Kaohsiung Info-Transport System (KITs)


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KITs is a transport information network that encourages transportation behavior change, promotes environmental awareness and social interdependence.

Based on current transit infrastructure in Kaohsiung City, we propose a system that gathers and integrates user-generated data to track transportation usage and its effect on environment. Various applications in different scenarios are designed to engage the
general public with every one’s personal contribution to the city. The applications also focus on enabling user interaction, enhancing the influence of green commuters over personal vehicle users.

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Kaohsiung Info-Transport System (KITs)

  1. 1. KITs Kaohsiung Info-Transportation System Idea for Action Kaohsiung International Competition Bao-Wen Chen, Master of Engineering ‘11, University of Tokyo Tien Ling, Master of Architecture ‘09, Cornell University Yin-Hsuan Sung, Master of Engineering in Building and Planning ‘10, National Taiwan University
  2. 2. A ir quality is worse than ever.INTRODUCTION I f more people use buses, the environment would be better R iding a bike in this sea of and safer. But who is going to scooters, cars and buses is take the first step to make the an act of suicide. change? How can we ever reach an agreement? As the transit network is expected As the environmental crisis has As the world is becoming more Those are the questions that the to be completed in near future, begun connecting everyone’s interconnected and intelligent, how 21st century Kaohsiung City, on how do we help people change welfare and misery, how do we does Kaohsiung grasp the the way to be advanced, their transportation habits to make make people more aware that the opportunity to set a brand-new creative and international, has the city sustainable? citizens as a whole are on the trend? to answer before proceed to the same boat? future.
  3. 3. 19.6 : Light rail transit, expected in 2017 kilometers 1500 + 50 : public city bikes in operation C-Bikes in locations 43 2 : KMRT rapid transit, operating since 2008 kilometers in lines : commuters via public transportation everyday, 4.3%OBSERVATION comparing to 41.6% in Taipei City 782 motorcycles / 1000 people : highest motorcycle ownership in Taiwan 135,194 CO 23,138 NMHC 14,626 NO x 1,181 SO xannual environmental liability produced, in tons With the rapid expansion of public transportation (supply-side approach to tackling transportation issues), we usher for a new and complement paradigm in the city’s transport planning methodology, that is, demand- side approach, which has a higher benefit-cost ratio and is much more politically viable.
  4. 4. Too much information; lack of clear and legible interface Lack of website maintainanceOBSERVATION Real-time Traffic Information: lack of user / tourist friendly interface; no integration with Unnecessary plug-in requirement traffic service providers hindering novice users Real-time Bus Information: Malfunctioning. Problems of Existing Transportation Information Systems in Kaohsiung Lack of Portal Integration: Several independence Lack of User Differentiation: No context-awareness transportation websites, each with its own focus, information; user-friendliness is often low. function, and user interface. No general web portal. Lack of Social and Environmental Interaction Lack of Intermodal and Transfer Information: No integration of transfer information is provided; users Lack of Stability and Usability: Requiring plugins that are need to go through all websites to gather information. inaccessible or unnecessary; broken website contents
  5. 5. I ncorporate Information From: P resenting Information For:DIAGNOSIS Commuters Urban Planners Transport Planners Environmentalists G athering Information From: Tourists One Single Portal for Integrated Traffic Information ACCESSIBILITY: use intuitive CONTEXT-AWARENESS: ORIGIN AND DESTINATION: MAP-BASED: use visual online interaction to minimize personalized information for provide travel information interface on PC, mobile phone difficulties for public access every user, create user group based on user’s point of view or LED signboard to convey connection information effectively
  6. 6. Google PowerMeter, 2009 IBM Smarter Planet, 2008 MIT Trash Track, 2009CASE STUDY The technology is here.The people are ready. Trash Track aims to get people thinking about what The time is now. they throw away. The project will monitor the patterns and costs of IBM proposes more urban disposal and integrated, information create awareness of the oriented systems. By impact of trash on our making existing systems environment - revealing smarter, IBM believes that the last journey of our roads can be less everyday objects. It aims congested; food can be to raise awareness of "If you cannot measure it, safer and traceable; water how garbage impacts you cannot improve it." — Lord Kelvin can be cleaner and more the environments. The available; and healthcare project hopes to Google believes that letting people know energy can be more effective, less promote behavioral consume information will help them make smarter expensive. change and encourage choices, save energy and money. people to make more A 5 to 15 percent of savings on energy use is sustainable decisions. anticipated. Academic, commercial, and government institutions all around the world are investing in the idea of a more sensible , intelligent , and efficient city to help reach a sustainable future . PowerMeter: http://www.google.org/powermeter Smart Planet: IBM.com/SmarterPlanet Trash Track: http://senseable.mit.edu/trashtrack/
