用做出任何妥协,是一 ask the user to make any compromises while addressing the 部真正适合消费者的车型。 broader issues of energy independence and the environment. Volt沃蓝达仅靠单次充电,纯电动模式下不使用汽油可行驶长 The Volt delivers up to 80 kilometers of electric-only, gas-free 达80公里的距离,这一数据根据地貌、温度和驾驶技术等要素 driving from a single battery charge (depending on terrain, 可能有所浮动。当电池电能用完后,发电机将启动发电供汽车 temperature, and driver use). After the battery is depleted, 再行驶490公里。在电动模式下,Volt沃蓝达由16千瓦小时的 its engine-generator produces electricity to extend the 锂离子电池组供电。这个小型的电池组可以同时提供增程电力 overall range up to an additional 490 kilometers. In electric 行驶所需的高能密度和加速所需的高功率密度。 mode, the Volt is powered by its 16-kilowatt-hour lithium-ion battery pack that provides the high energy density needed for Volt沃蓝达电动车的电池与通用汽车在1996年推向市场的一款 increased electric range and the high power density required 电池电动车EV1使用的铅酸电池相比,其体积和重量都有明显 for acceleration – all in a minimized package. 的降低。Volt沃蓝达电动车的T-Pack电池组是首个为大规模量 产车设计的液体冷却式电池组。该电池组将化学物和电池管理 The Volt’s battery design represents a substantial reduction in 系统优化结合,在整个汽车使用周期内提供稳定可靠的动力。 size and weight compared to the lead-acid battery technology used in the EV1 battery-electric vehicle that GM developed and 通用汽车在全球多个地区为各个细分市场的车型建立了电池电 brought to market in 1996. The Volt’s T-shaped battery pack 动车测试计划,希望了解全球用户对电池电动车的接受度、市 is the first liquid-cooled pack designed for a mass-produced 场需求、驾驶模式和充电方式的实际应用。 vehicle. The chemistry and battery management system have been optimized in tandem to provide smooth and consistent power flow over the life of the vehicle. “The Volt is really a customer’s car because it does not ask the customer to make any compromises, while addressing the GM is establishing battery-electric vehicle demonstration broader issues of energy independence and the environment. fleets in multiple regions of the world and in different vehicle You get very good performance and you get great fuel segments. The goal is to obtain real-world data on battery- economy. In fact, most of the time you will not have to go to electric vehicle acceptance, market needs, driving patterns, and the petrol pump or the gas station.” – Prabhakar Patil, CEO, Compact Power, Inc. charging behavior. “Volt沃蓝达是真正属于消费者的车,因为它不要求客户作 出任何牺牲,同时又解决很多的问题,包括环境、能源等 等。你能得到很好的性能表现,同时还会得到很高的燃油 经济性。而且,很多时候你根本不必去加油站加油或者加 气。”— 普拉哈卡 · 帕提尔,Compact Power首席执行官 2011 Chevrolet Volt 2011雪佛兰Volt沃蓝达增程型电动车 通用汽车 第 13 页 “2030城市交通可持续发展”蓝皮书
  • 15. Mobility Internet 车联网 What is the Mobility Internet? 什么是车联网? The mobility Internet refers to both traditional telematics and newly emerging infotainment services delivered to vehicle occupants via wireless and Internet communications, and the smart vehicle capability enabled through connectivity between vehicles and pedestrians, the transportation infrastructure, the Internet, and the power grid. 车联网是指将传统的车载信息处理和新兴的信息娱乐服务通过无线网络和互联网通信应用于汽车。通过汽车与行人、 汽车与交通基础设施、汽车与互联网和电网之间的信息联通,使汽车具有智能性。 O ver the past 20 years, the Internet has changed the way people work and live. Today, people are connected and interact with each other via a wide range of Internet services. 在 过去的20年里,互联网改变了人们的工作和生活方式。 今天,人们通过互联网相互联接,并通过各种不同类型 的互联网服务进行互动。近年来,这种联接的范围从人们的家 In recent years, this connectivity has been extended from 庭和工作场所延伸到了汽车。 people’s homes and offices to their vehicles through the mobility Internet. 车联网是建立在互联网、道路交通设施网以及能源网络三大网 络之上的。车联网致力于解决诸如交通堵塞、道路交通安全、 The mobility Internet represents the underpinning of 能源消耗、空气质量、道路使用等城市所面临的问题,同时提 the convergence of the Internet, roadside transportation 供给使用者全新的驾驶感受,例如自动驾驶和位置定位服务。 infrastructure, and power networks. It offers the promise of addressing major urban challenges including traffic congestion, roadway safety, energy consumption, air quality, and land use, while simultaneously enabling autonomous driving and location-based services. “The mobility Internet is more than the mere linkage of “The mobility internet needs to begin with cars, first by two vehicles. It also links people with functions they wish linking cars with the Internet by integrating mobile devices to utilize. It will not only bring about a transportation with in-vehicle equipment, then by integrating cars with revolution but will also trigger a social revolution.”– Yang other vehicles and the infrastructure, and connecting cars Xiaoguang, Director, Department of Transportation to the existing mobile Internet.” – Guo Xingang, Principal Engineering and Director, ITS Research Center Tongji Engineer and Senior Director, Embedded Platform and University Applications Research, Intel Labs “车联网已经不再是仅仅把两辆车相联,它是把人和人想要 “车联网技术需要从汽车本身开始。首先我们需要将移动通 实现的功能做了联通,所以它带来的不仅是交通的革命,也 信设备与车载通讯设备进行整合,然后我们需要将车辆与其 是社会的革命。” — 杨晓光,同济大学交通运输工程学院交 他车辆以及周围交通基础设施进行整合,最后将车辆与既有 通工程系主任、同济大学智能交通运输系统(ITS)研究中心 的车联网系统进行整合。” — 郭新钢,英特尔实验室嵌入式 主任 平台和应用首席工程师及高级总监 Drivers are connected to their social networks in the vehicles through the mobility Internet. 驾驶者在车上通过车联网与他们的社交网络互联。 “Roadmap to 2030” GM Sustainable Urban Mobility Blue Paper Page 14
  • 16. Telematics Infotainment Services 车载信息娱乐服务 T elematics and infotainment service providers like GM’s OnStar are already delivering in-vehicle security, emergency services, turn-by-turn navigation, Internet apps, and many 类 似通用汽车公司旗下的安吉星等车载及信息娱乐服务提 供商已经开始为车辆提供车载安全、应急服务、全程音 控导航(turn-by-turn)、互联网应用服务、以及许多其他 other convenience and infotainment features. The mobility 便利的信息娱乐功能。车联网和自动驾驶将为消费者提供车载 Internet and autonomous driving will enable in-vehicle 远程信息处理和信息娱乐等服务。例如,您能够与家人在周末 telematics and infotainment. For example, you may be able to 度假的路上观看现场直播的足球比赛;或者您能够在去办公室 watch a live soccer game during your weekend trip with your 的路上参加视频电话会议;您的汽车甚至可以为您摄下沿途所 family or participate in a videoconference on the way to the 见,并把照片上传到您最喜欢的社交网站,和朋友们分享。 office. Your vehicle will even be able to act as an “avatar” to take pictures and upload them on your favorite social network 信息互联和智能驾驶是车联网的另一个关键特征。新的无线通 website to share what you have seen with your friends. 信技术,譬如专用短程通信技术(DSRC)以及3G/4G无线宽带正 在应用到车辆中以便在车辆与车辆之间、车辆与行人之间、车 Connectivity and smart driving are the other major elements 辆与路边的基础设施之间、甚至是车辆与电网之间进行互相交 of the mobility Internet. New wireless communication 流。结合先进的传感技术、计算和控制能力的车辆,将实现零 technologies such as Dedicated Short-Range Communications 事故和零交通拥堵的全新交通模式。 (DSRC) and 3G/4G wireless broadband are being implemented in vehicles to enable them to “talk” with other vehicles, 在不久的将来,车辆在行驶过程中将能够“感受”到它周围的 pedestrians, the roadside infrastructure, and even the power 环境,并对其做出反应。