March 1993 : North Korea refuses, also announcing it’s intention on pulling out of the The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons .
~~The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons~~ Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)
North Korea signed it in the December of 1985.
The goal is to limit the spread of nuclear weapons.
Consists of 3 pillars
The right to peacefully use nuclear technology
North Korea later on backs out on its intentions Suspicions that North Korea has Nuclear Weapons
North Korea and U.S relations- The 1994 Agreed Framework
Graphite moderated power plants (plutonium nuclear weapons could be easily produced) ⇒ Light Water Reactor plants (LWR)
North Korea was to receive oil while the plants were to be built.
North Korea and U.S was to safely store the spent fuel from a five-megawatt reactor
*not involve reprocessing in North Korea*
North Korea would implement the 1992 Joint Declaration
North Korea would remain a member of the NPT
North Korea was to come to a safety agreement with the IAEA
The U.S would get rid of the economic sanctions they have had since the Korean War.
North Korea and U.S talks leads to the signing of the 1994 Agreed Framework
North Korea and U.S relations :The 1994 Agreed Framework Cont.
In order to fund oil shipments and LWR plant projects, the Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO) was made.
U.S, South Korea, Japan, and those who implement energy related sections of the framework
North Korea was to repay KEDO over a 20 year interest-free period after the completion of LWR plants.
North Korea's leader Kim Il-sung had recently died
“ Clinton administration officials have privately said that they agreed to the plan in 1994 only because they thought the North Korean government would collapse before the project was completed .” (South Dakota Politics)
North Korea and U.S relations : Growing Tension
Delay of shipments North Korea Threats of resuming nuclear research Permission to inspect the “underground site In return for aid in food Finds no evidence LWR project finally starts in 2000 Allegations concerning an underground site Irritated
North Korea and U.S relations : Growing Tension
President George W. Bush and his administration – In 2002
Allegations that North Korea had an Uranium Enrichment Program ⇒ State of the Union Address – “Axis of Evil”
October 2002 – U.S Assistant Secretary of State James A. Kelly –
About the supposed “Uranium Enrichment Program”
U.S : North Korea admitted to such program
North Korea : Stated that
“ an independent state such as North Korea had every right to produce nuclear weapons for defense, although they DID NOT possess such weapon at the time”
North Korea did not come out with any evidence, and rejected IAEA’s inspection ~“The U.N nuclear watchdog was abetting U.S policy towards North Korea” ~
North Korea and U.S relations : The Breakdown of the Agreement
U.S ~ No longer intend to fund oil shipments when North Korea had evidently violated the 1994 Agreed Framework.
In December, KEDO halts the the oil shipments until a resolution is reached.
This is the breakdown of the 1994 Agreed Framework
Both countries blamed each other for this breakdown.
Each stating that the other refused to keep up on its side of the Framework.
The U.S had failed to ease economic sanctions
North Korea had not disabled its nuclear programs
North Korea and U.S relations : “Actions of Piracy” December 2002 – The U.S intervention on a shipment leaving North Korea for Yemen. Shipment contained Scud Missiles U.S stopped the ship from leaving North Korea for 2 days, The U.S had no right to stop the ship North Korea called it an “Act of Piracy”
January 10 th 2003 – announces its intentions on withdrawing from the NPT
On April 10th, it becomes official ⇒ North Korea becomes the first state to withdraw form the treaty
Nuclear Programs resume in North Korea North Korea restarted its plutonium-based nuclear facilities and removed IAEA’s monitoring equipment. “ Deterrent force in the face of U.S threats and its hostile policy”
In 2003, the idea of a multilateral talk was proposed.
In April 2003, North Korea agrees to three-party talks with China and the United States to be held n Beijing. After the meeting, North Korea finally agreed to the six party talks and the first round was held in August 2003.
The six party talks have led to agreements between the six parties concerning :
Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula
North Korea rejoining the NPT
North Korea’s peaceful use of nuclear energy
Normalization of North Korea’s relationship with the other five countries
Through these six party talks, other countries have agreed to give aid in return for shutting down nuclear facilities. However, Japan has refused to aid North Korea because of its abduction issues with the country.
