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Animal Farmand Russia

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  • 1. Animal Farm A Satire/Allegory on the Russian Revolution
  • 2. Russian Revolution
    • How It Started
    • Czar Nicolas II
    • absolute power
    • huge social gulf between the peasants and the land owner and the elite
    • peasants and workers begin rebelling against the Czar in 1905
  • 3. The Russian Revolution 1917-1945
    • Tsar Nicholas II (Monarch of Russia) - surrendered power after a complicated civil war
      • His family was in rule for three centuries
      • Very small portion of people owned everything
      • most were poor
      • Alexander Kerensky became Premier and was soon ousted
  • 4. Bolshevik power
    • Vladimir Lenin was leader
    • gained control in 1917
    • had the Romanov family murdered in 1918
    • wanted Communism
  • 5. Russian Revolution Leaders
    • Vladimir Lenin (Builder of the Russian Revolution) based his theories on Karl Marx (and Frederick Engles) –both were German philosophers and the writers of “The Communist Manifesto”
    • Lenin became ill and a need for new leadership arose
    • Four People bode for power
      • Joseph Stalin
      • Gregory Zinoviev
      • Leon Trotsky
      • Lev Kamenev
  • 6. Communism
    • Comes from the root word of “community”
    • -equal distribution of wealth and possessions among Russia’s citizens
    • Karl Marx is “The father of communism”
  • 7. About Lenin:
    • Marxist revolutionist
    • led Bolsheviks
    • used the Red Guard to stop others from taking over Russia, then used it to take over Russia himself
    • led a campaign of “Red Terror" in 1918
    • - a systematic plot to execute opponents of communism
  • 8. Lenin…
      • created a New Economic Policy
      • allowed for limited private ownership of land and business
      • Called it ‘breathing space” for Communism to prevail moved capital to Moscow
    • renamed Russia to Soviet Union in 1922
    • named his party the Communist party in 1917
      • “ October Revolution” killed many to gain control and instate Communism
  • 9. More about Lenin…
      • named Joseph Stalin -Secretary General
      • powerful position in Communist party
      • ability to make appointments to other positions of power
      • ability to gain important allies
      • 1922- Lenin suffers paralyzing strokes
      • removed from leadership position
      • 1924- Lenin dies
      • Stalin and Trotsky struggle for power
  • 10. Russian Revolution Power
    • Joseph Stalin: Built his power behind the lines
    • Leon Trotsky: Was popular/charismatic, and famous for his speeches
    • Lenin dies in 1924: Stalin leads an alliance against Trotsky and becomes Dictator of Russia
  • 11. Stalin Wins!
    • Stalin out-maneuvers Trotsky and gains control
    • Stalin starts to isolate Trotsky within the party because he is a threat
  • 12. Leon Trotsky
    • gifted speaker and writer
    • political genius
    • tried to end Russian involvement in WWI
    • great thoughts and plans but had trouble actually installing them
    • was not liked by Lenin
  • 13. Joseph Stalin In Control
    • 1924- assumes full control after Lenin dies
  • 14. Stalin’s Repression & Terror
    • terrorized country with widespread arrests and executions
    • anyone thought to be opposed to Stalin and Communism was executed on the spot
  • 15. “ Reign of Terror”
      • 1934 “great purges” and “show trials”
      • sent millions to Soviet labor camps
      • 2-7 million innocent citizens are murdered
      • forced confessions
      • public accusations
      • employed KGB to repress any opposition
      • used publications to report statistics inaccurately in his favor
  • 16. Secret Police
    • Created secret police force KGB and later known as the NKVD.
    • August 1938 Stalin brought Beria to Moscow as deputy head of the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs ( NKVD )
    Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria
  • 17. Stalin his plan
      • 1928 First “Five Year Plan”
      • attempt to make Russia a modern industrial state
      • “ comrades” need to work harder so Soviet Russia can be a beacon of hope to workers everywhere
      • The following Poster is one that was used during the first Five Year plan in order to get the message across that the Soviet people should work together and promote industrialization.
  • 18. Stalin in Power
      • 1933 Second “Five Year Plan”- emphasized rapid growth of Soviet Industry
      • this worked fairly well, by the end Soviet Russia was a formidable world power
  • 19. Cult Of Personality
    • A cult of personality or personality cult arises when a country's leader uses mass media to create a larger-than-life public image through unquestioning flattery and praise.
