Case	
  study	
  -­‐	
  Project	
  “ALJOIN”	
  
Crashworthiness	
  of	
  joints	
  in	
  aluminium	
  rail	
  vehicles|	
 ...
Content	
  
• 
• 
• 
• 

Background	
  
Development	
  of	
  the	
  ALJOIN	
  Project	
  
Project	
  descrip@on	
  
Lesson...
Background	
  
•  Aluminium	
  alloys:	
  Lightweight,	
  corrosion	
  resistant,	
  weldable.	
  
•  Earliest	
  applica@...
Background	
  

The Ladbroke Grove Accident
5th October 1999, 21 fatalities and 400 injured
Background	
  
‘…the	
  aluminium	
  extrusions	
  had	
  fractured	
  
along	
  the	
  weld	
  lines	
  and	
  there	
  w...
Background	
  
• 
• 

Weld	
  unzipping	
  -­‐	
  dynamic	
  duc@le	
  tearing	
  of	
  the	
  weld	
  
metal	
  or	
  hea...
 	
  

	
  DEFINITION	
  OF	
  OBJECTIVES	
  AND	
  PARTNER	
  
SELECTION	
  
Project	
  development	
  
•  A	
  detailed	
  research	
  programme	
  of	
  work	
  was	
  necessary	
  to	
  
provide	
...
Project	
  development	
  
•  Partner	
  selec@on	
  

–  Can	
  it	
  be	
  done	
  by	
  a	
  single	
  organisa@on?
	
 ...
Project	
  development	
  
•  FP5	
  -­‐	
  FP5-­‐2002-­‐GROWTH	
  –	
  CompeUUve	
  and	
  Sustainable	
  Growth	
  
•  K...
Project	
  development	
  
Project	
  acronym:	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  ALJOIN	
  
FP:
	
  5	
  	
  
Pr...
 	
  

ALJOIN	
  PROJECT	
  -­‐	
  OVERVIEW	
  
ALJOIN	
  project	
  overview	
  
•  The	
  project	
  concept	
  cons@tuted	
  of	
  5	
  dis@nct	
  
parts:	
  
–  Mecha...
Mechanical	
  property	
  characterisa@on	
  
•  Material	
  supplier	
  partner	
  manufactured	
  
full	
  scale	
  clos...
Mechanical	
  property	
  characterisa@on	
  
Academic	
  partner	
  undertook	
  material	
  characterisa@on	
  work	
  
...
Fracture	
  mechanics	
  
PM

200
180
160
140

J (N/mm)

Sta@c	
  and	
  dynamic	
  J-­‐R	
  
curves	
  were	
  obtained	
...
Fracture	
  mechanics	
  
•  Fracture	
  mechanics	
  tests	
  
using	
  a	
  modified	
  SENB	
  
specimen	
  design	
  an...
Fracture	
  mechanics	
  
Al-­‐Mg	
  filler	
  
D=1170	
  kJ/m2	
  
T=	
  0.03	
  

Al-­‐Si	
  filler	
  
D=350	
  kJ/m2	
  ...
Full	
  scale	
  impact	
  tests	
  
lever arm

•  Dynamic	
  tear	
  tests	
  on	
  full	
  scale	
  
welded	
  extrusion...
Full	
  scale	
  impact	
  tests	
  

Laser MIG

FSW

MIG
All welds failed by weld unzipping!
Solu@on	
  approach	
  
•  What	
  mauers	
  when	
  a	
  collision	
  takes	
  place	
  is	
  whether	
  
the	
  structur...
Solu@on	
  approach	
  
•  Reducing	
  the	
  heat	
  input	
  
–  Laser	
  MIG	
  
–  FSW	
  
–  Bonded	
  joints	
  

• ...
Solu@on	
  approach	
  

FSW

MIG

Laser MIG
Failures away from weld with the exception of Laser MIG welds
Modelling	
  weld	
  failure	
  
•  Detailed	
  mechanical	
  property	
  
characterisa@on	
  was	
  used	
  for	
  
model...
Modelling	
  weld	
  failure	
  	
  
•  Modelling	
  of	
  tearing	
  test	
  –	
  Max	
  strain	
  failure	
  model	
  
Collision	
  modelling	
  
•  A	
  Finite	
  Element	
  model	
  of	
  a	
  class	
  165DMU	
  similar	
  to	
  that	
  in...
Train	
  collision	
  simula@on	
  –	
  Standard	
  weld	
  design	
  
Train	
  collision	
  simula@on	
  –	
  Standard	
  weld	
  design	
  
Train	
  collision	
  simula@on	
  –	
  modified	
  joint	
  (sec@on	
  thickening)	
  
Train	
  collision	
  simula@on	
  –	
  modified	
  joint	
  (sec@on	
  thickening)	
  
Project	
  output	
  
•  ALJOIN	
  provided	
  a	
  solu@on	
  to	
  the	
  problem	
  of	
  “weld	
  
unzipping”	
  for	
...
Lessons	
  learnt	
  
Project	
  idea	
  
Clear	
  defini@on	
  of	
  main	
  objec@ve	
  and	
  
expected	
  outcomes	
  
...
Lessons	
  learnt	
  
Project	
  idea
Clear	
  definition	
  of	
  main	
  objective	
  and	
  
expected	
  outcomes
Well	...
 	
