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adjective phrase
adjective phrase
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adjective phrase
adjective phrase
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adjective phrase

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  • 1. GROUP PRESENTATION Adjective Phrases
  • 2. GROUP 03
    • Phạm Thị Thu Trang- structure
    • Trần Thị Thanh- Complementary adj
    • Nguyễn Thị Dịu- Noun pre modifier & Cs
    • Nguyễn Thị Hà- Postpositive & NP head
    • Phạm Thị Trang- Verbless Adj clause &
    • Exclamatory
    • Trần Thị Phương- The head
  • 3. CONTENT Adjective phrase Structure The head Syntactic functions
  • 4. INTRODUCTION What are Adjectives and the Adjective phrases? An adjective may be a word or group word with the same meaning Adjective phrases are defined as phrases in which an adjective functions as the head of the phras e Example s : 1. Susan is clever 2. The doctor is very late 3. My sister is fond of animals
  • 5. A. STRUCTURE
  • 6. ♦♦♦ Adverb modifier ( or premodification): modifying, describing or qualifying constituents which precede the head ♦♦♦ The head: which is an Adj or participle serving as the focus of the Phrase ♦♦♦ Cadj ( post modification): contituent which follows head and completes the meaning implied by the head
  • 7. THE TABLE SHOW THE STRUCTURE OF ADJECTIVE PHRASE
  • 8. EXAMPLES OF THE ADJ ECTIVE PHRASE S
    • 1 ) Premodifier
    • Partly very , so , extremely , too
    • => Form is Adverb and Adverb Phrase
    • 2) Head
    • Happy , excited , sweet , worry , cloudy
    • => Form is Adjective
    • 3) Postmodifier
    • Indeed inspirit for his age tobe true enough to me
    • Form is Adverb , Prepositional Phrase , Infinitive Clause
  • 9. Complementation Infinitive phrase That clause _ing clause _PP clause
  • 10. ADJECTIVE COMPLEMENT
    • An adjective complement is a clause or phrase that adds to the meaning of an adjective or modifies it. The adjective complement always follows the adjective it complements and it is a noun clause or a prepositional phrase
  • 11.
    • 1)_ing clause : verb in adj clause shows V_ing
    • Ex1: When summer comes, students are busy preparing for the exam.
    • Ex2: “Harry Porter” story is worth reading
    • 2) _PP clause : verb in adj clause is a prepositional phrase (pp)
    • Ex1: We were shocked by the news.
    • Ex2:The child was eager for Christmas to arrive.
    ADJECTIVE COMPLEMENT
  • 12.
    • 3) to Vinf_ clause : Adj clause has the Verb be + adj + inf complement
    • Ex1: Retailers seem eager to promote sales.
    • Ex2: I was surprised to see him doing that.
    • 4) That clause : adj + that clause, when you want to comment a fact
    • Ex1:It seems sad that the blue whale is becoming extinct.
    • Ex2: It is important that she is punctual.
    ADJECTIVE COMPLEMENT
  • 13. B. SYNTACTIC FUNCTIONS
  • 14. SYNTACTIC FUNCTIONS Syntactic functions Complement subject postpositive NP head Verbless adj clause Exclamatory adj sentence Noun pre-modifier
  • 15. ♦ Noun pre-modifier • adjectives are placed before nouns • adjectives are attributive when they premodify nouns * eg : a new car AdjP NP     * eg :this beautiful girl AdjP NP Syntactic Function of Adjectives
  • 16. Syntactic Function of Adjectives ♦ Subject complement • S + to be/ linking verbs + adj ( Cs) Eg: the book is impressive Np Cs what he said is wrong Np Cs ♦ the function of adjectives are predicative
  • 17. POSTPOSITIVE 1. DEFINITION: An adjective is postpositive when it comes after the noun it modifies
  • 18. CASES OF POSTPOSITIVE
    • 1.Reduced as relative clause
    • Eg: 1.He is a man greedy of flame
    • 2.A room full of people
    • 2.Indefinite pronouns ending in : _body ; _one; _thing ; _where
    • Eg : There is nothing special
  • 19. CASES OF POSTPOSITIVE
    • 3.A few adjective change meaning when they are after noun phrase
    • Comon : elect; proper
    • Eg: the present elect the City of London proper
    • 4.In some nouns (legal), adjective are compulsory after the noun
    • Eg: attorney general , body politic , court martial ,heir apparent , notary public , postmaster general
  • 20.
