Adverbial: Adjuncts, Conjuncts, Disjuncts

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All about Adverbial and details of its three sub-concepts.

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Adverbial: Adjuncts, Conjuncts, Disjuncts

  1. 1. E_English Grammar Course Unit 7 Lecture 7 - Adverbials
  2. 2. Issues 1. Units realizing adverbial functions 2. Classes of adverbials 3. Adjuncts 4. Disjuncts 5. Conjuncts
  3. 3. 1/7 1 Units realizing adverbial functions Realization of adverbials Adverb phrases Finite clause Noun phrases Non-finite clause Prepositional phrases Verbless clause
  4. 4. 2/7 1 Units realizing adverbial functions Realization of adverbials Adverb phrases Finite clause E.g.: I have never been there. Noun phrases Non-finite clause Prepositional phrases Verbless clause
  5. 5. 3/7 1 Units realizing adverbial functions Realization of adverbials Adverb phrases Noun phrases Prepositional phrases Finite clause E.g.: I saw her last week. Non-finite clause Verbless clause
  6. 6. 4/7 1 Units realizing adverbial functions Realization of adverbials Adverb phrases Finite clause Noun phrases Non-finite clause Prepositional phrases E.g.: She sat in aclausecorner. Verbless dark
  7. 7. 5/7 1 Units realizing adverbial functions Realization of adverbials Adverb phrases Finite clause E.g.: When I came to the club, I saw James sitting alone Noun phrases Non-finite clause at the window table. Prepositional phrases Verbless clause
  8. 8. 6/7 1 Units realizing adverbial functions Realization of adverbials Adverb phrases Finite clause Noun phrases Non-finite clause Prepositional phrases infinitive He plays to win. Verbless-ed participle clause -ing participle Seeing Tom, she smiles. Whenever left alone, he cried.
  9. 9. 7/7 1 Units realizing adverbial functions Realization of adverbials Adverb phrases Finite clause Noun phrases Non-finite clause Prepositional phrases Verbless clause E.g.: The baby was playing, unaware of the danger.
  10. 10. 1/7 2 Classes of Adverbials ADVERBIALS ADJUNCTS DISJUNCTS CONJUNCTS Integrated in clause structure Peripheral in clause structure
  11. 11. 2/7 2 Classes of Adverbials ADVERBIALS ADJUNCTS 1. can’t appear initially in a negative declarative clause. DISJUNCTS E.g. Quickly, they didn’t leave home. CONJUNCTS
  12. 12. 3/7 2 Classes of Adverbials ADVERBIALS ADJUNCTS 2. can be contrasted with another DISJUNCTS adverbial in an alternative interrogation (as focus of clause CONJUNCTS interrogation) E.g. Does he write to his parents because he misses them, or only because he wants some money?
  13. 13. 4/7 2 ADVERBIALS Classes of Adverbials ADJUNCTS3. can be contrasted with another adverbial in alternative negation DISJUNCTS (as focus of clause negation) E.g. We didn’t hate him because of CONJUNCTS his appearance, but because of his bad behavior.
  14. 14. 5/7 2 ADVERBIALS Classes of Adverbials ADJUNCTS DISJUNCTS 1. can appear initially before a negative clause in most cases E.g.: Naturally, he didn’t come. CONJUNCTS (disjunct) Therefore, he couldn’t come. (conjunct)
  15. 15. 6/7 2 ADVERBIALS Classes of Adverbials ADJUNCTS DISJUNCTS CONJUNCTS 2. cannot be contrasted with another adverbial in alternative interrogation. 3. cannot be focus of clause negation
  16. 16. 7/7 2 ADVERBIALS Classes of Adverbials ADJUNCTS Can serve as a response to an Y-N DISJUNCTS question. E.g.: A: Will he be there? B: Yes, probably. CONJUNCTS
  17. 17. 1/21 3 Adjuncts SYNTACTIC FEATURES OF ADJUNCTS 1. Adjuncts can come within the scope of predication pro-form or predication ellipsis. E.g.: John greatly admires Bob, and so does Mary.  John greatly admires Bob, and Mary greatly admires Bob.
  18. 18. 2/21 3 Adjuncts SYNTACTIC FEATURES OF ADJUNCTS 2. Adjuncts can be the focus of limiter adverbials such as “only”. E.g.: They only want the car for an hour (for an hour not for longer).
  19. 19. 3/21 3 Adjuncts SYNTACTIC FEATURES OF ADJUNCTS 3. Adjuncts can be the focus of additive adverbials such as “also”. E.g.: They will also meet afterwards. 4. Adjuncts can be the focus of a cleft sentence. E.g.: It was because of his injury that Mary helped Tony.
  20. 20. 4/21 3 Adjuncts ADVERB PHRASES AS ADJUNCTS 1. Can constitute a comparative construction E.g.: John speaks English more fluently than his brother does. 2. Have premodifying “however” E.g.: However strongly you feel about it, you should be cautious in the way you talk.
