Airbus views on fuel ecenemy

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Airbus views on fuel ecenemy

  1. 1. Presented by: Olivier HUSSEGroup Manager, Long Range Operational performance Airbus views on fuel economy A subject worth being revisited
  2. 2. Your goals • To always operate The lightest aircraft With the maximum payload Perfectly maintained for fuel conservation Following the most direct (air) route© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Always at the optimum altitude And at the most efficient speed/Mach schedule Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 2
  3. 3. Our objective • To build an ideal aircraft that Does not burn any fuel© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Does not make any noise Does not produce any emission Makes lots of money Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 3
  4. 4. Back to the real world… • Fuel conservation is managing the operation and condition of the aircraft to minimize the fuel on every flight MAINTENANCE DOMAIN© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. From flight preparation to flight conduct FLIGHT OPERATIONS DOMAIN Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 4
  5. 5. Content Weight Flight preparation Operating procedures Additional opportunities Conclusion© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 5
  6. 6. Content Weight Flight preparation Operational procedures Additional opportunities Conclusion© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 6
  7. 7. Weight • Why look at weight ? Heavier aircraft burn more fuel© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 7
  8. 8. Weight • What is weight made of ? Required fuel Additional fuel Takeoff weight Operating Empty Weight Payload© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 8
  9. 9. Weight • Reduce weight Required fuel Additional fuel Takeoff weight Reduce Operating Empty Weight Reduce payload • Weight monitoring and control • Carry-on luggage weight restrictions • Zonal dryers (condensation) • Passenger weight survey© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. •Catering • Etc… • Excess potable water • Reduce passenger service items (magazines…) • Plastic bottles • Etc… Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 9
  10. 10. Weight PLAN 2763 COMPUTED 15:38Z FLIGHT PROGS 020000Z 30243 A332 M82 KGS LFPG TO KJFK ETD 17:35Z 02/04/07 • Reduce weight AIB FLT/DAY /02 DEP/ARR CDG/JFK F.TIME 06:45 NAM 3080 ROUTE CDGJFK AVG WIND/AVG TEMP P017 / M54 ++++ INFO ++++ MAX PAYLOAD AVAILABLE: 50000 KGS Required fuel PAYLOAD LIMITED BY MZFW Additional fuel E.FUEL A.FUEL E.TME NM NAM FL DEST KJFK 038373 ... .. 06:45 3195 3080 360 RESV 0.05 001919 ... .. 00:20 ALT KPHL 002206 ... .. 00:22 0081 0094 140 Takeoff weight HOLD XTR 002456 000000 ... .. ... .. 00:30 00:00 CAPT.SIGN . . . . . . . . TOF 044954 ... .. 07:57 TAXI 000300 ... .. BLOCK 045254 ... .. 07:57 BLOCK FUEL. . . . . . . . Reduce Operating Empty Weight1000KGS FUEL BURN ADJUSTMENT FOR Payload INCREASE/DECREASE IN TOW : 0196KGS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E.MASS CORR. LIMIT OPS STRUC. REASONS FOR OP.LIMIT© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. BASIC WT 120000 ... .. EPLD 050000 ... .. Taxi fuel EZFW 170000 ... .. ZFW ... .. 170000 /. . . . . . . . . . TOF 044954 ... .. ETOW 214954 ... .. OTOW ... .. 233000 /. . . . . . . . . . Required fuel EB/O ELAW 038373 176581 ... .. ... .. Trip fuel LAW ... .. 182000 /. . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - LFPG LGL1B LGL UN491 KOKOS UL739 MABUG UN12 LULOX UP128 GIPER UN514 DINIM DCT 5120N DCT 5130N DCT 5140N DCT 5050N DCT KOBEV DCT Route reserves YQX J577 YQY J575 TUSKY PLYMM4 KJFK Alternate fuel Holding fuel Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 10
  11. 11. Content Weight Flight preparation Operational procedures Additional opportunities Conclusion© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 11
  12. 12. Flight preparation Aft CG • Center of gravity Forward CG Aircraft loading: further aft Centre of Gravity (CG) position (within allowable range) increases specific range Automatic centre of gravity management through FCMC (Fuel Control and Management Computer)© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Aircraft with FCMC Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 12
  13. 13. Flight preparation • Quality Flight Planning System Good quality data: – Temperature, wind, aircraft weight, payload, aircraft performance Optimised route in terms of track, speed and altitudes: – Compliant with ATC requirements and with the operators economic criteria (fuel & time) Optimised speeds and Flight Levels: – Flight profiles based on speeds that are in accordance with the© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. operators economic criteria – For aircraft that can fly in FMGS managed mode, use flight profiles based on your Cost Index Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 13
  14. 14. Flight preparation • Quality Flight Planning System Managed speed or selected speed Cost of Time C. I. = Cost of Fuel C osts D .O .C . C ost of Fuel G iven : - altitude - w eight ECON - w ind© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. MMO MMR C ost of Tim e LR C Fixed costs Presented by: M ach Jean-Jacques SPEYER MMR ECON M M O - 0.02 Director Operational Evaluation AirS@vings Feedback from initiation courses and early service experience Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 14