  7. 7. The Copenhagen Wheel, 2009 Self-Diagnostic Travel DiaryCASE STUDY More than a way to get from A to B. System,University of Tokyo, The Copenhagen Wheel aims to transform bicycle 2008 use in Denmark’s largest city through promoting A GPS mobile-phone-based travel diary survey urban sustainability and building new connections system and a Web GIS-based activity-travel between the city’s cyclists. In this work, bicycles simulator were developed as a communication tool become smart mobile sensing devices that map the aiming to encourage behavioral change in people’s real-time flo w of people and environmental transportation choice. conditions in Copenhagen. This is achieved through strategically placing small sensors on bicycles to gather information as people ride through the city. This data then powers applications of benefit KITs to citizens, city municipalities and researchers interested in understanding more about city dynamics. Information technology, put together with spatial information and socio-economic characteristics, can disclose what might otherwise be invisible to the people in the way that builds awareness and drives green change. The Copenhagen Wheel http://senseable.mit.edu/copenhagenwheel/ Self-Diagnostic Travel Diary System http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jscejd/64/1/55/_pdf/-char/ja/
  8. 8. Disinvestment of Road Infrastructure Improved Public Transport / Accessibility Free Bus Ticket (intervention) Toll Road /Congestion Pricing Taxation of Cars and Fuel Transit Fare Subsidy Traffic Feedback Program Traffic Restriction Educational Workshop Telecommuting Marketing Campaign Park and Ride School Education ECONOMIC MORAL Incentive Parking ControlKEY CONCEPT Speed Limit Carpooling Incentive monetary penalty or reward educational effect : people don’t do toward certain behaviors what THEY consider wrong SOCIAL Incentive TRANSPORTATION DEMAND influence effect : people do what Fellow Influence Personal Conversation OTHERS consider to be right MANAGEMENT MEASURES Cultural / Social Preference by incentive types Ignored by most programs but emphasized by KITs The problem of choosing between public transportation and private vehicle is known as a social dilemma, which highlights the nature of the environmental crisis. KITs differentiates itself by focusing and innovating primarily on social incentive, as well as moral incentive , which addresses the transportation issue at its core in a more efficient , practical , and politically viable way .
  9. 9. Number of Motorists Current Situation: yKEY CONCEPT Number of Motorists exceeds Transit Users x+y=c KITs total number of commuters KITs Perspective: Encouraging the use of Public Transit x Number of Transit Users Sustainable Balance of Transportation Choices by Commuters
  10. 10. The Goal of Traveling in the City: In a sustainable transport system, we define people’s goal of traveling as: to move from the origin to the destination to access their socio- economic activities (personal goal) while maintain the environmental quality to pass this right onto future generations (joint goal). The Increment of The Diminution ofKEY CONCEPT Social Interdependence Social Interdependence With this two-goal structure, each individual shares a There could be no interdependence when individuals perceive common goal. The outcome (utility and disutility) of that the achievement of their own goals is unrelated to the goal each individual’s choice is affected by each other’s achievement of others. As a result, in thinking of changing to action, and this means social interdependence exists public transportation for the environment, people tend to adopt in transportation choice. wait-and-see strategy, which corresponds to the low transit use rate in Kaohsiung even after lots of improvement has been done. Social Interdependence and Cooperative Behavior : Positive social interdependence exists when there is a positive correlation among individuals’ goal attainments, also called cooperative social interdependence. Negative social interdependence shows significance when there is a negative correlation among individuals’ goal attainments, also known as competitive social interdependence. KITs’ 5 Principles to Build Social Interdependence: 1. A Smarter Way of Using Existing Information 2. Extending the Influence of Pro-environmental Travelers 3. Allowing Comparison of Individual Environmental Performance 4. Actionable Data & Information Transparency 5. Ubiquitous Display
  11. 11. INDIVIDUAL Individual - Social 1 interpersonal comparison of transportation choice and environmental contribution SOCIAL Individual - Vehicle 2 (non-transit modes: by bicycle, scooter, car or on 4 foot) self-diagnosis of travel behaviors, including Social - Vehicle personal calorie consumption, accumulated (transit modes: buses, trains) increasing kilometers traveled, environmental contribution, sociability on transportation, in-car social time wasted stuck in traffic learning channels, GPS smart phones 3 Social - connecting other commuters, comparison and display of environmental 5 contribution by transit commuters v.s.STRATEGY Individual - Infrastructure Infrastructure personal vehicle commuters, real-time tourist information port where does everyone go in the city now? display of common destination of personal memory express service where is the vigor of the city at this commuters and nearby attractions moment? is there any activity about to cause danger? how should the authority respond to people’s collective behavior? Infrastructure - Vehicle VEHICLE 6 INFRASTRUCTURE parking spaces management, bicycle counters and air pump facility, charging station for electric vehicles Individual, Social, Infrastructure KITs proposes the information and Vehicle: these four conceptual interaction between the components components define the basic and service packages that can be objects of traffic and commute in a used from end users to city . administrators.