它能避开碰撞,或者立即将速度降低 grid. Combined with sophisticated sensing, computing and 以避免可能的伤害。此项技术最终可以避免车辆碰撞时由速度 control capabilities, this will enable a new paradigm of 和冲击力带来的人员伤亡或财产损失。 accident-free and congestion-free transportation. 车载智能系统以及车辆与道路基础设施实时无线通讯的特性, In the near future, vehicles will be able to “sense” what’s around 使大队汽车同时穿过十字路口,就像大群飞鸟能在飞行中各自 them and act to either avoid a crash or decelerate to a low 转向而不发生碰撞,或者一群人同时穿过拥挤的十字路口而不 enough speed that any impact will do no harm. This capability 会相互碰撞。 can ultimately eliminate vehicle collisions at speeds and forces 车联网还能使智能的道路通行收费方式成为可能,为解决道路 that cause injury or property damage. 拥堵和停车位稀缺问题提供解决方案。在城市里,由于很大部 With on-board intelligence and the ability of vehicles to 分的汽油总是消耗在寻找停车位上,所以方便停车将对交通拥 communicate wirelessly with the roadside infrastructure, 挤、节省燃油及出行时间产生巨大影响。 a “swarm” of vehicles may be able to cross an intersection 自动驾驶将让那些以前不能享受个人交通工具的人使用汽车, simultaneously, just as a flock of birds can turn in flight without 包括老人、小孩和残障人士。 colliding or a crowd of people can cross a busy intersection without bumping into one another. Connectivity also enables sophisticated congestion pricing of road and parking spaces. Since a large percentage of gasoline is consumed in the search for parking in congested urban areas, the ability to find parking more easily could have a substantial effect on congestion, energy use, and overall travel time. Autonomous driving will also make personal transportation accessible to people who previously could not enjoy it, including the elderly, children, and the disabled. GM’s OnStar is the world’s first in-vehicle, hands-free voice communication system. It uses GPS and satellite communications to link vehicle users to OnStar advisers who offer a host of services ranging from providing driving directions to arranging emergency assistance on a 24/7 basis. 通用汽车安吉星服务系统是世界首款车内免提音频通讯系统,它使用全球定 位系统和卫星通讯将车辆使用者和安吉星服务人员相互联系,后者可以为前 者提供从驾驶导航到24小时紧急救助的全方位服务。 通用汽车 第 15 页 “2030城市交通可持续发展”蓝皮书
  • 17. What is Required 成功的关键要素 T here is broad consensus that the time for the deployment of the mobility Internet has arrived. However, its development and growth will require cooperation among many key 车 联网广泛应用的时机也已经到来,这一论点已为广大业 界人士所公认。但是,车联网技术的发展还需要许多关 键利益相关者、汽车厂商、供应商、能源和信息技术行业、电 stakeholders, including automotive companies, suppliers, 力公司及公共事业部门、学术和研究团体以及政府机构之间相 the energy and information technology industries, utilities, 互合作。 the academic and research community, and government institutions. 为了加速其成功运用,需要开展以下工作: • 在未来发展的过程中,我们需要展开进一步的研究工作来确 There are a number of steps that must be taken to speed up its 定未来智能互联汽车的外观、操作性能以及其所需要具备的 successful implementation: 功能特征、可接受的性能和故障自动防止技术。 • Research needs to be carried out to identify what an • 我们还需要通过更多的研究工作来集中解决如何更好地将车 intelligent connected vehicle of the future should look 联网的功能整合到汽车中,以及从哪些近期应用技术开始入 like, what features it should possess, what constitutes 手等问题。 acceptable performance, and how the technology can be • 另一个研究工作领域是致力于解决智能互联车辆与现有传统 made fail-safe. 车辆如何在过渡期内共存的问题。 • Additional research will be needed to optimize how the • 我们还将致力于不断开发新的软件及硬件设施,从而确保车 features of the mobility Internet can best be integrated into 联网技术与正在快速发展的电脑、通信、电子产品及软件等 vehicles over time and to identify the most important near- 其他技术保持同步。 term applications. • 实现车联网必须解决的另一个主要问题是如何提供安全且私 • The coexistence of intelligent connected vehicles and 密的操作环境。政府机构需要制定新的法律和标准来应对这 conventional vehicles during a transition period must be 些技术的发展,并建立一个安全的系统来抵御长久以来在互 addressed. 联网中危害信息安全及个人隐私的种种威胁。 • New software and hardware will be required to ensure that • 最后,基础设施在最初阶段还需要资金方面的支持,以激励 vehicles and the mobility Internet can keep up with rapid 消费者选择最新但价格相对昂贵的科技。 changes in computer and communications technology, consumer electronics, and software. 这些措施都应从今天开始着手,因为车联网很快将成为一种 • Providing a secure and private operating environment will 生活方式。安吉星在美国、加拿大和中国已经有了600万的用 require that governments take a lead role in formulating 户,从安吉星被市场迅速接受这一现实情况可以看出新时代消 new laws and standards, and support the adoption of 费者对电子产品的渴望,这同时也表明汽车消费者已经做好了 security measures that address the ongoing threat to the 迎接未来的准备。 Internet, which endangers information security and privacy. • Finally, financial support is required for infrastructure to provide incentives for the adoption of new, more costly technology by consumers at the initial stage. “ A single spark can start a prairie fire. We aim to ignite the Action on all these fronts is necessary today because sparks of intelligent connected vehicles in every city in China, connectivity enabled through the mobility Internet will soon and when these ‘sparks’ echo with the thoughts of all people become a way of life. The rapid acceptance of OnStar – which in the society, they will start a ‘prairie fire’ of development.” – John Du, Director, GM China Science Lab has almost 6 million subscribers in the U.S., Canada, and China – and the thirst for new consumer electronics are strong signs “星星之火可以燎原。中国有很多小城市,能够让智能互联车 that vehicle owners are ready and eager to embrace the future. 在那里行驶的环境就是星星之火,当这个星星之火跟全社会人 们心里想的产生共鸣的时候就能够燎原。”— 杜江凌,通用 汽车中国科学研究院院长 With platooning, cars will be able to connect according to their destination, distances will be maintained automatically, cars will start and stop simultaneously, and the number of passengers they can collectively carry will exceed that of a modern bus. 通过车辆结队行驶,汽车可以根据目的地互相联接。车与车将自动保持一定间距,汽车可以同时起步或停止,其总共可搭载的乘客人数也将超过现今的公交车。 “Roadmap to 2030” GM Sustainable Urban Mobility Blue Paper Page 16