  15. 15. Flight preparation • Quality Flight Planning System Assess taxi fuel Characterize aircraft and engine ageing EU-OPS 1.255 EU-OPS 1.255 Contingency fuel is the Minimise Alternate Fuel: highest of: – Choose alternate airport close to the destination• airfield holding at 5-minute 1,500 feet or Either Minimise Contingency Fuel: • 5% of trip fuel or – Use en-route alternate airports (ERA) or reclearance in flight© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. • 3% of trip fuel (ERA) or (RIF) when possible – Use pre-determined point procedure (PDP) for isolated trip fuel • 20-minute aerodromes – Choose appropriate contingency fuel policy Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 15
  16. 16. Flight preparation • Quality Flight Planning System Benefits are: –Fuel requirements minimised • Minimise embarked/contingency fuel through accurate flight planning –Flight plan prediction of fuel at destination generally achieved (if flight flown as planned) Required fuel Additional fuel© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Takeoff weight Operating Empty Weight Payload Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 16
  17. 17. Content Weight Flight preparation Operational procedures Additional opportunities Conclusion© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 17
  18. 18. Operational procedures Preliminary cockpit preparation Cockpit preparation Taxi Climb Cruise Opportunities Descent Holding Approach© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Landing Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 18
  19. 19. Operational procedures Preliminary • Optimizing the use of APU on the ground: cockpit preparation Cockpit preparation Limit use of APU whenever possible Taxi – ground equipment availability and price, Climb – turn-around time (short vs long/night stop) Cruise Descent Engine start up time needs careful planning in conjunction with ATC Holding – Delaying engine start when possible Approach – Use ground equipments or APU instead© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Landing Keep passenger comfort in mind – Hot and humid conditions Presented by: Name Job title All Engine Shutdown Procedure (AESP) and Fuel Economy on ground Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 19
  20. 20. Operational procedures Preliminary • Bleed air cockpit preparation PACK FLOW……………………………………..AS RQRD Cockpit preparation – Adapt the bleed air demand with number of passengers Taxi • When ambient conditions permits, consider selecting PACK Climb FLOW LO/ECON A320-200 IAE Cruise Mission assumptions – No fuel economy • Air distance : 1000 NM Descent • FL350 • When APU is used • CRZ M.78 Holding PACK FLOW LO vs NORM • When one pack is used Approach • Fuel economy is 250 KG – Impacts the engines fuel flow mostly after takeoff© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Landing – The higher the bleed air demand, the higher the engine fuel flow Presented by: Name Job title All Engine Shutdown Procedure (AESP) and Fuel Economy on ground Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 20
  21. 21. Operational procedures • FMGS initialization Preliminary cockpit Insert data from the Computerized Flight Plan preparation Cockpit – Cost index preparation – Cruise Flight Levels Taxi – Cruise Flight Levels temperature Climb – Tropopause altitude Cruise – Winds (trip wind or forecast winds for CLB, CRZ and DES phases) Descent • FMGS Data insertion Holding FLEX TO TEMP………………………………………INSERT Approach – Use reduced thrust at takeoff (Flexible / Derated takeoff) • The higher the thrust reduction, the more the fuel burn© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Landing THR RED/ACC ALT…………………………SET or CHECK – The minimum acceleration altitude required by regulations will optimise fuel consumption Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 21
  22. 22. Operational procedures Preliminary • Taxiing with one (2) engine (s) out saves fuel cockpit preparation Cockpit preparation Operational considerations – you must base your policy on airport configuration Taxi (taxiways, runways, ramps, etc.) Climb Cruise – Consider Descent • uphill taxiway slope • high aircraft weights, Holding • reduced redundancy, Approach • warm up & cool down times, • problems away from gate, etc© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Landing 14th Performance & Operations Conference Bangkok, 4-8 April 2005 • All engine shut down procedure (AESP) Presented by: Michel DOCUS Group Manager A320 Family Operational Standards One/two engine taxi Review of associated recommendations Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 23
  23. 23. Operational procedures Preliminary • Climb INFORMATION cockpit preparation Climb speed schedule has an influence on fuel Cockpit preparation consumption Taxi Optimum climb CAS reduces fuel burn Climb TOC Cruise CI Increase Descent CI = 0 CI max Holding Approach© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Landing Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 24