  21. 21. 5/21 3 Adjuncts ADVERB PHRASES AS ADJUNCTS 3. Have premodifying “how” E.g.: How often does she wash her hair? How carelessly he drives! 4. Have premodifying “so” (+ inversion) E.g.: So monotonously did he speak that everybody felt asleep.
  22. 22. 6/21 3 Adjuncts viewpoint focusing TYPES OF ADJUNCTS intensifier process subject place time others
  23. 23. 7/21 3 Adjuncts viewpoint focusing TYPES OF ADJUNCTS + = ‘if we consider what we are saying from a [adj. phrase] intensifier point of view’ process + usually in initial position E.g.: Geographically (speaking), subject Vietnam is a diverse country. place Business-wise, it’s not a good time others idea to open a fast food restaurant in this area.
  24. 24. 8/21 3 Adjuncts viewpoint focusing TYPES OF ADJUNCTS intensifier process subject place time others limiters exclusives alone, just, only, purely, simply particularizers chiefly, especially, mainly, etc. additives also, either, even, neither, nor, too, as well as, in addition
  25. 25. 9/21 3 Adjuncts viewpoint focusing TYPES OF ADJUNCTS intensifier emphasizers clearly, definitely, etc. amplifiers process subject place time others downtoners maximizers completely, etc. boosters by far, well, etc. compromisers kind of, quite, etc. diminishers partly, slightly, etc. minimizers a bit, barely, etc. approximators almost, nearly, etc.
  26. 26. 10/21 3 Adjuncts viewpoint focusing TYPES OF ADJUNCTS + = in that way/ that way intensifier + favor final conditions process subject + co-occur with dynamic verbs, not stative verbs E.g.: They live frugally. place Tear gas indiscriminatively time sprayed on the protesters. others
  27. 27. 11/21 3 Adjuncts viewpoint focusing TYPES OF ADJUNCTS intensifier process subject place time others manner E.g.: They walked in single file. means E.g.: I go to school by car. instrument E.g.: You can cut the apple with that knife.
  28. 28. 12/21 3 Adjuncts viewpoint focusing TYPES OF ADJUNCTS intensifier process subject place time others general With great unease, they elected him as their leader. volitional deliberately, intentionally, on purpose, willingly, with reluctance, etc. formulaic please, humbly, cordially, kindly, etc.
  29. 29. 13/21 3 Adjuncts viewpoint + denote position, direction, focusing TYPES OF ADJUNCTS intensifier process subject place time others movement, and passage + most are prepositional phrases; adverb phrases and noun phrases used frequently + used only with verbs of motions or other dynamic verbs denoting direction E.g.: She works a long way from here. We’re moving some furniture into the kitchen.
  30. 30. 14/21 3 Adjuncts viewpoint focusing TYPES OF ADJUNCTS intensifier process subject place time others direction I take the book from the shelf. She ran past the church. position I live in a small village. He is over there.
  31. 31. 15/21 3 Adjuncts viewpoint focusing TYPES OF ADJUNCTS intensifier when duration process subject place time others frequency other relationships
  32. 32. 16/21 3 Adjuncts viewpoint focusing TYPES OF ADJUNCTS intensifier process subject place time others when + point of time duration E.g.: today, tomorrow + boundary of time E.g.: afterwards frequency other relationships
  33. 33. 17/21 3 Adjuncts viewpoint focusing TYPES OF ADJUNCTS intensifier when duration process subject place time others + length of time frequency E.g.: briefly + from the preceding other relationships point in time E.g.: since
  34. 34. 18/21 3 Adjuncts process + indefinite - usual occurrence: E.g.: usually when - continuous/continual: E.g.: always - high: E.g.: often duration - low/zero: occasionally, never subject frequency place + definite other relationships - period: E.g.: daily - number: E.g.: twice viewpoint focusing TYPES OF ADJUNCTS intensifier time others
  35. 35. 19/21 3 Adjuncts viewpoint focusing TYPES OF ADJUNCTS intensifier when duration process subject place time others frequency other relationships first, next, then, still, yet, already, etc.
  36. 36. 20/21 3 Adjuncts viewpoint focusing TYPES OF ADJUNCTS intensifier + expressing purpose, cause, reason, process or origin source E.g.: He subject took the book from me. place time The symbolically buried the car as a protest against pollution. others
  37. 37. 21/21 3 Adjuncts RELATIVE POSITION OF ADJUNCTS 1. In final position: process – place - time E.g. He was working with his shears (process) in the garden (place) the whole morning (time). 2. The normal relative order can be changed to suit the desire for end-focus. 3. A clause normally comes after other structures to avoid ambiguity E.g. We stood talking for a very long time (A1) where the fire had been (A2). 4. Longer adjuncts tend to follow shorter adjuncts. E.g. I was studying earlier (A1) in the university library (A2).
