Crisis In North Korea Yukiko Yano, Misaki Takano, and Eri Furukawa
Official name of the country : Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, abbreviated as DPRK
Capital : Pyongyang
Government : Juche Communist Dictatorship
The Nuclear Crisis
International human rights organizations, such as the Human Rights Watch, have accused North Korea of having one of the worst human rights records of any state.
How North Korea Came To Be…
The Korean Peninsula Under Japanese Control (1910~1945)
Formally an independent country until the late 19 th century
19 th century
China, Russia, and Japan fight over the peninsula in want of commercial gains
Competition produces the Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War
Japan successfully wins both, colonizing the Korean Peninsula by 1910
Koreans were forced to replace their traditions with the Japanese culture
Japan modernized the Korean industry and bureaucracy for their own benefits
Koreans bred a strong feeling of nationalism and were left with a lasting negative impression of the outside world
After WWⅡ Japan gave up their control over Korea to the United States and Russia
The Korean peninsula split into two occupation zones at the 38 th parallel
Southern part: under the U.S. occupation
Northern part: under the Russian occupation
Establishment of the two nations
Aug 15, 1948
The Republic of Korea (South Korea)
Sep 9, 1948
The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea)
with the leadership of Kim Il Sung
The Split of the Korean Peninsula
The Korean War (1950~1953)
June 25, 1950
Massive surprise attack and invasion of South Korea by the north
Kim Il Sung wanted to unify the two Koreas under a single Communist government
His goal was to liberate South Korea from the U.S.
But it turns out he had underestimated the loyalty of the Americans toward South Korea
South Korea: supported by the U.S. troops and 16 other troops from the UN
North Korea: supported by the Chinese “People’s Volunteers”
July 27, 1953: an armistice is signed
After the Korean War
South Korea was guaranteed support from the U.S., but North Korea had no one to count on.
Juche Socialism (1955~)
Promotes the idea of self-sufficiency
It was actually a way of carrying out military build up and heavy industry at the same time
Principles of Juche Socialism Independence in politics Self-sustenance in the economy Self-defense in national defense
Kim Il Sung
Ruled from the year 1948 when the country was established until his death in July 1994
The savior who liberated North Korea
The love and admiration for him by the people is real and genuine
He is considered as “ forever president ”
Was also the Secretary General of the Korean Workers’ Party
The Korean Workers’ Party still continues to control the government of the country
Foreign Relations After the War
The bitterness aroused from the Korean War still continues to linger to this day
North Korea has tried to develop economic ties with South Korea but has also been criticizing South Korea’s relationship with the United States
No communications were made after the war until 1971
North Korea’s relationship with other countries worsened dramatically since Kim Il Sung’s death
Kim Jong Il
Assumed automatic inheritance of supreme power after Kim Il Sung died
Became the Secretary General of the Korean Workers’ Party in 1997
Became the Chairman of the National Defense Commission and was named the “ highest office of state ” in 1998
Has never had decent education
has never served in the army although he is the Supreme Commander
Under the Rule of Kim Jong Il
Kim Jong Il’s interpretation of Juche Socialism
North Koreans are to live in seclusion and sacrifice themselves in absolute piety towards Kim Il Sung
Led to the denial of freedom of expression and movement of the citizens
To gain control over even the elite and the military, Kim Jong Il uses transactional leadership
Transactional leadership: when you strike a deal with your followers promising them they will be rewarded and kept free from punishment if they keep supporting you
NUCLEAR CRISIS-TABLE OF CONTENTS
Things to know before hand
North Korea’s intentions
North Korean and South Korean relations
The Beginning of the Crisis : 1993 North Korea’s statement
North Korea and U.S relations
1994 Agreed Framework
The Bush Administration
Breakdown of the Agreement
Withdrawing from the NPT
Six Party talks
How it began, Its goal
North Korea’s nuclear weapons program
The intentions of North Korea on building Nuclear weapons
- defense against other countries
A way for North Korea to keep up with the Arms race. Both in order to protect itself and attack against other countries
- a political tool
A bargaining tool for North Korea to receive aid
The IAEA : The International Atomic Energy Agency ( IAEA )
Promotes the peaceful use of nuclear energy.