  24. 24. Operational procedures Preliminary • Climb INFORMATION cockpit preparation Derated climb Cockpit preparation – Using derated climb techniques increases fuel burn Taxi MTOW Climb Distance to TOC Fuel (const dist) Time to TOC Distance to TOC Fuel (const dist) Time to TOC Cruise DCL1: +40nm DCL1: +89kg DCL1: +6min DCL1: +40nm +89kg +6min Descent DCL2: +184kg +64nm DCL2:+10min +64nm +184kg +10min Holding Approach© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Landing Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 25
  25. 25. Operational procedures Preliminary • Cruise is the most important phase in terms of fuel cockpit preparation savings Cockpit preparation Taxi • When installed, FMS is used as an aid to conduct the flight Climb Cruise • When using FMS, updating flight variables from TOC improves Descent EFOB prediction Holding Introduce altitude winds, temperatures, tropopause altitude Approach When possible, for each flight phase, each waypoint© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Landing Rule of thumb Rule of thumb Delta wind speed : :±±30 kt Delta wind speed 30 kt Delta wind direction : :±±30° Delta wind direction 30° Delta SAT : :±±5°C Delta SAT 5°C Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 26
  26. 26. Operational procedures Cost of Time C. I. = Cost of Fuel Preliminary cockpit • Managed speed or selected speed preparation INFORMATION Cockpit preparation When possible, it is recommended to fly in managed mode (using FMS). Taxi – Flying at the Optimum Mach Number as a function of Climb aircraft weight, flight level and wind component Cruise Descent In case of different winds at same altitude, never Holding change the CI Approach – ECON MACH compensates© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Landing • by using FMS wind model based on linear variation from real wind to inserted wind – Mach correction : ± 0.005 for ± 50 kts Wind Comp Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 27
  27. 27. Operational procedures Preliminary • Step climb planning cockpit preparation Appropriate planning of step climbs saves fuel Cockpit Maximum altitude preparation Pressure Altitude Taxi de itu alt m um Climb O p ti Cruise Descent Holding Approach© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Landing High Profile Medium Profile Low Profile Distance Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 28
  28. 28. Operational procedures Preliminary • Step climb planning cockpit preparation Anticipating or delaying climb should be avoided Cockpit preparation Taxi Excess fuel burn for a 500NM flight segment Climb Flight at FL330 with Cruise Optimum FL FL370 Descent Holding Approach© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Landing Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 29
  29. 29. Operational procedures Preliminary • Step altitude planning climb cockpit preparation Trading altitude for wind advantage Cockpit preparation Taxi Climb Cruise Descent Holding Approach© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Landing Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 30
  30. 30. Operational procedures Preliminary • Minimize route changes cockpit preparation Cockpit preparation You know what you have, but do not know what you Taxi will get Climb Cruise – Course changes due to adverse weather can sometimes be challenged Descent Holding – Avoid successive course changes that lengthen the Approach route too much© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Landing Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 31
  31. 31. Operational procedures Preliminary cockpit • Insert as realistic winds from cruise FL to preparation destination as possible Cockpit preparation Taxi Ensure right positioning TOD Climb Cruise – Avoids too early descents Descent Holding – Avoids too late descents Approach© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Landing Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 32
  32. 32. Operational procedures Preliminary cockpit • Inappropriate Top Of Descent (TOD) preparation When badly estimated by the FMS Cockpit preparation When ATC requires descent anticipation Taxi Climb • Late descents Cruise Approach procedures cannot be followed Descent Course reversal, holding Holding Approach • Early descents© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Landing TOD shift (15 NM ~ 2 MIN) Early TOD Nominal TOD FL100 / SPD LIMIT 250 KT Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 33
  33. 33. Operational procedures Preliminary • Fuel consumption increases significantly with airspeed and cockpit also in case of a premature descent preparation Cockpit preparation Descent performance depends on A/C, weight and cost Taxi index Climb TOD INFORMATION Cruise CI = 0 CI max Descent CI Increase Holding Approach© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Landing The lower the cost index, the lower the fuel consumption Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 34
  34. 34. Operational procedures Preliminary • Adapt your speed to the estimated time for holding or time cockpit preparation for arrival Cockpit preparation 15 minutes to go Taxi Maintain CRZ speed, cruise to fix, Climb hold at fix during 10 minutes Cruise Green Dot Speed Descent Reduce CRZ speed to Green Dot Speed, cruise to fix, hold at Holding If ATC informs 15 fix minutes before Approach reaching fix that 10 minute holding© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Landing are necessary Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 35