  • 20. Stalin the cult of personality
  • 21. Secret Agreement
    • “ German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact”: secret agreement between Stalin and Hitler
    • neither country would attack each other
  • 22. Liar!
    • Hitler lied!
    • 1941- “Operation Barbarossa”
    • Germany fully attacks Russia!
  • 23. Stalin’s Rule Against Trotsky
    • After Stalin came to power he wanted Trotsky out
    • Trotsky was banished three times from three places
      • 1 st : Expelled from Moscow
      • 2 nd : Expelled from the Communist Party
      • 3 rd : Expelled from Russia in 1936
      • Trotsky fled to Mexico in 1936
      • He was assassinated by Stalin’s orders in 1940
      • Stalin also had others assassinated under his rule including one of his own-Serge Kirov in 1934. This was done as a show-trial
  • 24. Trotsky’s Blame
    • During Stalin’s rule:
      • Russia’s economic system failed
      • Violence, fear, and starvation occurred throughout the country
      • Trotsky was blamed for it all
      • called “T rotskyism”
        • Trotsky was blamed even after his assassination
        • Those who were associated with Trotsky were executed
        • In all, over 20 million citizens were purged (killed, imprisoned, or severely made to change)
  • 25. Stalin’s Doctors' plot
    • Was an alleged conspiracy to eliminate the leadership of the Soviet Union by means of Jewish doctors taking top leadership.
    • If America would see the way the Jews were treated, USA would want to fight Russia.
    • After the death of Joseph Stalin in March 1953 , the new Soviet leaders admitted that the case was fabricated.
  • 26. Stalin Dies
    • Stalin ruled as absolute dictator throughout WWII and until his death on March 5 th , 1953.
    • Theory on how he died:
    • 1 .Stalin was poisoned with warfarin , a powerful rat poison that makes blood rush to your brain, and the victim has a hemorrhagic stroke (cerebral hemorrhage).
    • 2 .He probably suffered a stroke that paralyzed the right side of his body. Later dying of cerebral hemorrhage
  • 27. Communism
    • Communism:
    • Social Utopia where all property is held in common and ALL are equal
      • (Production and goods are commonly owned)
    Friedrich Engels Karl Marx
  • 28. Socialism
    • Socialism: A social system or theory in which the producers possess political power and the means of producing and distributing goods
  • 29. Capitalism
    • Capitalism: Economic system characterized by open competition in a free market and by private corporate ownership of the means of production and distribution
    Smith devised a set of concepts that remain strongly associated with capitalism today, particularly his theory of the " invisible hand " of the market, through which the pursuit of individual interest produces a collective good for society. Adam Smith
  • 30. Symbolism
    • *Russian Revolution = Animal Farm
    • *Stalin =Napoleon
    • *Communism = “ Animalism ”
  • 31. Allegory
    • Underlying meaning and surface meaning
    • -Grand in scope
  • 32. FABLE
    • - A short story that has a moral and has animals as characters
  • 33. SATIRE
    • -A story that makes fun of something
  • 34. George Orwell
    • George Orwell: Eric Blair
    • Animal Farm “ A Fairy Story ”
    • Orwell was born in England in 1903 and passed away in 1950
    • Educated at private schools including Eton
      • Was a part of snobbishness and elitism which lead him to hating the class system
      • disapproved of Communism
      • a socialist
        • Communism was not pure socialism because:
        • gulf in society
        • control of the peasants
        • Hypocritical
        • used his writings to communicate a political message
  • 35. Orwell and Satire
    • Orwell became a socialist as well as a satirist
    • Satire: The use of ridicule to attack ideas/failures/evil action
    • Orwell became a critic of capitalism and communism
    • Animal Farm is a Satire and an Allegory
  • 36. Characters and Their Historical Correlation
    • Napoleon: Pig, Joseph Stalin and Napoleon B. of France
    • Snowball: Pig, Leon Trotsky
    • Boxer: Cart Horse, Working Class Society/Inability to think for self
    • Squealer: Pig, Spread a propaganda
    • Major: Prize Winning Boar, Karl Marx and V. Lenin
    • Clover: Female Cart Horse, Ignorant Society
    • Moses: Tame Raven, Religion/Hope
    • Mollie: Mare, Bourgeoisie (upper middle-class)
    • Benjamin: Long Lived Donkey, Satirist-Change is inevitable
  • 37. Characters and Their Historical Correlation
    • Muriel: Goat, helps convey the rules/7 commandments
    • Mr. Jones: Manor Farm, Tsar Nicholas II
    • Mr. Frederick: Pinchfield Farm, Hitler/Nazi Germany
    • Mr. Pilkington: Foxwood Farm, Capitalist England/U.S.A.
