North Korea Pwpt

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North Korea Pwpt

  1. 1. North Korea The Peoples Democratic Republic of Korea
  2. 2. <ul><li>The Democratic People's Republic of Korea is a socialist one-party state that is governed by the communist Korean Workers' Party (KWP). </li></ul><ul><li>Kim Il-Sung, as premier (1948-72) and as president (1972-94), dominated North Korean political and governmental affairs from the country's establishment to his death in 1994. </li></ul><ul><li>He transformed North Korea into one of the most repressive and strictly regimented societies in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>The KWP [Korean Workers Party] controls all aspects of life and uses police terror to suppress any instance of dissent or opposition. </li></ul><ul><li>His son, Kim Chong Il, the current president, carries on his legacy. </li></ul>About North Korea:
  3. 3. The Korean Workers Party <ul><li>The North Korean government owns and strictly controls all communications media: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>. All newspapers are published by the government . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>. The KWP, and its affiliated organizations, and state- operated radio and television play a large role in ideological education. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>North Korea's highly centralized, state-owned economy has consistently failed to produce adequate supplies of food and manufactured consumer goods for its citizens. </li></ul>
  4. 4. MUSIC <ul><li>One of the remarkable features of the Pyongyang Metro is the martial music played in the system. This consists of North Korean anthems and patriotic songs, although the speaker system is also used for, shall we say, public service announcements, reportedly including messages exhorting people to be on the lookout for traitors and spies. </li></ul><ul><li>Much of the time, though, travelers hear music such as the selections presented here. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Message to the masses <ul><li>“ Be glory to the heroic soldiers of the Korean people’s force ” </li></ul><ul><li>NO MOTHERLAND WITHOUT YOU Kim Jong Il’s signature tune </li></ul><ul><li>You pushed away the severe storm. You gave us a belief, Comrade Kim Jeong-Il ! We can not live without you. Our country can not exist without you. </li></ul><ul><li>Our future and hope depend on you. People's fate depends on you,Comrade Kim Jeong-Il ! We can not live without you. Our country can not exist without you. </li></ul><ul><li>Even if the world changes hundreds of times, People believe in you, Comrade Kim Jeong-Il ! We can not live without you. Our country can not exist without you. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Bright spots are heat and light sources
  7. 8. What happened in North Korea? <ul><li>Upon it’s establishment, the government of North Korea received large amounts of assistance in money, fuel, food, and weapons from Communist allies. </li></ul><ul><li>Often this support was free of charge! </li></ul><ul><li>China and the Soviet Union supported North Korea for over forty years. </li></ul><ul><li>North Korea used the aid to develop it’s military, and ignored other industries. </li></ul><ul><li>After the collapse of the Soviet Union and the opening of China to the West, aid supplies to North Korea stopped. </li></ul><ul><li>For the past ten years, North Korea has suffered from economic collapse, and widespread famine. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Personal Witness to Famine ON THE BRINK OF SURVIVAL My name is Lim Chol and my sister is Lim So-yon. I am 10 years old and she is eight. We were born in a small coal mining town at Sudong-gu, Kowon-gun, South Hamgyong Province. For many years we were happy. But a few years ago, our dreams started to disappear. At home, we ran out of rice and corn, which weren’t replenished from the distribution station. My mother made corn gruel for us. Everyday she waited in line to get the rations. She had to wait almost 10 days to get much smaller rations compared to the previous ones. My father always looked sluggish at home because of malnutrition and hard labor in the coal mines. He stopped having the small beer parties he used to have with his friends. As soon as he came home, he couldn’t help lying down.