  12. 12. APPLICATION KITs KITs Scenarios: KITs Suggestion TM KITs Community TM KITs Simple TM KITs Action TM KITs Health TM KITs Cityscope TM KITs Planning TM I Kaohsiung TM
  13. 13. A shley wakes up at 8am in the morning. On Google Calendar, she finds out she has a meeting with classmates at 10 am at National By Car NUK@ Nanzih District University of Kaohsiung. 14.0 km, 40 mins 21.3 km, 46 mins She enters NUK as the destination and Google Maps 15.6 km, 51 mins provides transportation options, includes modes, time, and routes. By Public Transit Metro Red Line, 35 mins Bus Red 56, 15 mins However, Ashley is not satisfied. KITs combinesAPPLICATION KITs existing information and provides other useful Walking suggestions to help her with the choice. 14.0 km, 2 hrs 10 mins (out of time) You save 500 grams of GHG emission*, and consume 400 Kcal home @ Sanmin District Travel Information Provided by Google Maps You save 500 grams of GHG emission, and consume 300 Kcal** KITs Choice You save 300 grams of GHG emission, equals to 1/20 tree-year You produce 1 kilograms of GHG emission You produce 1.5 kilograms of GHG emission Modal Comparison of Environmental Liability Provided by KITs Scenario 1.0 Ashley is a 19-year-old college student who TM lives in Sanmin District, downtown Kaohsiung. INDIVIDUAL SOCIAL KITs Suggestion Like most her peers, Ashley relies on her Mashing up with Google Maps’ functions scooter for transportation, while she bikes and Modal Comparison of Environmental uses transit occasionally. To communicate with *emission is compared to user’s most common Liability friends, she uses free web applications online, used mode, in this case, scooter Smart Suggestion (considering weather and a smart phone to receive messages **context-aware calculation, based on wherever she goes. personal physiological information and personal health)
  14. 14. A from s Ashley is about to go out, she gets a message .... DID YOU KNOW? - Kaohsiung has the highest ownership of scooters in Taiwan WE ARE FALLING BEHIND! - BoAi Neighborhood (in yellow) has made the most green contribution in the past 7 days KITs - Scooters and motorcycles have and currently holds the 1st place in our the biggest contribution to air green community race. Your pollution in our city neighborhood is currently 3rd. - In Ecology, “Sustainability” - YOU CAN HELP! It is easy and healthy, means to preserve our just follow the transportation environment for the future mode! KITs generation Choice - DID YOU KNOW how the city Click to start accumulate provides sustainable your contribution to the transportation? Click to find out community and your own health!APPLICATION Your current process: 10% (willingness counts!) Please connect to a C-Bike or City Bus to complete your contribution! KITs Community Collective Goal* and Comparison Congratulation! This is the 3rd time you surpassed Emily this week. Click to compare with other friends! KITs Interpersonal Comparison Ashley synchronizes the information with her smart Scenario 1.2 phone. Following suggestions from KITs, she also INDIVIDUAL SOCIAL KITs Community TM checks out her community’s environmental “Did You Know” – Daily Environmental Fact contribution. In one click, she gets to know that not *One barrier to fighting global warming is that only she helps her neighborhood by riding a bike, but people have no way to know what influence Smart Suggestion also she surpasses her friends in green contribution. they create. They tend to think the task is that of Community Building – Collective Goal the government’s. Through KITs Community™, Interpersonal Comparison Kaohsiung City’s reduction goal can be assigned to each responsible unit and then to each person, like Ashley in this scenario.