  

THANK	
  YOU	
  
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Experience of participation in EU Funded R&D projects - ALJOIN Case Study - George Kotsikos

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Presentation 4 of 8 from Horizon 2020 for Rail event held 8th Nov 2013.
Experience of a successful previous EU R&D project under the Framework Programmes – lessons learned on how to participate effectively in EU funded R&D programmes - Case study - ALJOIN.

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Experience of participation in EU Funded R&D projects - ALJOIN Case Study - George Kotsikos

  1. 1. Case  study  -­‐  Project  “ALJOIN”   Crashworthiness  of  joints  in  aluminium  rail  vehicles|     George  Kotsikos     NewRail  |  Newcastle  University  |  UK.    
  2. 2. Content   •  •  •  •  Background   Development  of  the  ALJOIN  Project   Project  descrip@on   Lessons  learnt  
  3. 3. Background   •  Aluminium  alloys:  Lightweight,  corrosion  resistant,  weldable.   •  Earliest  applica@ons  of  aluminium  in  rail  coach  design  in  1935.   •  First  aluminium  monocoque  bodyshells  were  designed  in  the  70s  (APT,   TGV)   •  Large  closed  cell  extrusions.   –  Design  versa@lity   –  Superior  surface  finish   –  Superior  collapse  strength  and  impact  resistance  in  the  longitudinal  direc@on    
  4. 4. Background   The Ladbroke Grove Accident 5th October 1999, 21 fatalities and 400 injured
  5. 5. Background   ‘…the  aluminium  extrusions  had  fractured   along  the  weld  lines  and  there  was  a  lack   of  plas6c  deforma6on  (…)  the  structure   appeared  to  have  failed  along  the  welds   rather  than  deforming  in  a  controlled   manner’       Cullen  Report     The  catastrophic  failure  of  welds  in  this   manner  is  a  phenomenon  known  as  ‘weld-­‐ unzipping’.    
  6. 6. Background   •  •  Weld  unzipping  -­‐  dynamic  duc@le  tearing  of  the  weld   metal  or  heat  affected  zone  is  known  to  materials   engineers.   The  process  is  controlled  by:   –  –  –  –  –  •  •  Geometry  of  applied  stresses/crack  trajectory   Plas@c  deforma@on  at  the  crack  @p   Material  composi@on   Impuri@es   Microstructure   Fusion  welding    can  be  cri@cal  in  localising  failure  as  it   affects  microstructure,  mechanical  proper@es  and  can   introduce  defects.   Aluminium  alloys  are  sensi@ve  to  heat  input  introduced   by  the  fusion  welding  processes.   –  Proof  strength  of  6005A  HAZ  ~  50%  parent  plate  
  7. 7.      DEFINITION  OF  OBJECTIVES  AND  PARTNER   SELECTION  
  8. 8. Project  development   •  A  detailed  research  programme  of  work  was  necessary  to   provide  a  solu@on  to  eliminate  weld  unzipping  in  aluminium   rail  vehicles.   •  How?    (defini@on  of  intermediate  objec@ves)   –  Provide  physical  evidence  of  the  energy  absorp@on  capability  of  aluminium   alloy  welds  by  tes@ng;   –  Assess  the  adequacy  or  inadequacy  of  current  design  and  construc@on   prac@ces  of  aluminium  alloy  welds  in  the  context  of  crashworthiness   –  Inves@gate  alterna@ve  welding  techniques  and/or  joint  designs  for  improved   impact  performance  of  aluminium  alloy  joints;   –  Development  of  the  material  cons@tu@ve  modelling  for  the  parent  material   and  the  welds;   –  Numerical  modelling  of  simple  joints  subjected  to  quasi-­‐sta@c  and  dynamic   loads;   –  Develop  numerical  modelling    techniques  for  simula@on  of  crashworthiness  of   full  rail  vehicles  
  9. 9. Project  development   •  Partner  selec@on   –  Can  it  be  done  by  a  single  organisa@on?  NO   –  Wide  ranging  exper@se  required?    YES   –  Is  industry/end  user  involvement  important?  YES   •  Rail  coach  manufacturer(s)   •  Materials  supplier(s)   –  Welding/joining  specialists  required? –  Modelling  experts  required?   –  Academic  exper@se  required?   –  Specialist  test  facili@es  required          YES    YES    YES    YES      