  • 18. Redesigning the Urban Landscape 城市蓝图再规划 S tudies have found that large cities are more efficient than small and medium-sized cities in the use of resources and land to support economic development. In China, it is estimated 研 究显示,大城市在利用资源和土地促进经济发展方面较 中小城市更具效率。预计在今后的40年中,中国将出现 20至25个都市群落支撑全国的经济发展。对于上海这样的大城 that within 40 years, some 20-25 urban centers will support 市,管理城市发展和最大化利用资源的一种方式是开发城郊区 the entire nation’s economic growth. One way that cities 域并在主城区周边建设卫星城。 like Shanghai are managing urban growth and maximizing resources is by building suburban developments and satellite 由于人们越来越远离工作地点及城市中心,进而对交通系统提 cities around the core city. 出了新的需求,并需要为此制定一系列新的交通策略,包括扩 充现有公共交通系统的容量、使用更清洁的燃料、利用多元公 The movement of people farther away from their jobs and the 共交通方式。这种城市交通混合模式将是地铁、公交、步行、 city center has created additional needs for transportation, 自行车和个人车辆等方式的不断融合。 necessitating a new set of transportation strategies that factor in expanding the capacity of existing mass transit systems, 道路基础设施必须允许使用不同技术的车辆同时并存,包括新 cleaning up fuels, and leveraging multiple transportation 能源汽车在内的各种车辆。通过为不同的车辆设立专用车道和 methods. The urban transportation mix will need to continue 高架路能使城市道路适应“多样化”交通方式。因为现有的公 factoring in some combination of subways, rapid-transit buses, 共交通网络无法满足额外的需求,而完全取消乘用车作为出行 walking, biking, and personal vehicles. 方案既不具可行性,也无现实意义。况且,扩建这样的交通网 络也十分昂贵。 The roadway infrastructure will need to be “multi-modal,” with dedicated lanes or elevated highways that enable the various forms of transportation – including advanced technology vehicles – to coexist. It is not practical or realistic to eliminate the passenger car as a mobility option because existing public transportation networks will not be capable of handling additional demand. Moreover, the expansion of such networks can be very costly. The Tianjin Eco-City is a landmark bilateral project between China and Singapore, with private-sector investment and development. Located in the Tianjin Binhai New Area (40 kilometers from the city center), the 30-square-kilometer Tianjin Eco-City is envisioned as a harmonious and sustainable community that meets the needs of an urbanizing China and will be a modern township where 350,000 residents can live, work, and play. 天津生态城市是中国和新加坡私企投资和发展标志性的双边项目。30平方公里的天津生态城位于天津滨海 新区(距离天津城市中心40公里),将被建设成为一个和谐的可持续发展社区,可满足中国城市化的需求, 同时也将成为一座可供35万人居住、工作和休闲娱乐的现代化城市。 通用汽车 第 17 页 “2030城市交通可持续发展”蓝皮书
  • 19. A “multi-modal” roadway infrastructure for future urban transportation. 未来城市交通的“多样化”道路系统。 Today’s passenger vehicles produce just a fraction of the 当今,传统汽车所排放的废气仅为七十年代法规还不完善时期 pollutants that were emitted by vehicles manufactured before 生产的汽车的一小部分。但是,随着对于汽车需求的增长,以 they began to be regulated in the 1970s. Nevertheless, with 及由此产生的对可持续的交通能源模式的要求,通过提升驱动 growing vehicle demand and the need for a more sustainable 系统效率和发展能源多样化来提升未来汽车动力系统便成了关 transportation energy model, it is critical to focus development 注重点。 of future automotive propulsion systems on both powertrain efficiency and energy diversity. 我们应该给予电动汽车优先发展权,包括混合动力、插电式混 合动力、电池电力和燃料电池车。这些汽车创造了一种使用 Development of electrically driven vehicles such as hybrids, 电能的新途径,并为汽车开发了广泛的新能源:天然气、清洁 plug-in hybrids, and battery-electric and fuel cell vehicles 煤、核能和可再生能源比如氢、风能和太阳能等。 should be a priority. These vehicles create the pathway to electricity, which provides the opportunity to tap into a wide 即使电动车必须使用部分由煤生产的动力,但是其能量消耗和 range of new energy sources for automobiles: natural gas, 二氧化碳排放仍然比汽油和柴油车低。像电动自行车、电动摩 clean coal, nuclear power, and renewable resources like hydro, 托车和EN-V电动联网概念车这样的小型电动车,其二氧化碳 wind, and solar power. 排放量比汽油和柴油车要低很多倍。 Even where electric vehicles will have to utilize power 中国政府重视电动车的开发,把它作为解决环境污染、交通拥 generated by coal, energy consumption and carbon dioxide 堵、交通安全、公共健康与汽车工业等问题的“全球本土化” emissions will still be slightly lower than for gasoline and 概念的一部分,它将全球政策和技术与当地的发展战略融合在 diesel vehicles. With very small electric vehicles such as electric 一起。像许多其他国家一样,中国也已向实施“生态城市设 bicycles, motorbikes and EN-V-type vehicles, well-to-wheels 计”迈进,其目标是通过有效利用土地、交通、设计、建筑、 carbon dioxide emissions may be many times lower than for 材料、能源以及水资源来推动可持续发展政策。 gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles. The government of China is focused on electric vehicles as part of its “glocal” concept, which combines global policies and technology with local development strategies to address pollution, congestion, safety, public health, and mobility. Like many other countries, China has begun to address “eco city design.” The aim is to optimize the use of land, water, energy, structures, materials, and transportation to support the principles of sustainable development. “Roadmap to 2030” GM Sustainable Urban Mobility Blue Paper Page 18
  • 20. Sustainable Cities and Transportation Networks “It’s a very attractive system. Call it up when you need it. Only N ew approaches to planning are making cities and take a small vehicle with you. Go exactly to the place you want to go. If we hadn’t invented the car a hundred years transportation systems more environmentally friendly ago I guess someone would invent it now and say that’s the and able to deliver a higher quality of life to the growing urban answer.”– John Miles, Global Leader of Energy, Resources and population. The endgame continues to include the personal Industry, Arup Group vehicle as part of the solution. “这是一个非常有吸引力的系统。你需要它的时候呼叫就 Among the many new advanced technology solutions for urban 行。只要随身有一辆小车,就可以到达你想去的地方。如果 areas, vehicle electrification is making great headway because 我们没有在一百年前发明汽车,我猜现在也会有人发明的, it can be implemented quickly. As electric vehicles enter the 并把它称之为解决方案。”— 迈尔斯,奥雅纳集团全球能源 和工业部主席 commercialization stage, government institutions in China and elsewhere are supporting their market acceptance through policy initiatives that promote technology development, 可持续发展的城市和交通网络 electric vehicle deployment and charging infrastructure 新 construction, subsidies and incentives for early adopters, and 的规划方式可以使城市和交通系统更环保、更好地向不 public education. 断增长的城市人口提供更高的生活质量,使城市生活更 美好。最终,我们还是要将个人汽车纳入这一解决方案。 Automakers are preparing to bring electrically driven vehicles such as the Chevrolet Volt to the market. GM is also 在这些新型的先进城市交通技术解决方案中,汽车电气化因其 leveraging vehicle electrification and electronification – which 可操作性强而具有明显优势。随着电动车进入商业化阶段,中 encompasses electronics, controls and software – to develop 国及其他国家政府机构通过促进技术发展、电动车的部署、充 future advanced technologies and solutions such as connected 电设施的建设、早期用户补贴和其它鼓励措施,以及公共教育 vehicle, active safety, and autonomous driving systems. 等来促进市场的接受度。 Although many of these intelligent features are not yet ready for commercialization, they are being demonstrated in future 汽车制造商也在为雪佛兰Volt沃蓝达这类的电动车进入市场做积 concepts such as GM’s EN-V showcased at Expo 2010. 极准备。通用汽车正在利用汽车电气化和电子化,包括电子设 备、控制系统和软件等,来发展未来新技术和解决方案,例如车 What is Required 联网、主动安全系统和自动驾驶系统。虽然许多智能化的功能现 在还未进入商业化阶段,但是其可行性已经由2010年上海世博 G oing from concept to commercialization and securing consumer acceptance of new vehicle and infrastructure 会上展示的EN-V这样的未来概念车所验证。 technology will require cooperation by all key stakeholders. 