    • Mr. Whymper: Human Solicitor, ties humans and animals together
    • Jessie and Bluebell/Pups: Dogs, Stalin ’ s brute force-rep. of Hitler ’ s brainwashed society
    • Minimus: Poet Pig, Manipulator of History (Songs)
  • 38. Chapter’s 1 (Summary)
    • Drunken Mr. Jones to bed/animals meet in the barn
    • Major Wishes to pass his wisdom
      • Talks about miserable lives and manipulation/born as slaves
        • Could live in luxury given the resources
        • Use the products of their labors
    • Dream from the Previous Night
      • Live free and happy
      • Animals vs. humans (2 legged walking ‘ creatures ’ )
      • Once they take the humans they can ’ t acquire their traits
        • Ex: live in a house, sleep in beds, drink, smoke, $, clothes, trade (p. 31)
      • “ Beasts of England ” ---an animal Utopia
    • Mr. Jones fires a shotgun and stops the commotion
  • 39. Chapter 1 (Analysis)
    • “ Beasts of England”- the animals will finally be free from man’s domination—enjoy the fruits of their labors
    • The song words lead to a ‘false reality’
      • (Reality vs. a Dream Utopia)
    • Major’s simple belief is that ‘Man’ is the only reason for their evil (makes it easy for anyone non human to buy in to the situation
      • Idea touches on class struggle, surplus value, and domination
      • Idea is sincere, but it’s only a fantasy—just like . . .
      • Major states: “All animals are equal”
    • Lenin dies just as Major-leaving his work unfinished
    • Ch. 1=Historic to period before and during WWI
      • Ends with great unrest!
  • 40. Chapter 2 (Summary)
    • Napoleon/Snowball description (35)
    • The Rebellion-Animals take farm and preserve the house
    • Animalism
    • Moses-Sugar Candy Mountain
    • 7 Commandments:
      • 1. 2 legs is the enemy
      • 2. 4 legs or wings is a friend
      • 3. No clothes
      • 4. No bed
      • 5. No alcohol
      • 6. Not kill any other animal
      • 7. All animals are equal
  • 41. Chapter 2 (Analysis)
    • Russian Revolution Becomes very clear
      • Manor Farm- Part feudal, Part capitalist = Russia
    • Major represents Marx’s philosophy of communism, and Lenin who enacted it = Animalism
      • Animals=working class (esp. Boxer and Clover)
    • Pigs = intelligentsia (organized and controlled the Rev.)
    • Squealer = Propaganda
    • Moses = Russian Orthodox Church
    • Mollie = Bourgeoisie (Luxuries)
    • Russia began with noble ideas including moral dignity and equality-quickly gone on Animal Farm
    • Orwell’s description of pre-rebellion misery-social inequality and mistreatment of workers
  • 42. Chapter 3 (Summary)
    • “ 4 legs good, 2 legs bad ” -
    • Pigs take charge/superiority-
      • take the milk
      • Raise the pups
    • A lot of work is done- BOXER “ I will work harder ”
    • Flag with hoof and horn (Russian Flag)
    • Snowball and Napoleon fight (p48)
    • Pigs take human ways (p49)
    • Socialists goals became meaningless tools used for control
    • 4 legs/2 legs — what about wings?
    • Dog Army-(p51)
    • Manipulation (Read Passage)-(p52)
  • 43. Chapter 3 (Analysis)
    • Boxer’s (People’s) blind faith in the system
    • Imbalance of knowledge and literacy
      • Pigs/Stalin-sole guardians of Animal Farm/Russian principals
    • 7 Commandments
      • Antihuman directive (no clothes), moral values (no kill other animal), utopian ideas (all animals equal)
        • 4 legs good/2 legs bad=not part of the above ideals
          • Propaganda was used to ignore their own unhappiness/shift focus
    • Squealer = Propaganda to control the people
    • Satire – “Good of the State” –emphasizes Russia’s own downfall-pokes fun
  • 44. Chapter 4 (Summary)
    • The Short Version
      • Battle of Cowshed
      • Medals: Animal Hero First Class
        • Snowball and Boxer
  • 45. Chapter 4 (Analysis)
    • Allusion: Julius Caesar
    • Russian Interwar Period
    • Trotsky: In order for Communism to work, it has to be global
    • Domino Effect = Non communists become communist
      • Pres. Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson used this to justify military involvement in Turkey, Greece, and Vietnam
    • Rumors spread of Russia
    • People fight but don’t understand what their fighting for
      • Their own oppression = Irony
    • Orwell was (perhaps) denouncing Comm. & non-Comm.