    • 5 .A few a-adjective :
    • a blaze; a fload; a fraid; a ghast; a lert; a like; a live; a sleep; a verse; a wake; aware; a bsent; aplenty
    • Some others :Present; concerned; involved; galore;   Unspoken , immemorial; payable
    • 6 .some postposed adjective _able; _ible retain the basic meaning
    CASES OF POSTPOSITIVE
  • 21.
    • 7.Noun phrases are indefinite, not specific
    • Eg:A man usually intelligent will sometimes stupid
    • Polices angry do not arrest a thief
    • If adjective phrases are complements, the whole of an adjective must be after noun phrase
    • The boys easiest to teach were in my class (right)
    • The easiest to teach boys were in my class (correct)
    CASES OF POSTPOSITIVE
  • 22. 8.Superlative construction Eg: the smallest quantity imaginable The lowest price possible The best hotel valuable 9. Measures: a river two hundred miles long a road fifty feet wide a man eighty-five years old a bulding ten storeys high CASES OF POSTPOSITIVE
  • 23. 10.Some idioms : The theatre royal The princess royal For time immemorial By all means possible Note: an adjective modified by enough , too, so the modified adjectives can not be separated from its complement
  • 24. HEAD OF NOUN PHRASE
    • Most commonly,such adjective personal reference:
    • Eg: The rich built many house for the poor
    • The rich = rich people
    • The poor = poor people
    • The extremely old need a great deal of attention
    • the extremely old = extremely old people
    • note :adjectives functioning as noun phrase heads generally require a definite determiner if they are conjoined
  • 25. HEAD OF NOUN PHRASE Denoting nationalities Eg: You British and you French ought to be allies Superlatives Eg: The lastest is that he is going to run for election
  • 26. HEAD OF NOUN PHRASE Singular concord Some adjectives can function as noun-phrase Heads when they have abstract reference adverbs superlatives
  • 27. VERBLESS ADJECTIVE CLAUSE
    •  What is verbless clause? ->Verbless clauses are clauses in which the verb (usually a form of to be) and sometimes other elements have been omitted or deleted.
    •  Eg1: John believes the prisoner innocent.
    • ~ John believes the prisoner to be innocent.
    •  Eg2: Nice to see you ~ It’s nice to see you.
  • 28. VERBLESS ADJECTIVE CLAUSE
    • I) An adjective ( alone or as head of an adjective phrase) can function as verbless clause. The clause is mobile, though it usually precedes or follows the subject of the superordinate clause.
    • Eg3: ( By then) nervous , the man opened the letter.
    • Verbless Clause Superordinate Clause
    • The man, (by then) nervous, opened the letter.
    • The man opened the letter, (by then) nervous.
  • 29. VERBLESS ADJECTIVE CLAUSE II) THE IMPLIED SUBJECT OF THE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE
    •  To be usually the subject of the sentence.
    •  Eg 4. I see the boy , who is blind.
    • ≈ The boy whom I see is blind.
    • But we do not have: I see the boy , blind.
    •  Can be other than the subject of the sentence if the
    • clause contains additional clause constituents.
    •  Eg 5. She glanced with disgust at the car , quiet (now) in her daughter‘s lap.
  • 30. VERBLESS ADJECTIVE CLAUSE II) THE IMPLIED SUBJECT OF THE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE
    •  Can be the whole of the superordinate clause.
    •  Eg 6 . Stranger , it was she who initiated divorce proceedings.
    • ≈ That it was she who initiated divorce
    • proceedings is strange .
  • 31.
    •  We can use a corresponding adverb to replace the
    • adjective in this case, as with strangely for strange.
    • Strangely , it was she who initiated divorce proceedings.
    •  The adjective refers to the subject without explicit reference to the action, and unless otherwise stated, the characterization is only temporary in its application.
    • Nervous, the man opened the letter. ( connected with the action)
    • Always nervous, the man opened the letter . ( not connected with the action, the man’s nervousness becomes a permanent characteristic)
  • 32. CONTIGENT ADJECTIVE CLAUSE
    • 1. WHAT IS CONTINGENT ADJECTIVE CLAUSE?
    • A contingent adjective clause expresses the circumstance or condition under which what is said in the superordinate clause applies. A subordinator is often present but can be omitted.