成功的关键要素 They include government institutions, national labs and research bodies, automotive OEMs and suppliers, utilities, communications companies, infrastructure developers, and the academic community. 要 将这些先进技术从概念推广到未来的商业化生产,且保 证消费者对于这些新型汽车和基础设施技术的接受度, 需要所有利益相关方共同合作。其中包括了政府相关部门和机 构、国家实验室、科研机构、汽车原始设备制造商和供应商、 The greatest opportunity may be in Asia – particularly China, 能源和公用事业部门、通讯公司、基础设施开发商以及大学院 which has become the world’s largest vehicle market. By 校等。 working collaboratively, those with a stake in the future can realize viable transportation solutions that help shape the 对于亚洲来说这是一个极好的机遇,特别是中国这个目前世界 urban environment and benefit the growing number of urban 上最大的汽车市场。若能藉此开诚合作,必定能在未来实现这 dwellers. 些交通发展方案,塑造全新的城市环境,并让越来越多的城市 居住者从中受益。 Intelligent vehicles and infrastructure will enable different forms of personal and public transportation to coexist in harmony. 智能化汽车和智能化道路基础设施使各种不同的个人和公共交通工具和谐共存。 通用汽车 第 19 页 “2030城市交通可持续发展”蓝皮书
  • 21. Design and Individualization 创意设计与个性化 Urban Realities – The Challenge for Designers of the Future F ifty years ago, the population density of Shanghai was about 1,700 people per square kilometer; by 2008, it had increased to 3,000 people per square kilometer, and in the most densely populated areas there are now more than 40,000 people per square kilometer. There is no sign of this trend slowing. Urban communities are addressing transportation needs in various ways. There is a realization that they must allocate sufficient space to transportation facilities, and that people, EN-V Jiao is inspired by a high-speed train and a Beijing Opera mask. their products, and the environment need to coexist. At the EN-V电动联网概念车“骄”的设计灵感来自高速列车和中国的京剧脸谱。 same time, it is understood that historic areas like Shanghai’s Bund need to be preserved. One way that cities like Shanghai are doing this is through the construction of satellite cities; however, 都市现状—未来设计家所面临的挑战 this approach is creating new transportation challenges as urban dwellers move farther away from their jobs. Although public mass transit will remain an extremely important focus of urban planners, the demand for personal transportation and the 五 十年前,上海的人口密度大约是每平方公里1700人;到 2008年,这个数字已经增长到了每平方公里3000人,在 人口最为密集的地区,甚至达到了每平方公里4万人。而且这 freedom it offers will continue to increase. 种趋势并无缓和的迹象。 It is through the joint efforts of designers and city planners 城市社区正以各种方式解决交通需求问题。人们意识到,城市需 that the needs for public mass transportation and the desire 要为交通设施分配足够的空间,人类及其相关产物需要与自然环 for sustainable, personalized vehicles can be balanced. 境和谐共存。同时,人们还认识到具有历史意义的区域如上海外 With cooperation, city life will continue to improve through 滩,也需要得到保护。上海等大城市正在通过建立卫星城市来解 thoughtfully designed transportation solutions. 决城市发展问题。但是,这样一来城市居民上下班距离更远,进 而对交通系统产生了新的挑战。尽管对于城市规划者来说,公共 Individuality, Standing Out in a Crowd 交通仍然是城市规划的重点,但个人交通带来的便利和自由,使 P assenger cars are much more than mere consumer goods 人们对它的依赖和需求持续增长。 for moving people and their products. They are aspirational 满足人们对于公共交通和可持续、个性化的交通工具的需求, items that make a statement about their users while fulfilling 需要设计师和城市规划者的共同努力。同时,完善的交通解决 basic transportation needs. 方案也将继续提高人们在城市的生活质量。 This is where design plays a key role. One of the key trends 出类拔萃的个性化 in automotive design is to offer car buyers the ability to “personalize” their vehicles. This has been greatly enhanced by the advent of new technologies. • Designers will be able to radically alter the shape of vehicles, 乘 用车不仅仅是一个运送乘客和货物的工具。它们在满足 用户基本交通需求的同时,还能代表消费者的个性。 giving them a more novel, more innovative appearance and 这是设计的关键角色所在。汽车设计的主要趋势之一是让驾驶 better aligning form with function – as GM did in the creation 者的汽车彰显个性化。而这功能一向是借助新兴科技的产生来 of the EN-V concepts. 完成的。 • Automakers will be able to reduce the size of components, • 设计师能够从根本上改变汽车的外观造型,使汽车拥有更加 giving designers the freedom to make vehicle interiors more 新颖、更有创意的外型,达到外型与功能的完美契合——通 user-friendly, spacious, and functional. 用汽车在EN-V电动联网概念车上成就了这两个特点。 • Individuals will be able to customize their vehicles. This will • 汽车制造商能够缩小配件的大小,让设计师更能自由发挥, create new opportunities for automakers in the aftermarket 设计出易于使用、空间宽敞、实用性强的汽车内饰。 area of their business. • 汽车驾驶者个人能依其所好制定车辆。这能为汽车制造商在 • Social experience will increase, creating the need for a 售后市场上创造新的商机。 reimagining of the human-machine interface encompassing • 社交经验的积累能创造对人机互动界面的需求,包括操控、 controls, visual displays, auditory alerts, ergonomics, and new 视觉显示、听觉系统、触觉系统、人类工程学系统、以及新 communication, entertainment, and information capabilities. 的通讯、娱乐和信息功能。 • Developments in GPS technology, sensing devices, digital • 通过GPS技术、远程传感设备、数字地图以及无线通信技术 maps, wireless communications, and electronic controls will 和电子控制技术的发展,车辆将可以进行主动安全防护,并 enable active safety features and ultimately vehicles that can 最终实现自动驾驶,自行设计以及创造新的功能。 drive themselves, creating new design and user applications. “Roadmap to 2030” GM Sustainable Urban Mobility Blue Paper Page 20
  • 22. Technology and Innovative Vehicle Design 科技与创新汽车设计 B eyond look, sound, and feel, vehicle electrification will provide the foundation for new types of vehicles and enhanced vehicle functionality, as demonstrated by GM’s EN-V 正 如通用汽车EN-V电动联网概念车所展示的那样,除了 人们看到、听到和感觉到的,汽车电气化和车联网还能 够为新型汽车和汽车的新功能提供支撑。体积较小、操作灵活 urban mobility concepts. A substantially smaller and more 简便的汽车更加适合拥挤的城市中有限的停车场地,需要较少 maneuverable vehicle is better suited to the limited parking 的能源驱动,可以使用体积更小、更轻、更便宜的电池系统。 available in crowded cities, requires far less energy to propel 繁忙有序的交通还降低了平均行驶速度,因此可以减少电机所 it and can make do with a smaller, lighter, and more affordable 需的能量。因此,个人交通工具将变得更具成本效益、更加环 battery system. Dense traffic can also reduce average driving 保、也使驾驶者享受其中。 speeds, decreasing the power demanded of the electric motor. As a result, personal mobility can be expected to become more 由轮毂电机驱动的车辆的结构将会更加模块化、多样化和个性 cost-effective, more environmentally sustainable and even 化。这种车可以有四轮、三轮、两轮、甚至可能只有一个轮 more enjoyable. 子。而且既然两轮汽车的动力重量比和四轮车基本相同,相同 轮毂电机就能适用于多种车辆类型,这使得大批量生产的规模 The architecture of these wheel-motor-propelled vehicles 效益成为可能。 could be highly modular, enabling variety and customization. They can be four-wheelers, three-wheelers, two-wheelers, or 无所不在的无线网络联接保证车辆能自动驾驶并避免出现碰 possibly even one-wheelers. Since the power-to-weight ratio 撞,这为设计师提供了相当大的自由度,使他们在设计车身比 of a two-wheeler is roughly the same as for a four-wheeler, the 例、人们的上下车方式、车辆外观、内饰和外部结构的材料选 same wheel motor module could be applied across multiple 用等都相当自由。