Patterns of Usage
    in an Enterprise File-Sharing Service:
    Publicizing, Discovering, & Telling the News


Michael Mu...
Agenda

• File-sharing in an enterprise
• Factor analysis of file-sharing usage patterns
   –   Upload & Publicize
   –   ...
File-Sharing in an Enterprise

• Cattail, an enterprise file-sharing service
   – Centralized
   – Authenticated for all a...
Cattail Features and Capabilities

• Capabilities
    – Upload                            –   Share (recommend) *
    – Do...
Factor Analysis

• Review of the method of factor analysis
   – Start with too many variables
   – Find subsets of variabl...
Factor Analysis
                                                     Factor
Eigenvalue             2.995            1.192 ...
Factor Analysis Results

• Upload  Publicize (15935 users, 18.1%)
     Upload + Share-own + Collect-own
   – Interest in a...
Interpretation: How do people use file-sharing in enterprise?

  • Both more social and less social than anticipated
     ...
A UI for each Factor? Or combined UI?
Factor             Upload             Annotate           Discover
                  ...
A UI for each Factor? Or combined UI?
   Factor                 Upload             Annotate           Discover
           ...
Summary of Contributions

• Four factors in file sharing
   –   In the enterprise (and beyond?)
   –   Patterns of sociali...
Who is Missing? Future Work

• Analyses so far
   – How do people use file-sharing in the enterprise?
        • Four facto...
Thank you!
michael_muller@us.ibm.com

Slides are on Slideshare.net
      tagged with #chi2010



            IBM Research ...
Factor Analysis
                                                  Factor
Eigenvalue          2.995            1.192       ...
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Usage Of Enterprise File Sharing Service Muller Chi 2010

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We conducted a principle components analysis of users' actions in an enterprise file-sharing service. We describe four factors, their attributes with respect to social action and awareness, and their implications for design.

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Usage Of Enterprise File Sharing Service Muller Chi 2010