  10. 10. Project  development   •  FP5  -­‐  FP5-­‐2002-­‐GROWTH  –  CompeUUve  and  Sustainable  Growth   •  Key  AcUon  3,    Land  Transport  and  Marine  Technologies   •  Strategic  Objec@ves   –  Improved  fuel  efficiency  and  reduced  emissions  -­‐  cukng  CO2  emissions  and   developing  and  valida@ng  zero-­‐emission  vehicles.   –  Improved  performance  -­‐  increasing  safety,  reliability,  maintainability,   availability,  operability,  energy  efficiency  and  adaptability.   –  Improved  system  compe@@veness  -­‐  reducing  both  @me  to  market  and   development  costs.     •  Priority  2:  Technology  integra@on  and  valida@on   –  Research  will  focus  on  integra@ng  and  valida@ng  six  technology  plamorms:     •  New  land  transport  vehicle  concepts;  enhanced  systems  efficiency,  Advanced  concepts   for  ships  and  vessels;  compe@@ve  shipbuilding,  Enhanced  design  and  manufacturing  for   road  vehicles,  Sustainable  and  modular  trains,  Safe,  efficient  and  environmentally   friendly  vessels  and  plamorms,  Efficient  interoperability  and  transhipment.  
  11. 11. Project  development   Project  acronym:                      ALJOIN   FP:  5     Project  Reference:    G3RD-­‐CT-­‐2002-­‐00829     Call  iden@fier:  FP5-­‐2002-­‐GROWTH   Total  Cost:  €  2,177,806   EU  Contribu@on:    €  1,200,036   Timescale:                                          08/2002  –  08/2005   Project    Partners  :                              Country                     •  D’Appolonia  SPA            I   •  NewRail  –  Newcastle  University      UK   •  Bombardier  Transporta@on      F   •  Dans@r        DK   •  The  Welding  Ins@tute  (TWI)      UK   •  Alcan        CH                  
  12. 12.     ALJOIN  PROJECT  -­‐  OVERVIEW  
  13. 13. ALJOIN  project  overview   •  The  project  concept  cons@tuted  of  5  dis@nct   parts:   –  Mechanical  characterisa@on  of  joints  (MIG,  Laser  MIG,  FSW,  bonded,   bolted)   –  Fracture  mechanics  analysis   –  Impact  tests  on  full  size  components   –  Solu@on  development  and  valida@on   –  Modelling  and  collision  simula@on  
  14. 14. Mechanical  property  characterisa@on   •  Material  supplier  partner  manufactured   full  scale  closed  cell  extrusions  for   assessment.   •  Same  extrusions  also  used  for  impact   tests.       •  MIG  and  Laser  MIG  welded  extrusions   were  produced  with  two  types  of  filler   wire;  Al-­‐Si  (exis@ng  consumable),    Al-­‐Mg   (proposed    alterna@ve  consumable).   •  Bonded    Bolted  and  FSW  extrusions  used     slightly  modified  type  of  extrusions.     MIG welds FSW
  15. 15. Mechanical  property  characterisa@on   Academic  partner  undertook  material  characterisa@on  work   •  120 300 0.2% PS 100 Parent plate hardness range (HV) Stress (MPa) Hardness (HV) 80 60 40 UTS 250 Weld metal HAZ 200 150 100 HAZ 50 20 6005T6 - 4043 filler (Al-Si) 0 6005T6 - 5356 filler (Al-Mg) PP WM Al-Si WM Al-Mg HAZ Al-Si HAZ Al-Mg 0 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Normalised distance from weld centreline •  •  Use  of  Al-­‐Mg  filler  produces  welds  with     improved  mechanical  proper@es  over  Al-­‐Si   filler   Hardness  varia@on  across  the  weld  is  similar         Material Charpy  impact   energy   (J) Parent  plate   0.73 Weld  –  (Al-­‐Si  filler) 0.32 Weld  –  (Al-­‐Mg  filler)   0.56
  16. 16. Fracture  mechanics   PM 200 180 160 140 J (N/mm) Sta@c  and  dynamic  J-­‐R   curves  were  obtained   through  SENB  tests  for     the  parent  material  and   weld  region   120 100 80 60 40 20 15mm 5mm Static Dynamic 0 0 50mm 1 2 3 Da (mm) 4 5 6
  17. 17. Fracture  mechanics   •  Fracture  mechanics  tests   using  a  modified  SENB   specimen  design  and  a  CCT   specimen  were   •  The  analysis  used  the    Energy   Dissipa6on  Rate  (EDR)   approach.     •  The  tests  provided   informa@on  such  as  tearing   resistance  index  (T)  and   cri@cal  CTOA  and  were   intended  to  aid  with   numerical  modelling  of   tearing  process  in  the  welded   aluminium  extrusions.    
  18. 18. Fracture  mechanics   Al-­‐Mg  filler   D=1170  kJ/m2   T=  0.03   Al-­‐Si  filler   D=350  kJ/m2   T=  0.011  