在这种情况下,人们将会有更多的机会体验 vehicle types, allowing mass-production economies of scale. 个性化驾乘,并使汽车真正融入到人们的日常生活里去。 Ubiquitous wireless connectivity can lead to vehicles that drive 成功的关键要素 themselves and avoid crashes. This would enable significant design freedom with vehicle proportions, how people enter and exit the vehicle, the appearance of the vehicle’s surface, and the 以 EN-V电动联网概念车为代表,这些未来车辆将会变得更 智能、更安全、更环保。电力的使用将使其不再依赖石 油,城市不再有车辆尾气排放。这也意味着道路交通系统不一 choice of materials used in the interior and exterior. As a result, 定需要大的改变,要改变的仅仅是交通工具。 there will be tremendous opportunities for personalizing the ride experience and for seamlessly integrating life inside and 从设计角度上看,EN-V电动联网概念车满足了消费者对于未 outside the vehicle. 来个人交通更加有趣和时尚的需求,开启了设计师探索新的汽 车类型的先河,因为EN-V的技术也可以应用到其它未来车型 What is Required 的制造中。 A s embodied by EN-V, these cars of the future will be smarter, safer, and environmentally sustainable. Electric power will make them free from petroleum and will free cities 要将EN-V电动联网概念车这样的汽车从概念车推进到商业化 生产,需要城市规划者、设计师、建筑师以及汽车设计师和工 程师的通力合作。同样也需要从其它产品,如电子游戏设备和 from vehicle emissions. It will also mean that the road system 手机等的设计中学习经验,因为未来的城市交通工具将会是兼 will not have to change significantly; rather, it is the vehicle 具个人风格、身份和情感诉求的个性化产品。未来的城市车辆 that will change. 不但是现有都市生活挑战的解决方案的一部份,而且还能藉由 From a design standpoint, EN-V addresses the desire among 高科技和精心完美设计的融合来强化驾驶者的体验。 consumers for future personal urban mobility that is fun and fashionable. It opens the door for designers to explore new vehicle types, as the technologies in EN-V could be applied to other forms of future vehicles. Taking vehicles like EN-V from concept to production will require the collaboration of urban planners, designers, and architects as well as vehicle designers and engineers. It will also require adopting lessons learned from the design of other products such as videogames and cell phones because tomorrow’s urban vehicles will remain personal consumer products that confer style, status, and emotional appeal. Tomorrow’s urban vehicles will not only be a part of the solution for the current challenges of urban living, they can and must enhance the vehicle ownership experience through a melding of high technology and beautiful, well-thought-out design. EN-V has opened the door for designers to use new materials and design radically different vehicles. EN-V电动联网概念车的问世为设计师们提供了新的思路:使用新材料,设计 完全与众不同的车辆。 通用汽车 第 21 页 “2030城市交通可持续发展”蓝皮书
  • 23. ROADMAP TO 2030: MOVING FROM TODAY TO TOMORROW 通往2030之路 S ince more than 35 percent of today’s global energy needs and 96 percent of today’s vehicle energy requirements are met with petroleum, automakers, governments, the energy “We are focusing in general overall on energy efficiency, and yet trying not to take away from the customer’s need for performance of the vehicle also. So our philosophy is ‘no industry, and other key stakeholders are working hard – in trade-offs.’ We want to provide the performance and fuel a highly dynamic environment – to optimize the overall efficiency in our propulsion systems.”– Daniel Hancock, GM efficiency of today’s energy and transportation networks. They Vice President, Strategic Product Alliance are developing a range of technologies to make our vehicles “我们将重点放在整体能源效率上,但是,尽量不牺牲消费 more efficient, creating the pathways to future propulsion 者对车辆性能的要求。因此,我们的理念是‘绝不妥协’。 systems, and taking steps to diversify the energy sources used 我们希望提供既有良好性能又有较高的燃油经济性的驱动系 for transportation. 统。”— 丹尼尔·汉考克,通用汽车全球产品战略联盟副总裁 What this means in practice is that a range of propulsion and technology options are being developed cooperatively across regions, industries, and disciplines. It also means that the options that best meet the needs of local consumers will be the ones that are applied first in those markets. 现 今,全球35%的能源需求和96%的汽车能源需求都是由 石油提供。汽车制造商、政府、能源工业以及其它利益 相关方都在以各种方式进行努力,使能源和交通网络的总体使 用效率得到优化。他们发明了一些新的技术使汽车效率更高, GM has become a leader among global automakers in adopting 为未来的推进系统另辟蹊径,并逐步实现交通能源的多样化。 an advanced propulsion technology strategy that includes a commitment to both powertrain efficiency and energy diversity. 这一切的实际意义在于,一系列的驱动系统和技术正在以跨地 The goal of the strategy is to displace petroleum, lower tailpipe 区、跨行业和跨学科合作的方式开发,它还意味着最能满足当 and CO2 emissions, and create a more sustainable energy 地消费者需求的选择总是首先被当地市场所采用。 model. 在全球汽车制造商中,通用汽车率先采用了先进驱动技术战 In pursuit of this strategy, GM and other automotive companies 略,包括动力能效和能源多样性。该战略的目标是取代石油, continue to focus on a range of technology solutions. There is 降低尾气和二氧化碳排放量,创建更加可持续的能源模式。 a realization that the transition to a future with more reliance on electricity as an energy carrier and new types of vehicles 为了实现这一战略,通用汽车和其它汽车公司继续关注一系列 will take some time. Fortunately, there are also evolutionary 技术方案。大家都意识到,达到以电力为主要能源载体和以电 technologies under development that will provide more 动车为新型车仍然需要一些时间。幸运的是,正在开发的革新 efficient and lower-emission vehicles capable of using a wider 技术将提供效率更高、使用多种燃料的低排放的车辆。 range of fuels. 这些努力将部分减低汽车对于石油近乎完全的依赖,开始向电 These will partially move the automobile away from the near 动车过渡。市场和政策调控将为这一变化铺平道路,新能源和 total reliance on petroleum-based fuels and start the transition 汽车科技将率先得到应用,以满足本地市场和政策调控的需求。 toward electrified vehicles. This change will follow a market- and regulatory-driven trajectory in which new energy sources and automotive technologies will be introduced to satisfy “Customers and markets will drive specific vehicles with specific local market and regulatory needs. specific requirements for the powertrain. The powertrain needs to serve each vehicle in the best possible, most flexible way. We have a continuous trend, to find more CO2-neutral energy sources. Electrification is a key way on that route, but it is not the only one.” – Helmut List, Chairman and CEO, AVL List GmbH “市场和消费者对于特定车辆的特定需求是会增加的,特别 是有关动力总成领域的需求。我们的动力总成也必须要尽可 能地灵活。在这个方面需要进一步改进的就是持续寻找不会 加重二氧化碳排放的能源。电气化是一种方式,但并不是唯一 的。”— 赫尔姆特·李斯特,AVL李斯特公司董事长兼首席执 行官 “Roadmap to 2030” GM Sustainable Urban Mobility Blue Paper Page 22