  1. 1. Patterns of Usage in an Enterprise File-Sharing Service: Publicizing, Discovering, & Telling the News Michael Muller, David R Millen, & Jonathan Feinberg* IBM Research / Collaborative User Experience IBM Center for Social Software Cambridge, MA, USA * Jonathan Feinberg is now at Google. IBM Research 1
  2. 2. Agenda • File-sharing in an enterprise • Factor analysis of file-sharing usage patterns – Upload & Publicize – Annotate & Watch – Discover & Tell – Refind • Interpretation – Both more and less social than anticipated – Design what and for whom? – Who is missing? Future analyses IBM Research 2
  3. 3. File-Sharing in an Enterprise • Cattail, an enterprise file-sharing service – Centralized – Authenticated for all access – Simpler than peer-to-peer or public networks • Cattail statistical profile – Users 88270 (many job roles, 80 countries) – Uploaders15943 (18%) – Files 120288 (diverse formats) – Downloads 728509 • Related work – Dropbox / UD Dropbox (Schwartz, 2007) – Apocrita (Reynolds et al., 2005) – Studies of file-sharing (Christin et al., 2005; Lee, 2003; Rader, 2009; Voida et al., 2006; Whalen et al., 2008) IBM Research 3
  4. 4. Cattail Features and Capabilities • Capabilities – Upload – Share (recommend) * – Download * – Collect * – – Annotate * – – Watch * * Can be done on own files or on files that were uploaded by others A F H B P C D Q G E B IBM Research 4
  5. 5. Factor Analysis • Review of the method of factor analysis – Start with too many variables – Find subsets of variables that are highly correlated with one another summarize each subset of variables as a factor – Continue the analysis in terms of the smaller number of factors – Figures of merit: Eigenvalue & variance-accounted-for • The 10 variables in our factor analysis On own file On file of other Upload Download Share Collect Annotate Watch IBM Research 5
  6. 6. Factor Analysis Factor Eigenvalue 2.995 1.192 1.061 1.001 % Variance 29.945 11.919 10.610 10.011 Factor Upload Annotate Discover Refind Measure Publicize Watch Tell Upload • .935 • .100 .125 .063 Download-Own .064 .021 .014 • .992 • Download-Others’ .033 .066 • .858 • .042 Share-Own • .734 • .202 .198 .073 Share-Others’ .241 .175 • .563 • -.015 Collect-Own • .855 • .062 .035 -.028 Collect-Others’ .085 • .523 • • .407 • -.048 Annotate-Own .276 • .756 • -.021 .071 Annotate-Others’ .134 • .874 • .097 .046 Watch-Others’ .025 • .761 • .184 -.040 IBM Research 6
  7. 7. Factor Analysis Results • Upload Publicize (15935 users, 18.1%) Upload + Share-own + Collect-own – Interest in an audience for own files • Annotate Watch (9780 users, 11.1%) Annotate-own + Annotate-other + Watch-other – Adding value / reviewing rating – Social awareness • Discover Tell (85303 users, 96.7%) Download-other + Share-other + Collect-other – Interest in an audience for others’ files – Personal utility of collections • Refind (5149 users, 5.8%) Refind – Download own files - Cattail as an extension of the user’s local drives IBM Research 7
  8. 8. Interpretation: How do people use file-sharing in enterprise? • Both more social and less social than anticipated – More social • Sharing, Collecting for use by others – Upload Publicize – Discover Tell • Similar to “Information Curators” finding (ECSCW 2009) • Apparently easy to organize (confer Rader, 2009, in public networks) – “Yours, mine, and… ours” appears to be possible in enterprise sharing – Less social • Refind – Public-access files with no viewers a sharing-failure case? • Users appropriated the technology for unanticipated purposes (Dourish, 2001; Kujala Kauppinen, 2004) – Impression management (see also Thom-Santelli et al, 2008) – Curating (ECSCW 2009) – Refinding IBM Research 8
  9. 9. A UI for each Factor? Or combined UI? Factor Upload Annotate Discover Refind Publish Watch Tell Upload 4301 13269 5143 - Publish (4.9%) (15.0%) (5.8%) Annotate 4301 9368 2054 - Watch (4.9%) (10.6%) (2.3%) Discover 13269 9368 4640 - Tell (15.0%) (10.6%) (5.3%) 5143 2054 4640 Refind - (5.8%) (2.3%) (5.3%) 15935 9780 85303 5149 Total (18.1%) (11.1%) (96.7%) (5.9%) • Promote files + • Structured • Promote files + collections discussion collections • Synchroniza- • Impression threads / file • Impression tion (private Potential management • Has my management disk £ Cattail) Features • Ratings by annotation • Ratings by • Ego-centric readers been read? By readers filters • Search terms whom? • Search terms IBM Research 9
  10. 10. A UI for each Factor? Or combined UI? Factor Upload Annotate Discover Refind Publish Watch Tell Upload 4301 13269 5143 - Publish (4.9%) (15.0%) (5.8%) Annotate 4301 9368 2054 - Watch (4.9%) (10.6%) (2.3%) Discover 13269 9368 4640 - Tell (15.0%) (10.6%) (5.3%) 5143 2054 4640 Refind - (5.8%) (2.3%) (5.3%) Same features Many users 15935 9780 85303 5149 for Total different two (18.1%) (11.1%) (96.7%) engage in more (5.9%) factors than one factor • Promote files + • Structured • Promote files + collections discussion collections • Synchroniza- Three factors Three factors • Impression threads / file • Impression tion (private deal with Potential deal with groups management • Has my management disk £ Cattail) of awareness Features of artifacts • Ratings by annotation • Ratings by • Ego-centric actions by readers been read? By readers filters • Search terms whom? • Search terms others, with impression IBM Research management 10
  11. 11. Summary of Contributions • Four factors in file sharing – In the enterprise (and beyond?) – Patterns of sociality – Patterns of individual utility – Appropriation of technology for new purposes • Implications for design – Unified user interface, supporting • Work with collections of artifacts • Impression management • Ratings by readers • Awareness of the work of others IBM Research 11
  12. 12. Who is Missing? Future Work • Analyses so far – How do people use file-sharing in the enterprise? • Four factors in usage (this note) – “Information curators” (ECSCW 2009) – Focused on people who changed the database • Upload original content • Contribute: Share (recommend), Annotate, Collect… • (also Downloaders) – Our four factors are primarily about visible contributions to the system • Lurkers in file-sharing – Lurkers are the modal users (75%) – How do lurkers use file-sharing? – What do lurkers need from a file-sharing service? – Should lurkers eventually become contributors? – Hearing the “silent” users IBM Research 12
  13. 13. Thank you! michael_muller@us.ibm.com Slides are on Slideshare.net tagged with #chi2010 IBM Research 13
  14. 14. Factor Analysis Factor Eigenvalue 2.995 1.192 1.061 1.001 % Variance 29.945 11.919 10.610 10.011 Factor Upload Annotate Discover Refind Measure Publicize Watch Tell Upload • .935 • .100 .125 .063 Download-Own .064 .021 .014 • .992 • Download-Others’ .033 .066 • .858 • .042 Share-Own • .734 • .202 .198 .073 Share-Others’ .241 .175 • .563 • -.015 Collect-Own • .855 • .062 .035 -.028 Collect-Others’ .085 • .523 • • .407 • -.048 Annotate-Own .276 • .756 • -.021 .071 Annotate-Others’ .134 • .874 • .097 .046 Watch-Others’ .025 • .761 • .184 -.040 IBM Research 14

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