Sapi Presentation (Sri Lanka)

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Sapi Presentation (Sri Lanka)

  1. 1. A Situational Analysis of Child Sex Tourism in Sri Lanka Ruwanthi Herat Gunaratne South Asia Partnership International South Asia Partnership International www.sapint.org
  2. 2. What is Child Sex Tourism? <ul><li>Using the definition derived from existing legislation, we concluded on the following: </li></ul>The operational definition for the Study is that a child is considered to be any human being of the age of 18 years or less. Child Sex Tourism is the use of children of the age of 18 years of less (whether be male or female) in sexual activities by tourists (either foreign tourists or local tourists who are alien to the specific community) in return for either a pecuniary advantage or gifts of kind to the child, a parent or guardian or relevant third person.
  3. 3. Sri Lanka <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>Southern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Area </li></ul><ul><li>65,610 sq km </li></ul><ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><li>19, 742,439 (2003 est.) </li></ul><ul><li>Population growth rate </li></ul><ul><li>0.83% </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Sinhalese 74%, Tamil 18%, Moor 7%, Malay, Burgher, Vedda </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy </li></ul><ul><li>92.3% </li></ul><ul><li>Population below the poverty line </li></ul><ul><li>22% </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Purpose of our Research <ul><li>Explore the manifestations of CST in seven tourist locations in Sri Lanka </li></ul><ul><li>Colombo </li></ul><ul><li>Mount Lavinia </li></ul><ul><li>Hikkaduwa </li></ul><ul><li>Galle </li></ul><ul><li>Negombo </li></ul><ul><li>Trincomalee </li></ul><ul><li>Anuradhapura </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Research Team <ul><li>Dr. W. James Arputharaj (Overall Planning, Research Design and field co-ordination) </li></ul><ul><li>Ms. Ruwanthi Herat Gunaratne (Research Analysis, Reporting and Liaison with ECPAT) </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. J.M.T.P.B. Jayasundera (Research Assistant) </li></ul><ul><li>Ms. Mercin Suguna (Research Assistant) </li></ul><ul><li>Ms. Chitra Vithanage (Research NGO Liaison) </li></ul><ul><li>Ms. Sureshi Jayawardene (Research Assistant) </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. U.L.M. Ashker (Research Supporter) </li></ul><ul><li>Ms. Anusha Ponnampalam (Research Supporter) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Research Methods <ul><li>Child Participatory Research </li></ul><ul><li>We conducted: </li></ul><ul><li>Group Discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Focus Group Discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Key Stakeholder Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Community Interviews </li></ul>at each of the seven locations of research
  7. 7. Saroja <ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>16 </li></ul><ul><li>Sex </li></ul><ul><li>Female </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity </li></ul><ul><li>Tamil </li></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>Negombo </li></ul>
  8. 8. Where does CST take place? <ul><li>Beachfront Areas </li></ul><ul><li>Negombo, Mount Lavinia, Colombo, Hikkaduwa and Galle </li></ul><ul><li>The Cultural Hub </li></ul><ul><li>Anuradhapura </li></ul><ul><li>The Newest addition </li></ul><ul><li>Trincomalee </li></ul>
  9. 9. How was this ascertained?
  10. 10. Colombo, Negombo, Hikkaduwa, Mount Lavinia and Galle All popular beachfront areas situated on the South Western and Southern Coast, The ideal tourist spot. Areas in which an average tourist spend two to three weeks Areas geared specifically to tackle tourism – entertainment establishments, hotels, recreational activities, shopping Areas in which the locals are ready and available at any time to satisfy the tourists’ needs.
  11. 11. Trincomalee – the difference <ul><li>An area opened out to civilians only in 2001 with the signing of the MOU between the Government and the LTTE. </li></ul><ul><li>Still suffering from the after effects of a 17 year armed conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Child Labour in every aspect of life being a problem. </li></ul><ul><li>The people and the facilities not specifically geared for tourism. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Anuradhapura – the difference <ul><li>Even though the Government has taken many measures to introduce the concept of cultural and eco tourism in the area Anuradhapura still, </li></ul><ul><li>Attracts a different kind of tourist. </li></ul><ul><li>The time spent being minimal – hoteliers were able to point out that the tourists spent hardly any time in the cultural triangle preferring instead to visit the beachfront areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of tourism friendly facilities. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Three Sisters <ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>17, 14, 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Sex </li></ul><ul><li>All Female </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity </li></ul><ul><li>Sinhalese Buddhist </li></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>Hikkaduwa </li></ul>
  14. 14. Type of Establishment <ul><li>Organized vs. Independent Prostitution. </li></ul><ul><li>(Varies with the location of research) </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Hikkaduwa Example The Head 5 Marketing Henchmen 35 Youngsters (All Male)