  19. 19. Full  scale  impact  tests   lever arm •  Dynamic  tear  tests  on  full  scale   welded  extrusions  were  carried   out  by  the  industry  partner’s   facility.       Welded Al extrusion Clamped to rigid base air cannon Test n° 61 of specimen n° 358_0005_099 /8T6/4,2/Mg/1 Date : 05/10/2005 Force 2+3 (N) Energy absorbed 2+3 (J) 3000 250000 2500 200000 2000 150000 1500 100000 1000 50000 500 0 10 20 30 40 50 -50000 60 70 80 90 0 100 -500 Displacement (mm) Energy absorbed (J) 3500 300000 Force 2_3 (N) 350000 0 projectile
  20. 20. Full  scale  impact  tests   Laser MIG FSW MIG All welds failed by weld unzipping!
  21. 21. Solu@on  approach   •  What  mauers  when  a  collision  takes  place  is  whether   the  structure  spreads  the  impact  energy  or   concentrates  it  in  a  specific  region  (the  weld  in  this   case).     •  Fusion  welding  in  aluminium  alloys  results  in  an   “undermatched  weld”.   •  The  impact  energy  in  a  structure  with  a  strength   undermatch,  may  channel  all  the  energy  to  the  weld   region.  This  will  have  to  be  taken  up  by  the  energy   dissipa@on  rate  which  implies  extensive  crack  growth.    
  22. 22. Solu@on  approach   •  Reducing  the  heat  input   –  Laser  MIG   –  FSW   –  Bonded  joints   •  Change  joint  design   –  Altering  weld  geometry  by   thickening  the  pla@ng  at  the  weld   region  
  23. 23. Solu@on  approach   FSW MIG Laser MIG Failures away from weld with the exception of Laser MIG welds
  24. 24. Modelling  weld  failure   •  Detailed  mechanical  property   characterisa@on  was  used  for   modelling  ac@vi@es.   •  Detailed  FEA  models    were   prepared  and  validated  against   component  tests.   •  Code  used  LS-­‐DYNA   •  Failure  criteria  used:   –  Maximum  strain  failure  model   –  Gurson  -­‐Tvergaard  model  
  25. 25. Modelling  weld  failure     •  Modelling  of  tearing  test  –  Max  strain  failure  model  
  26. 26. Collision  modelling   •  A  Finite  Element  model  of  a  class  165DMU  similar  to  that  involved   in  the  Ladbroke  Grove  accident  in  the  UK  was  created  (undertaken   by  research  ins@tu@on  partner  specialising  in  FEA  modelling)   •  Simula@on  of  collision  at  20m/s  (72km/h)  on  a  solid  flat  surface.     •  The  simula@on  is  repeated  with  the  new  joint  design  and   consumable  
  27. 27. Train  collision  simula@on  –  Standard  weld  design  
  28. 28. Train  collision  simula@on  –  Standard  weld  design  
  29. 29. Train  collision  simula@on  –  modified  joint  (sec@on  thickening)  
  30. 30. Train  collision  simula@on  –  modified  joint  (sec@on  thickening)  
  31. 31. Project  output   •  ALJOIN  provided  a  solu@on  to  the  problem  of  “weld   unzipping”  for  welded  aluminium  closed  cell  extrusions.     •  Contributed  to  the  development  of  two  industry  standards;   –  EN  15085  "Railway  applica@ons  -­‐  Welding  of  railway  vehicles  and   components"       –  EN  15227,  “Crashworthiness  requirements  for  railway  vehicle  bodies”   •  Contributed  to  the  enhancement  of  safety  for  rail  passengers   and  staff.   •  The  solu@on  does  not  introduce  a  significant  economic   penalty  to  industry.   •  Results  have  a  Europe  wide  (if  not  global)  impact.   •  Contributed  to  the  enhancement  of  knowledge  to  academia,   research  ins@tu@ons  and  industry  partners.  
  32. 32. Lessons  learnt   Project  idea   Clear  defini@on  of  main  objec@ve  and   expected  outcomes   Well  structured  work  programme  with   clearly  iden@fied  deliverables   Defini@on  of  partners  and  their  roles  –   include  essen@al  end-­‐users  of  the  results   Partnership  should  include  “champions”  to   promote  implementa@on  azer  project  end  
  33. 33. Lessons  learnt   Project  idea Clear  definition  of  main  objective  and   expected  outcomes Well  structured  work  programme  with   clearly  identified  deliverables Definition  of  partners  and  their  roles  – include  essential  end-­‐users  of  the  results Partnership  should  include  “champions”  to   promote  implementation  after  project  end
  34. 34.     THANK  YOU  

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