  9. 11. Timeline: North Korea <ul><li>View a timeline that traces the history of North Korea, the world's last Stalinist regime, and the desperate actions of the refugees and activists . </li></ul>
  10. 12. 1910-1945 <ul><li>After hundreds of years of independence, the Korean peninsula is colonized by Japan. Japan attempts to root out all elements of Korean culture from society, forcing Koreans to adopt Japanese names, convert to the Shinto religion and forbidding them to use Korean language in schools and business. </li></ul><ul><li>A 1919 independence movement is brutally suppressed, leaving thousands of Koreans dead and tens of thousands maimed or imprisoned. </li></ul>
  11. 13. 1912 <ul><li>Kim Il-sung is born near Pyongyang. </li></ul>
  12. 14. 1945 <ul><li>World War II ends. Japan relinquishes control of Korea to the United States and the Soviet Union. The Korean peninsula is divided at the 38th parallel —the north under Soviet occupation and the south under U.S. occupation—creating two distinct regions with diametrically opposed political ideologies. </li></ul>
  13. 15. 1948 <ul><li>With no common political ideology between the north and the south, and reunification talks at an impasse, the south creates the Republic of Korea in August. One month later, Soviet-backed Kim Il-sung creates the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). Kim introduces a guiding philosophy of “Juche,” or self-reliance, in North Korean life. </li></ul><ul><li>Guerrilla warfare, border clashes and naval battles begin to erupt between the two Koreas. </li></ul>
  14. 16. 1950-1953 <ul><li>North Korean forces launch a massive surprise attack and invade South Korea on June 25, 1950, beginning the Korean War. </li></ul>
  15. 17. 1951 <ul><li>A special United Nations conference approves the 1951 Refugee Convention, the first international agreement outlining the fundamental human rights of refugees and recognizing the need for international cooperation in dealing with the displaced. </li></ul>The Refugee Convention was adopted on July 28 1951
  16. 18. 1953 <ul><li>Commanders of the North Korean People's Army, the Chinese People's Volunteers and the UN Command sign armistice at Panmunjom. The U.S. and South Korea do not sign the armistice. </li></ul>
  17. 19. 1982 <ul><li>China signs the 1951 Refugee Convention. </li></ul>
  18. 20. 1986 <ul><li>China and North Korea conclude a protocol on security in the border area. China agrees to repatriate North Koreans to North Korea under the protocol. </li></ul>
  19. 21. 1991 <ul><li>North Korea joins the UN. </li></ul>
  20. 22. 1994 <ul><li>Leader Kim Il-sung dies. Kim Jong-il, Kim’s eldest son, assumes power in the only hereditary transition in Communist history. </li></ul><ul><li>F looding causes a devastating famine in North Korea. The government adds another offense to its list of crimes punishable by death: theft of food </li></ul>
  21. 23. 1996 <ul><li>Virtually all public services, including the food distribution system, have eroded except those serving the party, security workers and the capital city, Pyongyang. </li></ul>Officials of the Korean Christian Federation distribute rice for people affected by the famine in North Korea
  22. 24. 1998-2000 <ul><li>Because of government interference, non-governmental organizations begin an exodus from North Korea, beginning with Doctors Without Borders/Medicins Sans Frontieres in 1998, Oxfam in 1999 and CARE and Action Contre la Faim in 2000. Among the remaining organizations are the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the World Food Program. </li></ul>
  23. 25. World Food Program
  24. 26. 2001 <ul><li>North Korea is grappling with the worst spring drought of its history. December – A group of 12 refugees and four activists—including South Korean pastor Chun Ki-won and eight-month pregnant Nam Chun-mi—get lost in a blizzard while attempting to cross the border into Mongolia. A Chinese farmer turns them in to the authorities. </li></ul>
  25. 27. 2002 <ul><li>January - Nam Chun-mi gives birth to a baby girl in Chinese prison, bringing the number of refugees in their group to 13. March - Twenty-five North Korean refugees rush into the Spanish embassy in Beijing, in the first of what became known as the “embassy raids.” The refugees are released on “humanitarian grounds” for immigration to South Korea. </li></ul>Twenty-five North Koreans successfully rush the Spanish Embassy in Beijing, the start of “Embassy Raids” by North Korean refugees