      • Mr. Jones = Irresponsible/Neglect
      • Mr. P = Don’t do anything
  • 46. Chapter 5 (Summary)
    • Mollie decides to change sides
    • Napoleon/Snowball argue a lot
      • Each campaign for supporters
    • Windmill plans completed – debate over the project
    • Snowball is attacked and ousted
    • Napoleon takes power (Pig Power)
    • Boxer adds to his ‘ catch phrase ’ “ I will work harder ”
      • “ Napoleon is always right ”
  • 47. Chapter 5 (Analysis)
    • Napoleon rises as did Stalin
      • Snowball/Trotsky is banished
    • Stalin has his own secret police (intelligentsia) = Dogs
    • 3 rd World Country (p64)- Build technology/electricity
      • Stalin first balked at it, then adopted it as his own idea
    • Orwell was part of a Trotskyist group in the late 1930’s during the Spanish Civil War
      • Could be why Snowball is looked at in a positive manner
    • Importance of technological advances in Russia is essential
      • Much effort was put into the overall change
      • As previously mention-Stalin shunned it at 1 st , then took it as his own
  • 48. Chapter 6 (Summary)
    • Work weeks were now 60hr/wk and work on Sundays
    • Food rations were cut
    • Animals eager to take more work b/c it ’ s for their own benefit
    • Mr. Whimper-Human solicitor introduced
      • Used to obtain outside goods needed (iron, nails, paraffin oil)
    • Pigs now live and sleep in farm house
    • Commandments changed
      • No animal shall sleep in a bed with sheets
    • Storm destructs windmill
      • Supposed work of Snowball
    • Snowball is given a death sentence
  • 49. Chapter 6 (Analysis)
    • Government Oppression (not just in Russia)
      • Overworked working class
      • Government justified luxuries
      • Propaganda is used to cover up mistakes
    • Governments tend to blame others for their own deficiencies and wrong doings to keep their own standing
      • Ex: Communist Russia vs. Trotskyism
      • Ex: U.S.A. vs. Communism
    • By shifting the blame it is easy to manipulate
    • Orwell’s idea: Tyranny is Cyclical
      • More Power = More Corrupt = Become what is was in 1 st place
        • Pigs evolve into grotesque human beings-increased resemblance of humans
  • 50. Chapter 7 (Summary)
    • Harsh winter w/ food shortage (p85) – Animals are misled
    • Humans don ’ t believe Snowball ruined wall-rebuilt at 3 ’ thick
    • Egg shortage- increased export/morally wrong
      • Hens rebel and 9 die
    • Snowball ’ s supposed visits to farm- Everything blamed on him
      • ‘ Tied ’ to Pinchfield (associate of Mr. Jones p 89)
      • Battle of Cowshed bravery taken away and used against him p90
      • Napoleon ’ s battle bravery is hyped up
      • Squealer ’ s persuasion makes them believe p90
    • Napoleon stages a purge and takes more power
      • Pigs are forced to falsely confess to conspiracy w/ Snowball
        • They are said to be ‘ Trotskyists ’ and immediately killed p91/92
        • Boxer stands up for the animals-Napoleon immediately stops Boxer
        • Egg rebellion confession- 3 more hens killed
  • 51. Chapter 7 (Summary Cont.)