Inhibits its use for military purposes.
Often referred to as "the UN's Nuclear Watchdog“
North Korea and South Korea
Late 1991 : Joint Declaration on the Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula ⇒ came into effect February 1992
Signed by South Korea and North Korea
“ The two sides shall not test, manufacture, produce, receive, process, store, deploy or use Nuclear Weapons”
For inspection, a North-South Nuclear Control Commission (JNCC) was organized
The Beginning of the Nuclear Crisis
IAEA asks for permissions to inspect
March 1993 : North Korea refuses, also announcing it’s intention on pulling out of the The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons .
~~The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons~~ Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)
North Korea signed it in the December of 1985.
The goal is to limit the spread of nuclear weapons.
Consists of 3 pillars
The right to peacefully use nuclear technology
North Korea later on backs out on its intentions Suspicions that North Korea has Nuclear Weapons
North Korea and U.S relations- The 1994 Agreed Framework
Graphite moderated power plants (plutonium nuclear weapons could be easily produced) ⇒ Light Water Reactor plants (LWR)
North Korea was to receive oil while the plants were to be built.
North Korea and U.S was to safely store the spent fuel from a five-megawatt reactor
*not involve reprocessing in North Korea*
North Korea would implement the 1992 Joint Declaration
North Korea would remain a member of the NPT
North Korea was to come to a safety agreement with the IAEA
The U.S would get rid of the economic sanctions they have had since the Korean War.
North Korea and U.S talks leads to the signing of the 1994 Agreed Framework
North Korea and U.S relations :The 1994 Agreed Framework Cont.
In order to fund oil shipments and LWR plant projects, the Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO) was made.
U.S, South Korea, Japan, and those who implement energy related sections of the framework
North Korea was to repay KEDO over a 20 year interest-free period after the completion of LWR plants.
North Korea's leader Kim Il-sung had recently died
“ Clinton administration officials have privately said that they agreed to the plan in 1994 only because they thought the North Korean government would collapse before the project was completed .” (South Dakota Politics)
North Korea and U.S relations : Growing Tension
Delay of shipments North Korea Threats of resuming nuclear research Permission to inspect the “underground site In return for aid in food Finds no evidence LWR project finally starts in 2000 Allegations concerning an underground site Irritated
North Korea and U.S relations : Growing Tension
President George W. Bush and his administration – In 2002
Allegations that North Korea had an Uranium Enrichment Program ⇒ State of the Union Address – “Axis of Evil”
October 2002 – U.S Assistant Secretary of State James A. Kelly –
About the supposed “Uranium Enrichment Program”
U.S : North Korea admitted to such program
North Korea : Stated that
“ an independent state such as North Korea had every right to produce nuclear weapons for defense, although they DID NOT possess such weapon at the time”
North Korea did not come out with any evidence, and rejected IAEA’s inspection ~“The U.N nuclear watchdog was abetting U.S policy towards North Korea” ~
North Korea and U.S relations : The Breakdown of the Agreement
U.S ~ No longer intend to fund oil shipments when North Korea had evidently violated the 1994 Agreed Framework.
In December, KEDO halts the the oil shipments until a resolution is reached.
This is the breakdown of the 1994 Agreed Framework
Both countries blamed each other for this breakdown.
Each stating that the other refused to keep up on its side of the Framework.
The U.S had failed to ease economic sanctions
North Korea had not disabled its nuclear programs
North Korea and U.S relations : “Actions of Piracy” December 2002 – The U.S intervention on a shipment leaving North Korea for Yemen. Shipment contained Scud Missiles U.S stopped the ship from leaving North Korea for 2 days, The U.S had no right to stop the ship North Korea called it an “Act of Piracy”
Leaving the NPT
January 10 th 2003 – announces its intentions on withdrawing from the NPT
On April 10th, it becomes official ⇒ North Korea becomes the first state to withdraw form the treaty
Nuclear Programs resume in North Korea North Korea restarted its plutonium-based nuclear facilities and removed IAEA’s monitoring equipment. “ Deterrent force in the face of U.S threats and its hostile policy”
The Six Party Talks-how they began
In 2003, the idea of a multilateral talk was proposed.