Yongbyon A 5-Megawatt experimental nuclear power plant Nuclear fuel rod fabrication plant Fuel reprocessing facility. Taechon A 200-Megawatt nuclear power plant under construction. Simpo Possible location for three 635-Megawatt reactors.
In whole, the North Korean government has spent much of its money for its military. This has lead to not only the nuclear crisis, but also a crisis among its people.
Now, North Korea is also trouble by malnutrition among its people, and also refugees, who are fleeting for their lives.
Most people in North Korea however are unaware of their true state. With Kim Jong Il as their “great general,” the greatest problem with North Korea may not be how to handle their Nuclear Weapons, but how to rescue its citizens.
Food shortages in North Korea did not improve because:
＊ the scale of emergency food program was reduced
＊ the food went primarily to the elite and to the military , not to the citizens who really need them.
The WFP and North Korea 1995~ The UN World Food Program provided substantial emergency food assistance to North Korea. 2005 The North Korean Government suspended the WFP emergency program. 2006 North Korea Government has permitted the WFP to resume operations on a greatly reduced scale. We have enough food to feed our people.
The arrest and instances of refoulement* of North Koreans by the Chinese government raise serious questions about China’s compliance with the 1951 Convention.
*the expulsion of persons who have the right to be recognized as refugees “ Given the appalling human rights situation in North Korea, China needs to provide protection to North Koreans on its territory, not send them back. The Chinese government must not try to evade its international legal responsibility by categorizing North Korean asylum seekers and refugees as illegal immigrants.” ---Brad Adams, executive director of the Asia Division of Human Rights Watch
On May 8, 2002, Chinese police guards seized and removed five North Korean asylum seekers from the Japanese Consulate General in China.
“ I think it is a violation of the Vienna Convention, and that’s why we are protesting.” ---Junichiro Koizumi China claims the officers were only trying to guard the consulate and that consulate staff consented to their entry. Japan claims it never gave any permission and says China's actions violated the Vienna Convention stipulating the inviolability of diplomatic missions.
The Foreign Ministry in Tokyo demanded an apology from China and that it hand over the five to Japan.
Japan caved in and let China decide the fate of the five without having Japanese officials interview them.
China revealed that:
A vice consul was handed a letter from the North Korean family stating their request for asylum, but that the diplomat returned it to them.
Another official shook hands with the leader of the Chinese police and telephoned Chinese authorities shortly after the incident.
"The two governments will try to foster good relations on the surface, but the incident gave an enormous boost to anti-China feeling deep down in the hearts of the Japanese people.“ --- Liberal Democratic Party veteran Takami Eto
The Malnutrition in North Korea is one that cannot be left to deal with on its own. It has reached a point where thousands have lost their lives due to its countries inability to give them a proper environment. Also, North Korea’s refugee crisis is not only a crisis with in the county. It has led to problems over the border as well.
The people of North Korea are oblivious to life other than their own. Their imagination can only go as far as what they’re given, and their knowledge is restricted to what the government allows. Loyalty to the government is not of fear but of true belief that what they are given is more than good. They lack in the basic premises of humanity, and is given no reason to criticize the government.
We as a group have felt, throughout making this presentation that North Korea is not one that easily abides to other countries, and therefore seems to be one of the hardest nations to deal with. In every crisis, nations have tried to give aid to North Korea. From oil to food, the UN has tried to deal with nuclear problems as well as the malnutrition and refugee crisis. However, it seems apparent that aid has done nothing to even coming close to a resolution.
North Korea has made it hard for people on the outside to offer solutions. This is why the North Korean crisis is one that requires every possible nation to take part in coming up with a more better way to come to an agreement. “The Hermit Kingdom,” under the dictatorship of “ the playboy wearing platform shoes and a khaki jumpsuit” needs to be dealt with in the most quickest and peaceful way possible.