    • Boxer ’ s explanation of problem at hand p94
      • The fault is our own = WORK HARDER
    • Clover wonders how farm could have gotten like it is
      • Animals not smart enough to figure it out
    • Squealer: “ No more beasts of England ”
      • Song only applies to the rebellion-no need for rebellion now
    • New song with no inspiration
      • “ Animal Farm. . . ” - Glorifies the situation
  • 52. Chapter 7 (Analysis)
    • Stalin’s 5 year plan for agriculture resulted in starvation of millions
      • Industrial production was also down
    • Violent tactics of oppressive governments
      • Massive class divisions in egalitarian/true communist society
    • Stalin also had ‘show trials’ (trials w/ preset outcome)
      • Forced people to admit Trotskyism
      • People tortured until admission then executed
    • Stalin kept a common enemy- Trotsky
      • Create fear for people-no one challenged his rule
    • Manipulated statistics- illusion that all is good/better
    • Fear installed b/c people believe propaganda
    • An indestructible dictatorship formed-far from communism
  • 53. Chapter 8 (Summary)
    • No kill commandment is changed to “ . . . w/out cause ”
    • Animals work harder to rebuild windmill
    • Very cold winter with famine
    • Napoleon takes title of “ Leader ”
    • Minimus writes a poem on barn praising Napoleon
    • Controversy between Frederick and Pilkington w/ firewood
    • Windmill is finished-Mr. F. and men blow it up
      • Several animals are killed/Boxer is injured
    • Pigs get drunk
    • Squealer caught w/ paint brush (changing commandments)
      • Animals not smart enough to figure it out
    • Alcohol Commandment Changed to “ . . . In excess ”
  • 54. Chapter 8 (Analysis)
    • Overall idea of manipulated rules and govt. to benefit the politically and militaristic powers
    • Minimus’s Poem: great irony/satire of patriotic rhetoric
      • Creates a misdirection (propaganda) for the public
    • Pilkington vs. Frederick Incident
      • Russia/Stalin’s back and forth nature of siding with Germany and then the Allies at the outset of WWII
      • @ last moment, Stalin signs a non-aggression pact with Hitler
      • Hitler (Frederick) betrays his word and invades Western Russia killing 25 million Russians and destroying much of the infrastructure built up during the Russian Revolution
      • This is known as the Battle of Stalingrad
        • Movie: Enemy at the Gate
  • 55. Chapter 9 (Summary)
    • Start to rebuild the Windmill
    • Boxer grows weak
    • Food Shortage Evident (but not for Pigs and Dogs)
      • They say it ’ s still better than Mr. Jones ’ s era
    • Napoleon has 31 piglets w/ 4 sows-builds a schoolhouse
    • Spontaneous demonstrations promoting animal farm
    • Animal farm declared a Republic- Napoleon named Pres.
    • Snowball has rumored to say “ Long live humanity ” during the battle of cowshed
    • Sugar Candy Mountain stories started again by Moses
    • Boxer fails and collapses
      • Arranged for ambulance (Glue Factory)
      • Boxer announced as incurable and had died (False info )
  • 56. Chapter 9 (Analysis)
    • Blatant downfall of Animal Farm/Russia
    • Boxer’s death is ironic
      • He worked for the good of all, but is sold for the good of a few
      • Boxer is sold for alcohol
      • His death breaks a lot of commandments
    • Death in a Glue Factory increases the dramatic power of Orwell’s words
    • Russian administration exhausted its worker resources and then discarded them
    • Return of Moses means shift of focus of working class
      • Stalin brought back the Russian Orthodox Church after WWII
    • Spontaneous Demonstrations= Ironic b/c they weren’t spontaneous, they were all planned out for propaganda
  • 57. Chapter 10 (Summary)
    • Many years have now passed (Dead: Muriel, Pincher, Bluebell, Jessie, Mr. Jones, . . .)
    • Windmill is now used for corn = more $
    • Pigs and dogs are still in luxury
    • Other animals still accept the goals of the original Rebellion
      • This is a world free of humans with equality for animals
    • Squealer is now walking on his hind legs only
      • Sheep adopt the maxim: “ 4 legs good, 2 legs better ”
    • Only 1 commandment is left!
      • “ All animals are equal, but some are more equal than others ”
      • Napoleon smokes pipe, others read, use radio/phone, wear clothes
    • Napoleon and Pilkington toast each other- No more Comrade
    • Name changed back to Manor Farm
    • Card Game-Ace of Spades played at the same time (Nap/Pilk)
    • No longer distinguish the card players from the humans/pigs
  • 58. Chapter 10 (Analysis)
    • Totalitarian Communism (controlled by the state/dictator)
      • No socialism or utopia at all
    • Napoleon B. (France) used to be thought of as great during his conquest until he crowned himself emperor of France
      • Instead of abolishing aristocracy, he formed it around himself
    • Hope is help until the end-provides dramatic contrast
    • Original ideas by Major/Marx = Dream/Philosophy
    • Very shocking language- evolution of events
    • Cooperation of Russia and the West during WWII is evident
    • Quarrel over what both desire but can’t have is evident
      • WORLD DOMINATION
    • Banquet shows coop w/ Eng./U.S.A./Russia during WWII
    • Stalin dies in 1953