  38. 38. 1/3 4 Disjuncts DISJUNCTS Style disjuncts Attitudinal disjuncts Most disjuncts are prepositional phrases or clause
  39. 39. 2/3 4 Disjuncts DISJUNCTS Style disjuncts Attitudinal disjuncts • convey the speaker’s comment on the form of what he is saying, defining in some way under what conditions he is speaking E.g.: Seriously, do you intend to retire? Personally, I don’t approve of her. Very frankly, I am tired.
  40. 40. 3/3 4 Disjuncts DISJUNCTS Style disjuncts • convey the speaker’s comment on the Attitudinal disjuncts content of what he is saying • generally appear only on declarative clauses E.g.: Obviously, no one expected us. Understandably, they were all annoyed when reading the letter.
  41. 41. 1/15 5 CONJUNCTS Conjuncts 1. Most conjuncts are adverb phrases or prepositional phrases. 2. The normal position for most conjuncts is initial. 3. Conjuncts often have a separate tone unit.
  42. 42. 2/15 5 Conjuncts CONJUNCTS Enumerative Result Reinforcing Inferential Equative Reformulatory Transitional Replacive Summative Antithetic Apposition Concessive Temporal transition
  43. 43. 3/15 5 Conjuncts CONJUNCTS Enumerative Result Reinforcing Inferential Transitional Replacive Summative Antithetic Apposition Concessive first, second, third…; one, two, three…; for one thing, Equative Reformulatory for another thing; for a start, to begin with, next, then… Temporal transition
  44. 44. 4/15 5 Conjuncts CONJUNCTS Enumerative Result Reinforcing Inferential Equative Reformulatory Summative Antithetic Apposition Concessive also, furthermore, moreover, in addition, above all, Transitional Replacive what is more, then (informal), etc. Temporal transition
  45. 45. 5/15 5 Conjuncts CONJUNCTS Enumerative Result Reinforcing Inferential Equative Reformulatory equally, likewise, similarly, in the same way, etc. Transitional Replacive Summative Antithetic Apposition Concessive Temporal transition
  46. 46. 6/15 5 Conjuncts CONJUNCTS Enumerative Result Reinforcing Inferential Equative Reformulatory by the way, incidentally, etc. Transitional Replacive Summative Antithetic Apposition Concessive Temporal transition
  47. 47. 7/15 5 Conjuncts CONJUNCTS Enumerative Result Reinforcing Inferential Equative Reformulatory then, (all) in all, in conclusion, to sum up, etc. Transitional Replacive Summative Antithetic Apposition Concessive Temporal transition
  48. 48. 8/15 5 Conjuncts CONJUNCTS Enumerative Result Reinforcing Inferential Equative Reformulatory Summative Antithetic Apposition Concessive namely, in other words, for instance, Transitional that is, that is to say, for example, etc.Replacive Temporal transition
  49. 49. 9/15 5 Conjuncts CONJUNCTS Enumerative Result Reinforcing Inferential consequently, hence, thus, so, therefore, as a result, etc. Equative Reformulatory Transitional Replacive Summative Antithetic Apposition Concessive Temporal transition
  50. 50. 10/15 5 Conjuncts CONJUNCTS Enumerative Result Reinforcing Inferential Equative Reformulatory Transitional Replacive Summative Antithetic Apposition Concessive else, otherwise, then, in other words, in that case, etc. Temporal transition
  51. 51. 11/15 5 Conjuncts CONJUNCTS Enumerative Result Reinforcing Inferential Equative Reformulatory Transitional better, rather, in other words, etc. Replacive Summative Antithetic Apposition Concessive Temporal transition
  52. 52. 12/15 5 Conjuncts CONJUNCTS Enumerative Result Reinforcing Inferential alternatively, rather, on the other hand, etc. Reformulatory Equative Transitional Replacive Summative Antithetic Apposition Concessive Temporal transition
  53. 53. 13/15 5 Conjuncts CONJUNCTS Enumerative Result Reinforcing Inferential Equative Transitional Reformulatory instead, then, on the contrary, in contrast, by comparison, on the other hand, etc. Replacive Summative Antithetic Apposition Concessive Temporal transition
  54. 54. 14/15 5 Conjuncts CONJUNCTS Enumerative Result Reinforcing Inferential anyhow, Equative anyway, besides, else, however,Reformulatory still nevertheless, yet, in any case, at any rate, after all Replacive Transitional in spite of that, on the other hand, all the same, etc. Summative Antithetic Apposition Concessive Temporal transition
  55. 55. 15/15 5 Conjuncts CONJUNCTS Enumerative Result Reinforcing Inferential Equative Reformulatory Transitional Replacive Summative Apposition Antithetic meantime, meanwhile, in the mean time, etc. Concessive Temporal transition

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