    • Eg 7 : Enthusiastic , they make good students
    • (=When enthusiastic,…)
    • Eg 8: When ripe , these apples are sweet.
    subordinator subordinator
  • 33.
    • 2. THE IMPLIED SUBJECT OF THE CONTIGENT ADJECTIVE CLAUSE IS NORMALLY THE SUBJECT OF THE SUPERORDINATE CLAUSE, BUT IT CAN ALSO BE THE OBJECT.
    • E.g 9: We can drink it hot
    • E.g 10: You must eat it when fresh
    • 3. THE IMPLIED SUBJECT CAN BE THE WHOLE OF THE SUPERORDINATE CLAUSE.
    • E.g 11: If ( it is) possible, the dog should be washed every day.
    CONTIGENT ADJECTIVE CLAUSE
  • 34. EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE SENTENCE
    • An adjective as head of an adjective phrase or as its sole realization can be an exclamation:
    • E.g 12: How good of you!
    • E.g 13: How wonderful!
    • E.g 14: Excellent!
    • E.g 15: Good!
  • 35. C. THE HEAD
  • 36. Syntactic classification of adjs
  • 37. CENTRAL
    •  central = both attributive and predicative
    • eg: a (1) lazy student-> the student is (2) lazy
    • attributive predicative
    • the (1) blue sea -> the sea is (2) blue
    • attributive predicative
    • note: (1) attributive position
    • (2) predicative position
  • 38. ATTRIBUTIVE ONLY
    •  Adjectives which are restricted to attributive position do not characterize the referent of the noun directly
    • eg.  A small businessman
    • -> a businessman whose business is small
    • -> not a businessman is small
    •  Note:
    • words with strongly emotive value:
    •  poor man, my dear lady, wretched lady…
  • 39. ATTRIBUTIVE ONLY
    • Characterize the referent of the noun directly
    • Eg:
    • Distant hills
    • a complete chapter
    • a heavy bag
    • a social survey
    • an old man
    • Do not characterize the referent of the noun directly
    • Distant relatives
    • a complete idiot
    • a heavy smoker
    • A social animal
    • an old friend
    • Inherent adjs
    • Non-inherent adjs
  • 40. ATTRIBUTIVE ONLY
  • 41. INTENSIFYING ADJECTIVES  Emphasizers:  have a general heightening effect on the noun and convey speaker’s attitude toward the referent eg. Utter despair, pure bliss, a real hero, a certain winner…  Amplifiers:  denote the upper extreme of the scale  are central(inherent) eg. A complete victory ->the victory was complete  are attributive only(non-inherent) eg. A complete idiot ( not the idiot is complete )  Notes: mere, sheer, utter (always attributive only)
  • 42. LIMITER ADJECTIVES
    •  Particularize the reference of the noun
    • eg. the main topic, the only person, the precise reason , etc….
    • Note: a certain person
    • a limiter -> a particular person
    • a certain winner
    • an intensifier-> a sure winner
  • 43. RELATED TO ADVERBIALS
    •  adjs that are attributive only can be related to adverbials.
    • eg. my former friend ~ formerly my friend
    •  adjs premodify agentive nouns  have a relationship to the verb base
    • eg. a hard worker ~ a worker who works hard .
    •  the implied process can be associated with an inanimate object.
    • eg. a fast car ~ a car that one can drive fast
  • 44. DENOMINAL ADJECTIVES
    •  are derived from nouns and attributive only
    • eg. A mathematical puzzle (a puzzle based on mathematics )
    • a criminal law (a law concerning crime)
    •  Note:
    •  a criminal law ~ a law seems criminal
    • -> a central adjective
    •  denominal # nominal adjs
    • eg. The French are noted for their wines.
    • The French people are noted for their wines.
  • 45. PREDICATIVE ONLY
    • Eg. Children were asleep . (not asleep children)
    • S V Cs
    •  Adjectives which are restricted to predicative position refer to condition rather than to characterize
    •  Some group of adjs must take complementation: afraid(that, of, about); fond(of); conscious(that, of) etc…
    • Eg. Jean is keen on maths .
    • S V Cs
  • 46. PREDICATIVE ONLY
    •  Some of the common predicative only adjectives in English are:
    • ablaze alive unaware
    • abreast alone
    • afire aloof
    • afraid ashamed
    • aghast asleep
    • aglow awake
    • alert aware
    • alike fond
  • 47. Thank you for your attention!

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