  15. 15. KITs builds secured personal transportation identity This is your transportation footprint this month. You have generated 62 trips in total. by assigning encoded random number to a user The Top 3 choices are: Scooter (48.4%), Bicycle (16.1%), Taxi (9.7%) every time when he or she uses transportation tools and connects to KITs. Click to improve your environmental contribution by Once the personal identity is built, users will have setting goals for the next month access to their personal traveling history, sorted by Personal Environmental Footprint transportation modes, time spent and wasted, and traveling costs, etc. KITs emphasizes the importance of environmentalAPPLICATION awareness. Users now are able to know their Kaohsiung City Bike environmental footprint, and are encouraged to make more responsible transportation choices. Kaohsiung City Bus Kaohsiung Mass Rapid Transit KITs enables transportation service providers to adopt a SMART PRICE system. Based on KITs’ information and carefully devised formulas, KITs can Kaohsiung Water Taxi decide when to give a coupon to a specific transit user who is about to change to private vehicles, or a specific motorist who is considering making transition to public transit, thus to encourage the use Chinese Petroleum Corp. of transit systems. Taiwan High Speed Rail KITs Simple TM Scenario 2.0 Users with a smart phone can enjoy more real-time information feedback. Furthermore, people can also easily INDIVIDUAL VEHICLE KITs Simple TM access KITs through the Internet and other display Payment Systems Integration - facilities without a smart phone at hand, such as c-bike Taxi, C-Bike, KRT, Bus, and Gasoline stations, and KMRT ticket selling machines. The main Secured Unique Identity -Traveling Record, purpose of KITs Simple™ is to build personal Environmental Footprint -Individual transportation profile, provide transit coupons and let Due Diligence users know their environmental footprint on Kaohsiung. Fare Coupon Calculator
  16. 16. H i, this is Love River No. 3, currently ranking at the14th in green Congratulation! You have just achieved this week’s contribution *. I has saved Kaohsiung exercise goal. 1028 kilograms of Green House Gases, equals to 10 tree-years. Can you help me contribute more? I am only 16 km Click to add to facebook away from the Top 10! and let your friends know how healthy you are KITs Health TMAPPLICATION Currently, there are 152 C-Bikes (+5 this hour) running in the city Process: 99% (0.1 km left, total time 29 mins) Status: Calculating today’s contribution... This is an Air-Pump Station. The next one is 2 km away. Process: 30% (7.3 km left, total time 11 mins) Real-time vehicle counters Status: Searching for nearby KITs ports... and censors KITs Action TM Extra Functions of C-Bike Stations provided by KITs Scenario 3.0 Scenario 3.2 Ashley accesses the c-bike by KITs Simple™, c-bike activates KITs Action™ to start accumulating KITs Action TM KITs Health TM kilometers for community goal achievement. At the same INDIVIDUAL VEHICLE Personification of C-Bikes time, it also activates KITs Health™ to add calories Personal Health Management - burned to personal health profile. When Ashley arrives at *Ranking is determined by real-time mileage Calorie Burned & Goal Achievement NUK, she realizes that, in addition to helping her and emission saving by C-Bikes. We personify Real-time street side Bike Counter community, she also fulfills her weekly exercise goal. c-bikes by naming it after its original station, Air Pump marking the distance it has traveled. A determined C-Bike rider may pick the same bike and work on its contribution.
  17. 17. Real-time vehicle counters and censors The number of all modes of transport in system, creating how much environmental L liability ocal Residents: Wow, now that I see the simulation, I can see how Interactive information center this projects proposes to make the providing KITs Suggestion™ service to passengers neighborhood space better. The cooling effect brought by the green canopy KITs Cityscope™ providing 3D must be great! But I have some visualization of the future of the suggestions to make, too. Better now spot, envisioned by planning and submit my opinion to ! developments KITs Scenario 4.0 Urban planners often face the difficulty to communicate planning visions with citizens, and INDIVIDUAL VEHICLE KITs Cityscope TM local residents in the city sometimes lack the awareness of future planning moves. Using existing Environmental Footprint roadside mini-travel information stand, KITs Cityscope™ Citywide Tourist Information provides 3-D visualization of the future and progress of every INFRA-Visualization of Communication affected spots of the plan, easily accessible to the public. STRUCTURE Transport and travel information thus integrates with future planning, and the community’s consensus of city improvement as a whole.