  26. 28. 2002… <ul><li>May - Two-year-old Kim Han-mi and her family, who have been assisted by the Underground Railroad, attempt to enter the Japanese consulate in Shenyang, China. The incident is caught on video and is broadcast around the world. </li></ul><ul><li>J une - U.S. Congress passes resolution condemning China’s arrest of Chun Ki won and the 13 refugees. </li></ul>Two-year-old Kim Han-mi, strapped to her mother's back, and her father and grandmother flee past an Chinese soldier as they rush for freedom
  27. 29. … 2002 <ul><li>August - Chun is released from Chinese prison. U.S. officials intervene to get two of the 13 refugees — a girl and her mother with family in the U.S. — out of Chinese prison. August - A group of refugees attempts to enter the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs to plead for asylum; the group, now known as the “MoFA Seven” is arrested at the gates. The MoFA Seven is never heard from again. September - The remaining 11 refugees from Chun’s group are returned to North Korea. </li></ul>
  28. 30. …… ..2002 <ul><li>U.S. President George W. Bush calls North Korea, Iraq and Iran, the “axis of evil.” The Chinese government begins to tighten security around foreign embassies, increasing patrols in the embassy district of Beijing, and erecting new barbed wire cordons near embassies. A diplomatic memorandum is issued warning foreign embassies against sheltering asylum seekers. The Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) requests access to North Koreans in China, but is denied. </li></ul>President George W. Bush on a tour of the North Korean border in South Korea
  29. 31. 2003 <ul><li>The UN Commission on Human Rights adopts a resolution calling on North Korea to respect basic human rights. </li></ul>
  30. 32. 2004 <ul><li>February - Suzanne Scholte of the North Korean Freedom Coalition leads a protest at the Chinese Embassy in Warsaw, Poland during the North Korean Human Rights Conference. An attempt to deliver a letter to the President of China requesting the release from prison of North Korean refugees and Underground Railroad workers is unsuccessful. </li></ul>
  31. 33. … 2004 <ul><li>April - Chinese border guards shoot at a group of North Korean refugees crossing into Mongolia, killing one. </li></ul><ul><li>The first North Korea Freedom Day is held in Washington, D.C. on April 28. Speakers include Sen. Sam Brownback, Rep. Joe Pitts and Rep. Trent Franks. The North Korea Freedom Act and North Korea Human Rights Act are pending in U.S. Congress. </li></ul>North Korea Freedom Day in Washington, D.C.
  32. 34. 2004….. <ul><li>July - 468 North Korean refugees are flown from Southeast Asia to Seoul via Vietnam. North Korea demands that they be repatriated, accusing South Korea of kidnapping the refugees and stopping all government-level talks with South Korea. </li></ul>
  33. 35. …… .2004 <ul><li>The UN Commission on Human Rights adopts a second resolution calling on North Korea to respect basic human rights and appoints Thai academic, Vitit Muntarbhorn, as special rapporteur to investigate human rights conditions in North Korea. Two members of the Committee on the Rights of the Child are given unprecedented permission to visit North Korea. They document mistreatment of children returned from China, as well as issues of economic exploitation, trafficking and juvenile justice, including cases of torture. </li></ul>
  34. 36. 2004………….. <ul><li>North Korea announces that it has created nuclear weapons “to serve as a deterrent against increasing U.S. nuclear threats.” North Korea invites British Foreign Office Minister Bill Rammell to Pyongyang. North Korean officials confirm existence of labor camps in North Korea for “re-education.” </li></ul>
  35. 37. 2004….end <ul><li>U.S. Congress unanimously passes the North Korea Human Rights Act of 2004, and it is signed into law by George W. Bush, calling for more Korean language broadcasts into North Korea and increased funding for NGO’s (non-governmental organizations) that promote “human rights, democracy, rule of law and the development of a market economy.” </li></ul>
  36. 38. 2005 <ul><li>The UN Commission on Human Rights adopts a third consecutive resolution condemning North Korea’s poor human rights record, calling for North Korea to end its “systematic, widespread and grave violations of human rights.” </li></ul>
  37. 39. 2005… <ul><li>South Korea’s Dong A newspaper reports that Beijing sent back 30 North Korean refugees after North Korea’s first foreign minister, Kang Sok-ju, visited Beijing. North Korea’s famine has killed more than two-and-a-half million people, or ten percent of North Korea’s population. </li></ul>