  35. 35. Operational procedures Preliminary • A continuous descent approach saves fuel cockpit preparation Cockpit preparation • Keep in clean configuration as long as possible Taxi Climb Cruise • Delay gear selection Descent Holding Approach • Visual approach from downwind saves fuel© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Landing • However, do not compromise the stabilised approach philosophy Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 36
  36. 36. Operational procedures Preliminary • The lower FLAP setting (CONF 3) minimizes fuel cockpit preparation consumption Cockpit preparation Taxi Climb • Also consider Cruise runway length, exit point, runway surface conditions, Descent tailwind, Holding occupancy time, brake cooling, time, etc Approach© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Landing Presented by: Hélène REBEL Head of A330/A340 Operational Standard Landing in CONF 3 – Use of reversers Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 37
  37. 37. Content Weight Flight preparation Operational procedures Additional opportunities Conclusion© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 38
  38. 38. Additional opportunities • Non-revenue flights Any flight that does not generate money Some are non-avoidable but it is expensive, uses fuel and produce emissions Can sometimes be reduced, or coupled with a commercial service • Fuel tankering Uses more fuel and produce more emissions© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Total costs may be decreased Presented by: Lars KORNSTAEDT A380 Operational Performance Fuel Tankering Optimization A Fresh Look Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 39
  39. 39. Content Weight Flight preparation Operational procedures Additional opportunities Conclusion© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 40
  40. 40. Conclusion • Airbus is fully committed to fuel economy since the beginning of its existence 28 October 1972: Maiden flight of the A300 1973: First energy crisis • Communications issued on a regular basis • Several brochures© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. May 1998 Oct 1998 Oct 2001 Jan 2002 Jan 2003 Oct 2004 Oct 2006 Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 41
  41. 41. Conclusion • Some opportunities have been mentioned • Be realistic to make fuel savings happen Relevant assessment of potential gains To make the right decisions • Priority depends upon cost structure and own airline policy© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 42
  42. 42. Summary of opportunities • Flight preparation • Operational procedures Optimise fuel policy FMGS intialization in accordance Optimise Computerised Flight with CFP and weather briefing Planning System Use of APU on the ground Performance retention & Taxi with one or two engine(s) recovery out Use en-route alternates (ERA) or Trade altitude for wind change Reclearance in-flight procedure Managed speed versus selected (RIF) speed Alternate airports selection Avoid route changes when possible Ensure right positioning of the© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. TOD Continuous Descent Approach Landing in CONF 3 Airbus views on fuel economy - STLB April 2007 Page 43
  43. 43. Proprietary document.By taking delivery of this Presentation (hereafter “Presentation”), you accept on behalf of your company to comply with the following. Noother property rights are granted by the delivery of this Presentation than the right to read it, for the sole purpose of information. ThisPresentation, its content, illustrations and photos shall not be modified nor reproduced without prior written consent of Airbus S.A.S. ThisPresentation and the materials it contains shall not, in whole or in part, be sold, rented, or licensed to any third party subject to payment ornot. This Presentation may contain market-sensitive or other information that is correct at the time of going to press. This informationinvolves a number of factors which could change over time, affecting the true public representation. Airbus assumes no obligation toupdate any information contained in this document or with respect to the information described herein. The statements made herein donot constitute an offer or form part of any contract. They are based on Airbus information and are expressed in good faith but no warrantyor representation is given as to their accuracy. When additional information is required, Airbus S.A.S can be contacted to provide furtherdetails. Airbus S.A.S shall assume no liability for any damage in connection with the use of this Presentation and the materials it contains,even if Airbus S.A.S has been advised of the likelihood of such damages. This licence is governed by French law and exclusive jurisdictionis given to the courts and tribunals of Toulouse (France) without prejudice to the right of Airbus to bring proceedings for infringement ofcopyright or any other intellectual property right in any other court of competent jurisdiction.

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