  18. 18. KITs Green Policies Protecting the environment is every citizen’s Total Recycling responsibility. As KITs advocates for Electronics create gigantic amount of waste. sustainable development and green practice, KITs takes this into account. Except for we make no compromise over pursuing the recycling worn out components, KITs will also most environmental-friendly design and work. require manufacturers to follow the principle: Therefore, we have 3 basic insistence: using at least 15% of recycled material. Clean Energy Energy Efficiency Energy consumption is KITs’ main concern, With clean energy source still not able to Kaohsiung’s weather is extremely suitable for replace all of our consumption, KITs will work exploiting solar energy and wind power. In KITs, hard to improve energy efficiency. Here is theAPPLICATION every information display and data center will be goal: Improving energy efficiency 10% every equipped with either of the two technology. This can year. reduce KITs’ carbon footprint for about 30%. Green Indices* Click to see why and how you can help put Kaohsiung to a higher position! Rotterdam 69 78 68 58 62 82 Kaohsiung 65 54 70 45 70 47 or Click to see a video showing what people do to Hong Kong 76 35 65 67 66 78 protect the environment. TM KITs Global Scenario 5.0 One way to motivate the public is to introduce INFRA- competition: to show how Kaohsiung compares to top SOCIAL KITs Global TM global cities in terms of ecology contribution. By STRUCTURE International city comparison analyzing the different performance of major cities Environmental Indicators worldwide, our city could learn to do better one step at a KITs Green Policies time. KITs Global™ provides the opportunity for the people to learn from excellent cases all over the world, *Global Standard from EU andJapan would be and at the same time build up our consensus of adapted as environmental evaluation environmental awareness.
  19. 19. U rban Planner: according to the road usage pattern, Click to open transportation data, road usage and design some of the bike lanes are regulations not fully utilized. Is it because they are too close to major traffic? How should we integrate C-Bike or Click to see local and city buses? Should we responses and complains propose more C-Bike Stations in for current urban space neighborhood parks since people love to bike there?APPLICATION Long-term transportation system data, pattern and analysis Real-time transportation usage feedback and forecast Aiming towards a compact city, KITs changes the way urban KITs PlanningTM planners and government authorities gather information of transportation and urban activities. Providing real-time feedback of traffic pattern and user information, KITs has the potential to be an important tool in urban planning. Scenario 6.0 Transportation is not merely a tool for people to get around; it also INFRA- provides the sense of orientation, identification and connection, VEHICLE KITs Planning TM paves the stage for communal and social interaction. By analyzing STRUCTURE Feedback application traffic information, KITs becomes the best tool for urban planners Data management to see how the transport system functions in the city. As new Traffic pattern analysis transit networks join existing infrastructures, KITs Planning TM monitors the traffic usage and opens up new planning possibilities. Should the roads be widen up or narrowed down? Should the bike lanes cover more areas? How to optimized the efficiency of traffic?
  20. 20. A Mother-to-be: Somebody is doing careless driving again! This happens too often in this neighborhood. Is there anything to do to stop this? More surveillance camera or a lower Local Resident: Wow, I didn’t speed limit? I’d like to send some words to know that Kaohsiung City has Ashley: Kaohsiung is becoming done so much to improve our KITs and see what others think. more and more beautiful. Moreover, living environment! she is performing better than Taipei, Hong Kong, and other global cities!APPLICATION Information Transparency makes people aware of what is happening around and the city’s response, making governance more open and democratic. Live! 3,864 ( 102) 25,298 (+5) 3,966 25,293 Thump up or thump down? Click to vote for your favorite policy Live! We are the leading 256 (+12) building in waste 244 We love Kaohsiung! management! What do you say? Click to leave a response, question or comment. 2,562 (-30) 2592 Scenario 7.0 Kaohsiung is a young and vigorous city, requiring a I Kaohsiung creative approach to address her future. Transportation is Open Governance - currently one of the most important urban issues, INDIVIDUAL SOCIAL Effective Communication through Internet nevertheless there are different challenges that the city Leave Your Thoughts - would face. Being an information infrastructure, KITs sets About Anything, at Anytime, Anywhere up a platform where smart, fast and interactive solutions INFRA- could take place. By arousing social interdependence and VEHICLE awareness, KITs helps ensure Kaohsiung’s continuing STRUCTURE success toward the future.
  21. 21. R eplacing one single scooter trip with bicycle trip can also make a difference! W e all live in Kaohsiung. WePERSPECTIVE are on the same boat. I want to tell all my friends to join the movement. T he less scooters, the more the bicycles; After all, nobody ity with social want to breath the polluted air. When people make the change to interdependence: T his bicycle trip can help public transportation and bicycles, my community reach air quality much better, and the The Collective Awareness for the green goal. I feel streets become safer, too! Sustainable Development much healthier, too! In a sustainable development, KITs considers the public awareness as the most important factor for facilitating its policies. Our objective is to shape a sustainable Kaohsiung; our approach is building awareness, and our tool is information and communication technology, along with high priority on spatial and social aspects. By building social connections, we build awareness, not the seemingly never-ending construction of a transport network.By making the city smarter and more intelligent, we allow people to interact with the city by perceiving the environment, and listening to what needs to be done. picture source: http://speedbug.pixnet.net/blog/post/21900123