A Situational Analysis of Child Sex Tourism in Sri Lanka Ruwanthi Herat Gunaratne South Asia Partnership International South Asia Partnership International www.sapint.org
What is Child Sex Tourism?
Using the definition derived from existing legislation, we concluded on the following:
The operational definition for the Study is that a child is considered to be any human being of the age of 18 years or less. Child Sex Tourism is the use of children of the age of 18 years of less (whether be male or female) in sexual activities by tourists (either foreign tourists or local tourists who are alien to the specific community) in return for either a pecuniary advantage or gifts of kind to the child, a parent or guardian or relevant third person.
Southern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean
65,610 sq km
19, 742,439 (2003 est.)
Population growth rate
Sinhalese 74%, Tamil 18%, Moor 7%, Malay, Burgher, Vedda
Population below the poverty line
The Purpose of our Research
Explore the manifestations of CST in seven tourist locations in Sri Lanka
The Research Team
Dr. W. James Arputharaj (Overall Planning, Research Design and field co-ordination)
Ms. Ruwanthi Herat Gunaratne (Research Analysis, Reporting and Liaison with ECPAT)
Mr. J.M.T.P.B. Jayasundera (Research Assistant)
Ms. Mercin Suguna (Research Assistant)
Ms. Chitra Vithanage (Research NGO Liaison)
Ms. Sureshi Jayawardene (Research Assistant)
Mr. U.L.M. Ashker (Research Supporter)
Ms. Anusha Ponnampalam (Research Supporter)
Child Participatory Research
Focus Group Discussions
Key Stakeholder Interviews
at each of the seven locations of research
Where does CST take place?
Negombo, Mount Lavinia, Colombo, Hikkaduwa and Galle
The Cultural Hub
The Newest addition
How was this ascertained?
Colombo, Negombo, Hikkaduwa, Mount Lavinia and Galle All popular beachfront areas situated on the South Western and Southern Coast, The ideal tourist spot. Areas in which an average tourist spend two to three weeks Areas geared specifically to tackle tourism – entertainment establishments, hotels, recreational activities, shopping Areas in which the locals are ready and available at any time to satisfy the tourists’ needs.
Trincomalee – the difference
An area opened out to civilians only in 2001 with the signing of the MOU between the Government and the LTTE.
Still suffering from the after effects of a 17 year armed conflict.
Child Labour in every aspect of life being a problem.
The people and the facilities not specifically geared for tourism.
Anuradhapura – the difference
Even though the Government has taken many measures to introduce the concept of cultural and eco tourism in the area Anuradhapura still,
Attracts a different kind of tourist.
The time spent being minimal – hoteliers were able to point out that the tourists spent hardly any time in the cultural triangle preferring instead to visit the beachfront areas.
Lack of tourism friendly facilities.
The Three Sisters
17, 14, 12
Type of Establishment
Organized vs. Independent Prostitution.
(Varies with the location of research)
The Hikkaduwa Example The Head 5 Marketing Henchmen 35 Youngsters (All Male)
The Galle Example
The Colonial Dutch Fort, a must see sight for any tourist,
How does CST take place?
On a personal basis
On an organized basis
Duration (two – three weeks)
What triggers it?
Drugs, Alcohol and Consumerism
The Benefits afforded
a. The Best Friend System
b. The Success Stories
Offence of Procuration of Children
Mostly male – in the case of foreign tourists and female in the case of local tourists. Exact numbers cannot be ascertained.
“ According to published data the number of child sex workers range from 2,000 (Tim Bond, 1980), 10,000 (PEACE, 1990), 30,000 (Ministry of Health and Women’s Affairs) 36,000 boy prostitutes according to Media reports.”
Unemployed rate – increase to 9.2%
Victims of sexual abuse
Between the ages of 8 and 16
Religion and Ethnicity
Population by Religion
Population by Ethnicity
Child Sexual Exploiter
Foreign Tourists .
Visiting Sri Lanka for the first/second or third time.
Spends more than 2/3 of the holiday at the beach.
Has established local contacts
Foreigners apprehended in Sri Lanka for Procuration
What has gone wrong?
What is working out as a probable solution?
Amendments made to the Penal Code in the Penal Code Amendment ct No: 22 of 1995 and No: 29 of 1998
Offence of Procuration
(The Offence of engaging children in prostitution)
Section 360 A of the Penal Code (Amendment) Acts No: 22 of 1995 and No. 29 of 1998 deems that whoever –
procures, or attempts to procure, any person, whether male or female of whatever age (whether with or without the consent of such person) to become, within or outside Sri Lanka, a prostitute;
commits the offence of procuration.
Section 360 A of the Penal Code (Amendment) Act No. 22 of 1995
Whoever commits the offence shall on conviction be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term of not less than 2 years and not exceeding 10 years and may also be punished with a fine.
Offence of Hiring or Employing Children to Act as Procurers for Sexual Intercourse
Section 288 A of the Penal Code (Amendment) Act 1998
Whoever knowingly, hires, employs, persuades, uses, induces or coerces a child to procure any person for illicit sexual intercourse shall on conviction be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term not less than two years and not exceeding five years and may also be liable to a fine.
In this section a “child” means a person under 18 years of age.
Lack of communication
Lack of time
The hidden nature of the situation
The Negombo Exercise
The National Child Protection Authority
Establishment of the Tourist Police
A consensus amongst hoteliers
A consensus amongst Trishaw Drivers
Lack of resources.
Inability to teach the children a trade in which they may live comfortably.
The growing number of children.
Probation Home, Originally from Badulla
Provide the people of the area with an alternative form of work, that would be able to afford them of the identical luxuries.
Make the laws pertaining to CST known amongst both in-house staff and guests.
Reach a national consensus about combating CST in Sri Lanka