  38. 40. 2005 <ul><li>September - Eleven months after the North Korea Human Rights Act became law, presidential appointee Jay Lefkowitz takes office as the Special Envoy for North Korean Human Rights. Congress has yet to appropriate the funding authorized in the Act. </li></ul>
  39. 41. 2005….end <ul><li>November - The UN General Assembly passes a resolution condemning North Korea for its human rights abuses. South Korea abstains for the fourth year in a row. December - North Korea orders the UN World Food Program to cease its humanitarian operations by December 31. </li></ul>
  40. 42. 2006 <ul><li>March 7: North Korean and U.S. officials meet in New York to discuss North Korea's alleged counterfeiting of U.S. dollars. </li></ul><ul><li>March 8: North Korea test-fires two short-range missiles from a coastal site on the Sea of Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>May 19: South Korean and Japanese officials announce that North Korea has moved a possible Taepodong 2 missile to a launch site. </li></ul>
  41. 43. ...2006 <ul><li>July 5: North Korea launches at least seven missiles, including a long-range Taepodong 2 missile that falls into the Sea of Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>July 15: The United Nations Security Council unanimously adopts Resolution 1695 , which condemns North Korea's missile launches earlier in the month and demands it cease its ballistic missile activities. </li></ul><ul><li>July 16: North Korea rejects the resolution, vowing to &quot;bolster its war-deterrent.&quot; </li></ul>
  42. 44. Taepodong 2 missile range
  43. 45. 2006… <ul><li>August 17: ABC News reports that &quot;suspicious vehicle movements, including the unloading of large reels of cables outside an underground facility, have been observed in a remote location in North Korea.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>September 26: Selig Harrison of the Center for International Policy returns from North Korea with news that Pyongyang is planning to unload fuel rods at the Yongbyon reactor, &quot;beginning this fall, and not later than the end of the year.&quot; </li></ul>
  44. 46. Yongbyon reactor
  45. 47. … .2006 <ul><li>September 26: North Korea rejects further talks on its nuclear program, asserting that Washington wants to rule the world. </li></ul><ul><li>October 3: North Korea announces it will conduct a nuclear test, but no date is given. </li></ul><ul><li>October 6: The United Nations Security Council adopts a presidential statement expressing &quot;deep concern&quot; over North Korea's declaration that it will conduct a nuclear test. </li></ul>
  46. 48. 2006 The United Nations strongly condemns the nuclear test. <ul><li>October 14: The United Nations Security Council votes unanimously to impose sanctions on North Korea and demands that Pyongyang cease its pursuit of weapons of mass destruction, declaring that its action constitutes a &quot;threat to international peace and security.&quot; North Korea immediately rejects the resolution. </li></ul>
  47. 49. 2006…... <ul><li>October 17: North Korea says it considers the U.N. sanctions &quot;a declaration of war.&quot; Japan and South Korea news agencies report that North Korea might be preparing a second explosion. </li></ul><ul><li>October 17-22: Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice travels to Japan, South Korea, China, and Russia to discuss implementation of the U.N. resolution and solidify support for sanctions. </li></ul>
  48. 50. 2006……end <ul><li>October 31: North Korea agrees to return to the six-nation nuclear disarmament talks. </li></ul><ul><li>December 2: Five days of negotiations with diplomats from six nations end in failure. North Korea said it would only negotiate on their nuclear weapons program after the U.S. lifts restrictions imposed on several North Korean accounts at Banco Delta Asia in Macau. The accounts are suspected of being used for money-laundering operations. </li></ul>
  49. 51. 2007 <ul><li>February 8: Six-nation talks resume. </li></ul><ul><li>February 13: North Korea agrees to shut down its main nuclear reactor and eventually dismantle its atomic weapons program in exchange for fuel oil. The deal marks the first solid plan for disarmament in more than three years of negotiations. </li></ul>
  50. 52. North Koreans have said they would die for their Dear Leader “ H e's been called an evil genius and just plain crazy ”

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