  • 24. • Automotive companies are devoting considerable efforts to improving the efficiency of conventional engines and transmissions. Over the past five years, GM has improved the average fuel efficiency of its passenger car lineup in China by 20 percent. GM plans to double the availability of high-efficiency, small-displacement gasoline engines on a global basis by 2012. • Automakers are developing clean diesel technologies that will allow them to maintain the fuel efficiency advantage of diesel engines while meeting stricter emission requirements. • Automakers are continuing an aggressive rollout of advanced six-speed transmissions and other more efficient powertrains. GM announced that it will work with its partner, SAIC, to co-develop a new small-displacement The Chevrolet Equinox Fuel Cell electric vehicle is seen outside the SAIC-GM Pavilion. gasoline engine family and an advanced transmission that The Equinox was part of the World Expo 2010 Shanghai VIP transportation fleet. can reduce fuel consumption and carbon emissions by 20 停放在上汽集团-通用汽车馆外的雪佛兰Equinox氢燃料电池车是2010年上海 世博会贵宾专用车。 percent compared to traditional powertrains. • Automakers are adding electrification to conventional powertrains, with solutions ranging from basic start- • 汽车制造商付出了大量努力来改善传统发动机和变速箱的效 stop systems that shut off engines during vehicle stops to 率。在过去5年里,通用汽车在中国的乘用车品牌的燃油经 sophisticated plug-in hybrid systems capable of operating 济性提高了20%。到2012年,通用汽车计划在全球实现高 for a limited range on battery power. 效率、小排量汽油内燃机普及率翻番。 • Although a little farther out, fuel cells are another electric • 汽车制造商正在研制清洁柴油技术,可以在保持柴油发动机 vehicle option for petroleum-free driving, especially for 效能优势的同时,遵守严格的排放标准。 larger-sized vehicles. GM deployed 119 Chevrolet Equinox • 汽车制造商正继续积极推广先进的六速变速箱产品以及其它 Fuel Cell electric vehicles in Project Driveway. Although the 高效动力传动系统。通用汽车最近宣布将与其合作伙伴—— 30-month global demonstration is complete, GM continues 上海汽车工业集团共同研发一系列新的小排量汽油发动机和 to update some of these vehicles and learn from them as it 先进变速箱,它们将比传统动力系统减少20%燃料的消耗 focuses efforts on a production-intent fuel cell system in the 和二氧化碳的排放。 2015 timeframe. • 汽车制造商正将电气化注入传统动力传动系统,解决方案 包括从基本的车辆停止时发动机关闭的停车-启动系统,到 Beyond advanced propulsion, there are already a range of 复杂的、在有限里程内以电池驱动的插电式混合动力系统。 innovative technologies that will connect our vehicles and • 虽然有些遥远,但燃料电池也是汽车摆脱对石油依赖的一个 make them safer, smarter, and more convenient. 选择,尤其对于大型车辆来说更是如此。通用汽车投入119 As consumers get used to a whole new consumer electronics 辆雪佛兰Equinox氢燃料电池车用于“车行道”计划。虽然 experience for connectivity and entertainment – with 这一为期三十个月的全球路演已经结束,通用汽车仍然继续 information and service available at their fingertips wherever 更新部分车辆的技术,并逐步吸收从这个项目中取得的经 they go – they will expect these same capabilities to be 验,努力达到在2015年量产燃料电池系统的规划。 available inside their vehicles. This will require routine use of 除了先进驱动系统,通用汽车已经开发出一系列革新技术,使 integrated and easy-to-use controls and interfaces as well as 汽车互相联接并使它们更安全、更智能、更便捷。 information displays throughout the vehicle. 随着消费者习惯于使用新型电子消费产品进行联网和娱乐,所 GM’s OnStar has already changed the way owners interact with 到之处所需任何服务和信息都触手可及,他们期待在车里也可 their vehicles, and its new smartphone applications promise 使用相同功能。这就需要汽车拥有整合的、而且容易使用的控 to enable them to connect and control vehicle functions and 制程序以及信息显示界面,并将其作为常规功能。 features remotely 24 hours a day, seven days a week. The first mobile app, available on smartphones, will allow Chevrolet Volt 通用汽车的安吉星车载信息通讯系统已经改变了使用者和其车辆 owners to use a real-time data connection to perform tasks 之间的互动方式,安装在智能电话中的控制软件能让使用者全天 such as checking the battery charge level, initiating charging 候联接并远程控制汽车。雪佛兰Volt沃蓝达增程型电动车的使用 or setting charge timing, and remotely unlocking the doors or 者,通过采用第一代移动应用程序的智能通讯设备,使用实时数 starting the vehicle to pre-condition the interior temperature. 据联接来执行任务,比如说检查电池电量、开始充电或者设置充 OnStar has also announced plans to leverage the power of 电时间,远程开车门或者远程启动车辆调节车内温度等。安吉星 Google technology for a new Google Maps application that will 还宣布了利用谷歌地图应用程序为汽车导航的计划。 send turn-by-turn directions to the vehicle. 通用汽车 第 23 页 “2030城市交通可持续发展”蓝皮书
  • 25. GM’s vehicle electrification strategy is to develop and produce various forms of vehicles that are all or in part driven by electricity. Examples include extended-range electric vehicles like the Chevrolet Volt, and fuel cell electric vehicles like the Chevrolet Equinox Fuel Cell electric vehicle. 通用汽车的电气化战略旨在发展和生产各类使用电力或部分电力为驱动的车型,如雪佛兰Volt沃蓝达增程型电动车和雪佛兰Equinox氢燃料电池车。 Vehicle connectivity also will play a critical role in new active 车联网还将在新型主动安全系统中扮演重要角色,车对车以及 safety features. Vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure 车对基础设施(V2V和V2X)之间的信息交换技术使得新型安全 (V2V and V2X) communications will enable new types of safety 应用程序成为可能。实质上,这些系统给了车辆“第六感”。 applications. These systems essentially will give the vehicle 该系统支持多种自动化功能,包括变换车道警报、盲点侦测、 a “sixth sense.” They support automated features like lane 紧急停车、前方撞车警报并自动刹车、十字路口撞车警报等。 change alert, blind-spot detection, sudden stopping, forward 由于车对基础设施(V2X)信息交换技术有超强的“视野”, collision warning with automatic braking, and intersection 这些程序的应用成为可能。比如,信号能穿越像卡车一样的障 collision warning. These new applications are possible because 碍物、检测超远的距离或者在弯道上的状况。 V2X can “see” beyond the line of sight – for example, beyond large obstructions like a truck and over longer distances and 通用汽车展示了车对基础设施(V2X)信息交换技术系统及传 around curves. 感器的原型,它的外形和黑莓手机差不多,这意味着它们也可 以被行人及骑自行车的人使用,用来向汽车报告他们的位置。 GM has demonstrated prototype V2X systems and 因为这项新的传感技术只需要少量传感器,所以它也可以减少 transponders that are about the size of a BlackBerry, which 成本并降低车载电子设备的复杂性。 means they could also be used by pedestrians and bicyclists to alert vehicles to their location. Because fewer sensors are 通过将全球定位系统和感应技术与先进的电力控制结合,自动 required with this new sensing technology, it can also reduce 驾驶的汽车已经成为了现实。 2007年11月, 通用汽车与包括卡 the cost and complexity of on-board electronics. 耐基梅隆大学在内的一系列合作伙伴一起开发了命名为“Boss” 的自动驾驶雪佛兰Tahoe,这辆车获得了美国国防高级研究计划 By combining GPS and sensing technology with advanced 局“城市挑战赛”的冠军。这个针对自动汽车的挑战赛时长6小 electronic controls, it is already possible to create vehicles that 时,赛程长达97公里。EN-V电动联网概念车则采用了基于感应 can drive themselves. In November 2007, GM teamed with 和车对基础设施(V2X)信息交换技术,并将这些技术融合,创 Carnegie Mellon University and other partners to develop 造了具有低成本和高效能潜力的自动驾驶汽车。 “Boss,” a self-driving Chevrolet Tahoe that won the U.S. Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency 总而言之,改变汽车工业未来的诸多革命性技术已经存在。更 (DARPA) Urban Challenge, a six-hour, 97-kilometer race for 多的努力正在被付诸实施,从而不断改善未来的汽车,使之更 robotic vehicles. The EN-Vs have taken the best of the sensor- 智能、更安全且更清洁。 and V2X-based safety approaches and integrated them to create an autonomous vehicle with the potential for low cost and high robustness. In conclusion, many of the technologies that are needed to transform the automotive industry are already available. Continuous efforts are being made to further improve them to make automobiles smarter, safer and cleaner. GM first demonstrated vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications in 2005. 通用汽车于2005年首次展示车对车 (V2V) 信息交换技术。 “Roadmap to 2030” GM Sustainable Urban Mobility Blue Paper Page 24