In April 2003, North Korea agrees to three-party talks with China and the United States to be held n Beijing. After the meeting, North Korea finally agreed to the six party talks and the first round was held in August 2003.
The Six Party Talks
The contentions of the six party talks
The Construction of Light Water Reactors
Peaceful use of Nuclear Energy
Financial / Trade normalization
'Verifiable' and 'Irreversible' disarmament
Since then, the six parties, U.S, South Korea, China, Japan, Russia, and North Korea have had numerous talks in order to reach an agreement on the nuclear crisis.
The Six Party Talks
The six party talks have led to agreements between the six parties concerning :
Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula
North Korea rejoining the NPT
North Korea’s peaceful use of nuclear energy
Normalization of North Korea’s relationship with the other five countries
Through these six party talks, other countries have agreed to give aid in return for shutting down nuclear facilities. However, Japan has refused to aid North Korea because of its abduction issues with the country.
Heavy Military in North Korea
Kim Jong Il spends more money on the army than on sustaining the lives of the people in his own country
Kim Jong Il devotes as much as 1/4 of the country’s national income on the army
central task of state: military build up
Has the fourth largest army in the world
Possession of Nuclear Weapons
North Korea’s possession of nuclear weapons is causing international tension
Why North Korea Holds Nuclear Weapons
To use as a threat against other countries to obtain aid
Mid 1960s An atomic energy research center was built in Yongbyon
This was the beginning of the development of nuclear energy
The people of North Korea suffer from lack of food because the government is too busy using up all the money on maintaining the army and feeding the elites
Late 2002 North Korea’s stunning confessions
1. The government acknowledged it had kidnapped about a dozen Japanese in the 1970s and the 1980s to train North Korean spies
2. Admitted having violated a 1994 agreement to freeze their nuclear weapons program but had in fact been developing nuclear bombs
February 2007 North Korea once again made an agreement to dismantle nuclear facilities and allow inspectors in exchange for $400 million dollars
September 2007 North Korea declared it would close all nuclear programs by the end of the year 2007
North Korea’s Major Nuclear Facilities
Uranium core concentration plant.
Nuclear Physics laboratory
Equipment of plutonium extraction.
Uranium core concentration plant.
Yongbyon A 5-Megawatt experimental nuclear power plant Nuclear fuel rod fabrication plant Fuel reprocessing facility. Taechon A 200-Megawatt nuclear power plant under construction. Simpo Possible location for three 635-Megawatt reactors.
In whole, the North Korean government has spent much of its money for its military. This has lead to not only the nuclear crisis, but also a crisis among its people.
Now, North Korea is also trouble by malnutrition among its people, and also refugees, who are fleeting for their lives.
Most people in North Korea however are unaware of their true state. With Kim Jong Il as their “great general,” the greatest problem with North Korea may not be how to handle their Nuclear Weapons, but how to rescue its citizens.
Malnutrition and Refugees
Malnutrition and Refugees Crisis Table of Contents
- Nutrition Survey
- The World Food Program
- How it aids North Korea
- 1951 Refugee Convention
- Refugees in China
- China’s reaction concerning the refugees
- Problem over China’s reaction
- Incident between Japan and China caused by North Korean refugees
The population suffers from prolonged malnutrition and poor living conditions.
＊ political and economical mismanagement
＊ severe summer flooding followed by dry weather conditions
The South Korean non-governmental organization reported in July 2007 that famine deaths are on the increase in the North
＊ 10 people dying daily of starvation in five of the poorest
The most recent large-scale nutrition survey in North Korea was conducted in 2004 by the WFP, UNICEF and the government. It found that
37% of children
33% of mothers
malnourished and anemic
The World Food Program
The WFP is the United Nations frontline agency in the fight against global hunger. Operations aim to:
Save lives in refugee crisis and other emergencies
Improve nutrition and quality of life of world’s most vulnerable people at critical times in their lives
Enable development by helping people build assets that benefit them directly and promoting the self-reliance of poor people and communities
Food shortages in North Korea did not improve because:
＊ the scale of emergency food program was reduced
＊ the food went primarily to the elite and to the military , not to the citizens who really need them.
