A. Communist Manifesto
Written by Karl Marx
and Fredrick Engels
Published in 1847
Fredrick Engels Karl Marx
B. The Theory of Capitalism
• Encourage competition between
• Provide rewards unequally
Why is this okay?
Factory owners take risks or master
skills that the factory workers do not.
C. Problems with Capitalism
(according to Communists):
1. The wealthy get rich at the
expense of the poor
2. The rich hoard resources for
themselves and deny the poor
D. Solution to Capitalism?
•Equal distribution of goods
•Rich must give their
surpluses to poor
E. Results of Communism
• Poverty, ignorance & starvation will
• Each will work based on his/her abilities
• Each will consume only what he/she
• No one will have more than anyone else
II. Why Communist Theory
becomes popular in Russia
A. Failing Russian Economy
• Russia hasn’t caught up with
the Industrial Revolution.
• Can’t compete economically with
World War I 1914-1918
B. Problems within Russia:
2. Illiteracy is high
3. Poverty is widespread
4. Good land is scarce
5. Little food available
6. Any supplies available go to the
war for supplies-nothing left for
the common peasant
C. 1914-1917 Minor Revolts in
• Hunger workers join communist “soviets”
• Protests and labor strikes organized
• Communists promise:
LAND PEACE BREAD
D. Vladmir Lenin 1870-1924
• son of a government official
• older brother tried to assassinate
•helped start Bolshevik (majority) party of
•Flees to Germany to save his life from?
A. February/March 1917
• Tsar is overthrown (by abdicating)
• Revolution spreads throughout
• Moderate socialist Kerensky leads
new Provisional Government
• Russia remains in WWI
B. Lenin Returns, April 1917
Returns from Germany in a sealed train-why
The German government clearly hoped Lenin's
return would create political unrest back in
Russia, which would help to end the war on the
Eastern Front, allowing Germany to concentrate
on defeating the Western allies.
-Declares cannot continue the war
-No Provisional Government
C. Bolshevik Revolution,
October 24, 1917
Winter Palace, St. Petersburg
The new Soviet government:
• Strips land from owners
• Forbids holding private property
• Redistributes fields according to
• Gets out of WWI
EQUALITY AND PEACE FOR ALL!
D. Peace Pact Problems
1. Must surrender land and money to Germany
(Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania)
2. Wealthy Russians upset and organize a
campaign against the Soviets
U.S. and Great Britain help-WHY?
So that Germany does not win the war.
IV. Continued Revolution!
1918-1921 Civil War
A. Soviets for The Red Army
B. Wealthy Russians for the White Army
Who were they?
• The Cossacks (Каза́ки, Kazaki) are a
traditional community of people living
in the southern regions of Russia. They
are famous for their self-reliance and
military skills, particularly
• quot;Cossackquot; may also refer to a member
of a Cossack military unit.
Who did they fight for?
• After the Russian Revolution
• In the Civil War that followed the Russian
Revolution, the Cossacks found themselves
on both sides of the conflict. Many officers
and experienced Cossacks fought for the
White Army, and some of the poorer ones
joined the Red Army.