  • 26. DRIVING THE FUTURE 驱动未来 I n its first century, the automobile did more than revolutionize transportation; in many developed countries, it also shaped society. But during its second century, the automobile will be 在 汽车工业最初的一百年,它不仅仅带来了交通运输上 的革命,在很多发达国家,它还影响了社会的形态。 但到了第二个世纪,汽车的发展将由社会需求以及因汽车 shaped by society’s requirements and the societal challenges 在城市中心普及对社会所带来的挑战而决定。这些挑战包括 associated with pervasive automobile usage in urban centers. 能源消耗、环境污染、交通安全、路面拥堵以及停车难等问 The challenges include energy consumption, environmental 题。尽管汽车将继续超越其它交通模式发挥其独一无二的作 concerns, traffic safety, roadway congestion, and parking. While 用——为人们提供想去哪就去哪的自由、舒适和安全,但它 the automobile will continue to provide unique capabilities over 的设计和技术,或者说其基本构造(DNA)都必须改变。 all other modes of transport – namely the freedom to go where you want, when you want, in comfort and securely – its design 在汽车电气化和独特的车联网技术的基础上,这种新的构造 and technology, or its basic DNA, will need to change. (DNA)将把我们未来的汽车转变为交通运输、能量和信息 网络中的联接点。它将显著影响城市设计,提供给我们新的 This new DNA, based on electrification and ubiquitous 商业选择和机会,帮助刺激经济的可持续发展和促进就业。 connectivity, will transform automobiles into interconnected nodes on the transportation, power, and information networks. 受新型汽车DNA的影响,未来的汽车看上去将和现在传统汽车 It will significantly impact the design of urban areas and provide 大不相同,它们将对我们感知世界和日常生活产生深刻影响。 new business options and opportunities that will help spur sustainable economic and employment growth. 到2030年,我们期待汽车将: • 大小可以随心而变,两轮、三轮、四轮都可实现,可以载一 Enabled by the new DNA, the vehicles of tomorrow will look very 名或者更多名乘客。 different from those on the road today – and they will have a • 通过电网充电,也许晚上在车库或者白天在停车场就可以充电。 profound impact on how we experience our world and live our • 能从道路基础设施状况获取实时的交通信息并选择路线。 daily lives. • 能和家里及办公室的电脑和手机联网。 • 有大屏幕,也许就设置在挡风玻璃上,可以为我们提供当前 By 2030, we can expect vehicles that: 汽车行驶里程、电池状态、精确的位置、动态的路线、甚至 • Are only as big as we need them to be – with two, three, or 沿途所经过的商店厂家的广告等信息。 four wheels and accommodating one or more passengers. • 具有自动停车/取车功能,可以停在离家很远的停车库,也 • Are charged from the electric grid – perhaps in the garage 可以经程序设置自动开到家门口。 overnight or in a parking structure during the day. • 能自动行驶到目的地,包括自动准确汇入高速路上的车流中并 • Can interface with the roadway infrastructure for real-time 与其它车辆结队行驶。 traffic information and route selection. • Can communicate with home and office computers and cell phones. • Have display screens, perhaps in the windshield, that offer information about vehicle driving range, battery charge status, precise location, dynamic routing, and even ads from stores and businesses that we pass. • Can be garaged away from our homes or apartments, and programmed to drive to our doors when needed. Shanghai as depicted in the year 2030 in the SAIC-GM Pavilion movie, “2030, Xing!” 上汽集团-通用汽车馆电影“2030 ,行!”中所描绘的2030年上海鸟瞰图。 通用汽车 第 25 页 “2030城市交通可持续发展”蓝皮书
  • 27. • Can drive us autonomously to our desired destination – 尽管这一切听上去在今天都不可能实现,但很多技术都已经成形: including being able to merge into automated high-speed • 大量能满足大部分城市居民出行距离和速度需求的小型高效交 lanes to platoon with other vehicles. 通工具(像电动自行车和电动踏板车)已经在市场上出售,其 价格对于消费者特别是中国的消费者而言,都较能接受。 Although all of this may sound very futuristic, much of the • 高乘载收费车道和高架公路已在上海和其它地区出现。一些 required technology is already available: 城市也正在建设或者扩建自行车和公共汽车专用车道。 • Large numbers of small, highly efficient electric vehicles • 实时交通监控系统越来越普及,并日益精确。 (such as electric bikes and electric scooters) with adequate • 世界上许多城市,像新加坡和伦敦,已经引进了交通拥堵收 ranges and speeds to meet most urban personal mobility 费机制,实现了电子调控路价并通过车里的缴费器自动收费。 needs are being sold at affordable prices, particularly in • 数字地图全面覆盖各个路段,信息全面并能及时更新。 China. • 自动化装置,比如说自适应巡航控制系统,在许多量产车中 • High-occupancy toll lanes and elevated highways exist in 都已得到应用。 Shanghai and elsewhere. Some cities have also introduced or are expanding the use of dedicated bicycle and bus 随着数字革命的进行,个人交通革命将会通过许多新兴技术 lanes. 的融合而实现。正如网络不能凸显个人电脑制造商的优势, • Real-time traffic monitoring is becoming increasingly 但却使得所有电脑联网后发挥更大的作用,相似的情况同 widespread and sophisticated. 样适用于智能交通系统。汽车的新型基因与这个系统紧密 • Many urban areas around the world including Singapore 结合,将带来更多实实在在的好处。它不仅通过减少意外事 and London have introduced congestion charging 故、交通拥堵、污染和对石油的依赖,使城市更好地运作, schemes, enabling electronically adjustable road pricing 还能通过为大家提供价格合理、令人愉悦且可持续的交通方 and automatic charging through in-vehicle transponders. 式,从而提高人们的生活水平。 • Digital maps provide comprehensive road coverage, and are information rich and frequently updated. 简言之,新的汽车基因和面向城市用途的汽车设计,将有 • Automated features such as adaptive cruise control are 助于城市交通的可持续发展,从而使2010上海世博会的主 available in many production automobiles. 题“城市,让生活更美好”得以最终实现。 As with the digital revolution, the personal mobility revolution will be realized by the convergence of a host of emerging technologies. And just as the Internet does not give one personal computer manufacturer an advantage over another “If people came from the early 1900s when the vehicle was but makes all computers more functional, the same will be true being invented, and looked at the vehicle of today, they with an intelligent transportation system. The new DNA of the would pretty much recognize every element . The one thing I automobile, integrated within this system, will make driving will guarantee is, by 2030, the vehicle will be unrecognizable more practical and enjoyable. It will not only make the city to the inventors of the vehicle 100 years ago.” – Alan Taub, Vice President, GM Global Research and Development function better by reducing accidents, congestion, pollution, and petroleum dependence, but will also enhance people’s lives by “20世纪早期发明的汽车经过这一百多年的发展,的确在各个 providing affordable, enjoyable, and sustainable mobility for all. 方面都有很大的改变,然而现在的车和当时的车在外形上仍然 很相似。但是我能肯定,到2030年时,汽车的外形就和100年 In short, the new DNA, together with vehicle designs tailored 前的完全不同了。”— 陶蔼伦,通用汽车全球研发副总裁 for urban use, will enable sustainable urban mobility and help achieve the World Expo 2010 Shanghai theme of “Better City, Better Life.” In July 2010, during Expo 2010, GM demonstrated EN-V on Shanghai’s fashionable Huaihai Road. 2010年7月上海世博会期间,通用汽车在上海市区时尚的淮海路上向公众展示EN-V电动联网概念车。 “Roadmap to 2030” GM Sustainable Urban Mobility Blue Paper Page 26