The WFP and North Korea 1995~ The UN World Food Program provided substantial emergency food assistance to North Korea. 2005 The North Korean Government suspended the WFP emergency program. 2006 North Korea Government has permitted the WFP to resume operations on a greatly reduced scale. We have enough food to feed our people.
Many North Koreans have fled to neighboring countries because of:
＊ food shortages
＊ political, ideological, and economical reasons
Many are caught during the attempted defection. If they are caught, they will be:
＊ repatriated back to North Korea
＊ considered as rebels
＊ face years of punishment or even death in North Korean prison camps
The 1951 Refugee Convention and 1967 Protocol
The 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol safeguards the rights and well-being of refugees. It ensures that everyone can exercise the right to:
find safe haven in another state
not to be forcibly returned
North Koreans in CHINA
North Koreans usually cross the border into Northeast China before fleeing to a third country.
China refuses to grant North Korean defectors refugees status and considers them illegal economic migrants.
North Koreans who are caught in China are forcibly returned to North Korea, where they are subjected to brutal treatments, including torture, and placement in work camps.
China deported about 1,800 North Korean refugees in a year , and North Korea may have executed some of them.
China and Human Rights Watch
The arrest and instances of refoulement* of North Koreans by the Chinese government raise serious questions about China’s compliance with the 1951 Convention.
*the expulsion of persons who have the right to be recognized as refugees “ Given the appalling human rights situation in North Korea, China needs to provide protection to North Koreans on its territory, not send them back. The Chinese government must not try to evade its international legal responsibility by categorizing North Korean asylum seekers and refugees as illegal immigrants.” ---Brad Adams, executive director of the Asia Division of Human Rights Watch
On May 8, 2002, Chinese police guards seized and removed five North Korean asylum seekers from the Japanese Consulate General in China.
“ I think it is a violation of the Vienna Convention, and that’s why we are protesting.” ---Junichiro Koizumi China claims the officers were only trying to guard the consulate and that consulate staff consented to their entry. Japan claims it never gave any permission and says China's actions violated the Vienna Convention stipulating the inviolability of diplomatic missions.
The Foreign Ministry in Tokyo demanded an apology from China and that it hand over the five to Japan.
Japan caved in and let China decide the fate of the five without having Japanese officials interview them.
China revealed that:
A vice consul was handed a letter from the North Korean family stating their request for asylum, but that the diplomat returned it to them.
Another official shook hands with the leader of the Chinese police and telephoned Chinese authorities shortly after the incident.
"The two governments will try to foster good relations on the surface, but the incident gave an enormous boost to anti-China feeling deep down in the hearts of the Japanese people.“ --- Liberal Democratic Party veteran Takami Eto
The Malnutrition in North Korea is one that cannot be left to deal with on its own. It has reached a point where thousands have lost their lives due to its countries inability to give them a proper environment. Also, North Korea’s refugee crisis is not only a crisis with in the county. It has led to problems over the border as well.
The people of North Korea are oblivious to life other than their own. Their imagination can only go as far as what they’re given, and their knowledge is restricted to what the government allows. Loyalty to the government is not of fear but of true belief that what they are given is more than good. They lack in the basic premises of humanity, and is given no reason to criticize the government.
We as a group have felt, throughout making this presentation that North Korea is not one that easily abides to other countries, and therefore seems to be one of the hardest nations to deal with. In every crisis, nations have tried to give aid to North Korea. From oil to food, the UN has tried to deal with nuclear problems as well as the malnutrition and refugee crisis. However, it seems apparent that aid has done nothing to even coming close to a resolution.
North Korea has made it hard for people on the outside to offer solutions. This is why the North Korean crisis is one that requires every possible nation to take part in coming up with a more better way to come to an agreement. “The Hermit Kingdom,” under the dictatorship of “ the playboy wearing platform shoes and a khaki jumpsuit” needs to be dealt with in the most quickest and peaceful way possible.