  16. 16. The Galle Example <ul><li>The Colonial Dutch Fort, a must see sight for any tourist, </li></ul><ul><li>The Ramparts, </li></ul><ul><li>The Children. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Sadun <ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>17 </li></ul><ul><li>Sex </li></ul><ul><li>Male </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity </li></ul><ul><li>Sinhalese Buddhist </li></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>Hikkaduwa </li></ul>
  18. 18. How does CST take place? <ul><li>Initial Contact </li></ul><ul><li>On a personal basis </li></ul><ul><li>On an organized basis </li></ul><ul><li>2. Relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Duration (two – three weeks) </li></ul><ul><li>Grooming </li></ul><ul><li>Remuneration </li></ul>
  19. 19. What triggers it? <ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Illiteracy </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs, Alcohol and Consumerism </li></ul><ul><li>The Benefits afforded </li></ul><ul><li>a. The Best Friend System </li></ul><ul><li>b. The Success Stories </li></ul><ul><li>(The Englishman) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Offence of Procuration of Children
  21. 21. …cont/d
  22. 22. Child Victims <ul><li>Mostly male – in the case of foreign tourists and female in the case of local tourists. Exact numbers cannot be ascertained. </li></ul><ul><li>“ According to published data the number of child sex workers range from 2,000 (Tim Bond, 1980), 10,000 (PEACE, 1990), 30,000 (Ministry of Health and Women’s Affairs) 36,000 boy prostitutes according to Media reports.” </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployed rate – increase to 9.2% </li></ul><ul><li>Victims of sexual abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Between the ages of 8 and 16 </li></ul><ul><li>Religion and Ethnicity </li></ul>
  23. 23. Population by Religion
  24. 24. Population by Ethnicity
  25. 25. Child Sexual Exploiter <ul><li>Foreign Tourists . </li></ul><ul><li>Visiting Sri Lanka for the first/second or third time. </li></ul><ul><li>Spends more than 2/3 of the holiday at the beach. </li></ul><ul><li>Has established local contacts </li></ul>
  26. 26. Foreigners apprehended in Sri Lanka for Procuration
  27. 27. Gaps <ul><li>What has gone wrong? </li></ul><ul><li>What is working out as a probable solution? </li></ul>
  28. 28. Legislation <ul><li>Amendments made to the Penal Code in the Penal Code Amendment ct No: 22 of 1995 and No: 29 of 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>Offence of Procuration </li></ul><ul><li>(The Offence of engaging children in prostitution) </li></ul><ul><li>Section 360 A of the Penal Code (Amendment) Acts No: 22 of 1995 and No. 29 of 1998 deems that whoever – </li></ul><ul><li>procures, or attempts to procure, any person, whether male or female of whatever age (whether with or without the consent of such person) to become, within or outside Sri Lanka, a prostitute; </li></ul><ul><li>commits the offence of procuration. </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment: </li></ul><ul><li>Section 360 A of the Penal Code (Amendment) Act No. 22 of 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>Whoever commits the offence shall on conviction be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term of not less than 2 years and not exceeding 10 years and may also be punished with a fine. </li></ul><ul><li>Offence of Hiring or Employing Children to Act as Procurers for Sexual Intercourse </li></ul><ul><li>Section 288 A of the Penal Code (Amendment) Act 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>Whoever knowingly, hires, employs, persuades, uses, induces or coerces a child to procure any person for illicit sexual intercourse shall on conviction be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term not less than two years and not exceeding five years and may also be liable to a fine. </li></ul><ul><li>In this section a “child” means a person under 18 years of age. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Law Enforcement <ul><li>Lack of communication </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of time </li></ul><ul><li>The hidden nature of the situation </li></ul><ul><li>ADOPT the </li></ul><ul><li>Negombo Exercise </li></ul>
  30. 30. The Negombo Exercise <ul><li>The National Child Protection Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Media Reports </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of the Tourist Police </li></ul><ul><li>Further suggestions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A consensus amongst hoteliers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant checks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A consensus amongst Trishaw Drivers </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Care Services <ul><li>Lack of resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to teach the children a trade in which they may live comfortably. </li></ul><ul><li>The growing number of children. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Pushpa <ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>15 </li></ul><ul><li>Sex </li></ul><ul><li>Female </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity </li></ul><ul><li>Sinhalese Buddhist </li></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>Probation Home, Originally from Badulla </li></ul>
  33. 33. Recommendations <ul><li>Tourism Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Provide the people of the area with an alternative form of work, that would be able to afford them of the identical luxuries. </li></ul><ul><li>Make the laws pertaining to CST known amongst both in-house staff and guests. </li></ul><ul><li>Reach a national consensus about combating CST in Sri Lanka </li></ul>
  34. 34. Thank You.

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