  • 28. RECOMMENDATIONS 我们的建议 1. Accelerate and encourage the move to the 1. 加快和鼓励汽车电气化进程,包括车辆核心零部件、智能 electrification of the automobile, including the 电网和城市再充电综合基础设施的发展和完善。 development of key vehicle components, a smart power grid, and a comprehensive urban recharging infrastructure. 2. Increase the diversity of energy sources, particularly 2. 增加能源多样性,尤其是开发广泛的可再生能源,以支持 the development of a broad array of renewable 从低排放到电气化的发展路径。 sources, to support low-emission pathways to electrification. 3. Leverage the mobility Internet by ensuring high- 3. 确保高质量的无线通讯基础设施和鼓励快速发展车对车信息 quality wireless communications infrastructure and 交换技术及相关的智能交通技术,从而更好地发展并充分利 encouraging the rapid development of V2V and related 用车联网。 intelligent transportation technologies. 4. Develop a sophisticated, integrated, intelligent 4. 开发一个复杂、综合、智能的交通系统,使用最新的通信 transportation system that dynamically manages large 和电脑控制实现对大流量交通的实时动态监测与管理。 transportation flows using the latest communications and computer controls. 5. Integrate electrically powered, connected vehicles into 5. 将电动联网车辆融合到多模式的交通系统内,这一系统包含 a multi-modal transport system that incorporates 完整规划的城市内交通、综合地铁系统、传统车辆交通系统 sophisticated inter-city transport, comprehensive 和为市区交通特别定制的小型城市车辆。 subway systems, traditional vehicle movement, and specialized smaller urban vehicles. 6. Align government tax, regulatory, and procurement 6. 政府的税制、法规和采购计划需支持未来电动联网车辆的 policies to support the vision of connected electrically 构想。需开发具体的全球统一法规和准则。政府组织也应 driven vehicles. Specific globally consistent codes 提供相应资金来鼓励电动车辆的持续研发并激励消费者购 and standards should be developed. Government 买,最终促进由传统车辆向新能源车辆的过渡。 organizations should also support funding to encourage continued electric vehicle research and development and consumer incentives to support the transition to new energy vehicles. 7. Begin to optimize the physical infrastructure 7. 开始优化基础硬件设施,通过与城市规划局、智囊团、学 to support new urban vehicles through active 术机构、汽车厂商和基础设施公司的积极合作来推进新兴 collaboration and cooperation among urban planning 城市车辆的发展。 authorities, think tanks, academic institutions, automotive companies, and infrastructure companies. 8. Identify a series of “lighthouse” projects to rapidly 8. 开始一系列在生态城市或小型城镇等可控环境中测试联网 demonstrate the viability and potential of connected 电动车的可行性和发展前景的试验项目。 electrically driven vehicles in a controlled environment such as an eco-city or small town. Personal mobility has always been a basic human need and will 无论现在还是未来,个人交通始终是人类的一个基本需求。汽 remain so in the future. Automobiles profoundly enhance our 车从根本上赋予了人类更多的自由度和安全感。从社会角度来 sense of freedom and security; at the societal level, they shape 说,它们构建了城市和社区的框架。 the layout of our cities and communities. 正如当年互联网的迅猛发展一样,全世界人们对拥有汽车的渴望 The universal aspiration for automobile ownership is a dynamic 也在不断增长。 that is very similar to the explosive growth of the Internet. 通用汽车 第 27 页 “2030城市交通可持续发展”蓝皮书
  • 29. Like the Internet, the automobile allows us to connect with one 汽车和互联网一样,促进了人与人之间的联系,极大方便了我 another and provides us access to places and products. It gives 们的出行。由于汽车的存在,我们可以随心选择和谁一起、带 us the freedom to go where we want, when we want, with 上什么、何时出发、去到何处。在方便出行的同时,汽车给我 whomever we want, carrying whatever we need – and it does 们带来了更高程度的安全感和舒适感。 so while providing a high degree of safety and comfort. 然而,个人交通需求的持续增长和城市化发展的进程引起了能 Rising demand for personal transportation combined with 源、环境、安全、交通拥堵以及停车等多方面的社会问题。我 growing urbanization has created societal challenges related to energy, the environment, safety, congestion, and parking. 们应当从现在开始行动,从而实现可持续个人交通的美好愿 It is important that we act now to achieve a new vision of 景,这一点至关重要。 sustainable personal mobility. 与此同时,我们必须认识到,传统汽车在相当的一段过渡时期 In the interim, we need to recognize that there will be a 内仍然会占据主导地位。因此,我们必须继续鼓励实用技术的 substantial transition period when traditional vehicles will still 研发,例如先进发动机技术、混合动力系统与系统控制等,这 predominate on our roads. To that end, we must encourage 将在短期内有效减少尾气排放和燃料消耗。 the ongoing development of practical technologies such as advanced engines, hybrid engines, and system controls to help 在1939年的纽约世界博览会上,通用汽车的“未来世界”汽车 reduce emissions and fuel consumption in the near term. 馆向公众展示了当时在个人交通方面的大胆创想,使美国高速 At the 1939 New York World’s Fair, GM’s Futurama offered a 公路网络的概念得到大众的广泛支持。二十年后,随着州际高 vision of personal mobility undreamed of, creating widespread 速公路系统的形成,这一愿景成为了现实。 public support for a network of superhighways in the United States. Twenty years later, that vision became reality with the creation of an interstate highway system. The superhighway model introducedby General Motors at itsFuturama exhibit in 1939. The modern U.S. interstate highway system. 通用汽车于1939年在未来世界展馆内展现的高速公路模型。 现代美国州际高速公路系统。 GM introduced its vision of a superhighway system, which became reality 20 years later, at the 1939 New York World’s Fair. 在1939年的纽约世界博览会上,通用汽车展现的高速公路网络系统愿景在二十年后成为了现实。 This served as an inspiration for GM’s vision of sustainable 这是通用汽车在2010年上海世博会上所展示的城市交通可持续 urban transportation showcased at Expo 2010. GM believes 发展愿景的灵感之源。通用汽车坚信,像EN-V概念车这样的 a sensible and reasonable solution for the future is the 电动联网小型车是一个切合实际并合理的未来解决方案。 development of electrically networked, small-footprint vehicles like the EN-V concept. 通过推进汽车的电气化、车联网及创新设计的进程,并将汽车 By electrifying, connecting, and redesigning our vehicles – and 与能源、通讯网络及交通基础设施相整合,我们相信未来汽车 by integrating them with the energy, communications, and 在功能不断增强的同时,可以与社会需求达到和谐一致。 transportation infrastructure – we can ensure that future vehicles are in harmony with society’s needs while significantly 如EN-V这样的电动联网汽车,在保留了城市车辆的优势和便 increasing their capabilities. 利的同时,其对社会的负面影响也被降到了最低。这是一令人 振奋且可以实现的愿景。为实现这一美好的未来创想,我们应 Electrically driven, connected vehicles like EN-V can preserve 当从今天就开始行动。 the essential advantages of the automobile for urban usage while minimizing the societal side effects. It is a vision that is both exciting and achievable. We need to start building that future now. “Roadmap to 2030” GM Sustainable Urban Mobility Blue Paper Page 28
  • 30. “Roadmap to 2030” GM Sustainable Urban Mobility Blue Paper Page 30