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Telecom Operartors Terminology


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Telecom Operartors Terminology

  1. 1. Sl Abbreviation Expansion The nationwide number to reach the telecommunications relay service (TRS). 1 711 TRS enables telephone conversations between people with speech or hearing disabilities and people without speech or hearing disabilities. IEEE standards for wireless LANs with specs for 1mbps, 2mbps, 11mbps, and 2 802.11 24mbps. Refers to guaranteed message receipt or advanced messaging, ensuring 3 1.5-Way Paging subscribers receive messages sent when they're out of range, but users cannot send text pages. Two-way paging allows users to send and receive. A paging service that offers more than guaranteed messaging but not as much 4 1.7-Way Paging as full two-way paging. The subscriber has limited response messaging, such as canned messages, rather than the ability to create responses. 5 1G First generation of mobile wireless that utilizes analog air interface technology. Interim step building up to 3G involving overlay of higher-capacity data 6 2.5G transmission capability to existing 2G digital wireless networks. Second generation of mobile wireless, which utilizes various digital protocols, 7 2G including GSM, CDMA, TDMA, iDEN, and PDC. The first two PCS licenses that were auctioned by the FCC in March 1995. Each 8 A and B PCS Blocks contains 30 MHz of spectrum in the 1900 MHz band and is based on MTA geographic partitions. In early 1981, the FCC announced that it would approve two licenses in each 9 A Block wireless market: a non-wireline company (which became known as the "A" side carrier), and a wireline company (the "B" side carrier). A feature found on cellular telephones permitting the user (when roaming 10 A/B Switch away from home) to select either the "A" (non-wireline) carrier or the "B" (wireline) carrier. A special fee that local telephone companies are allowed to charge all telephone customers for the right to connect with the local phone network. 11 Access Fee Cellular subscribers pay this fee along with a 3 percent federal telephone excise tax. A telephone line reaching from the telephone company central office to a point 12 Access Line on a private premise. Usually equates to one customer line. Adjacent Channel Signal impairment to one frequency due to presence of another signal on a 13 Interference nearby frequency. A system that allows a wireless user to make and receive phone calls while Advanced Intelligent Network roaming in areas outside the user's "home" network. AINs enable service 14 (AIN) providers to define, test and introduce new multimedia messaging, PCS and cell routing. Advanced Mobile Phone An analog cellular radio standard that serves as the foundation for the U.S. 15 Service (AMPS) cellular industry. AMPS represents the first generation of wireless networks. Companies that assist carriers with building a wireless network. The affiliate 16 Affiliate may use the primary carrier's brand name, network operations, customer service or other facilities. The standard operating system of a wireless network. Technologies include 17 Air Interface AMPS, TDMA, CDMA and GSM.
  2. 2. Sl Abbreviation Expansion Actual time spent talking on the cellular telephone. Most carriers bill customers based on how many minutes of airtime they use each month. Airtime charges 18 Airtime during peak periods of the day vary from about 20 cents to more than 40 cents per minute, depending on the service plan selected. Most carriers offer reduced rates for off-peak usage. A secret number issued to a cellular phone that is used in conjunction with a 19 A-Key subscriber's shared secret data information for authentication. A message or other type of readout containing both letters ("alphas") and numbers ("numerics"). In cellular, "alphanumeric memory dial" is a special type of dial-from-memory option that displays both the name of the individual and 20 Alphanumeric that individual's phone number on the cellular phone handset. The name also can be recalled by using the letters on the phone keypad. By contrast, standard memory dial recalls numbers from number-only locations. American Mobile A Washington, D.C.-based trade group representing specialized mobile radio 21 Telecommunications operators. A private, non-profit organization that oversees the U.S. voluntary standardization and conformity assessment system. The Institute's mission is to American National Standards 22 enhance both the global competitiveness of U.S. business and the U.S. quality Institute (ANSI) of life by promoting and facilitating voluntary consensus standards and conformity assessment systems, and safeguarding their integrity. A signaling method that uses continuous changes in the amplitude or frequency of a radio transmission to convey information. It relies on a continuous (rather 23 Analog than pulsed as in digital) electrical signal that varies in amplitude or frequency in response to changes of sound, light, position, etc., impressed on a transducer in the sending device; opposite of digital. 24 Antenna A wire or set of wires used to send and receive radio waves. Application-Specific 25 An integrated circuit tailored for a particular piece of electronic equipment. Integrated Circuit (ASIC) Association of Public-Safety Trade group headquartered in South Daytona, Fla., representing law 26 Communications Officials- enforcement, fire, emergency services and other public-safety agency International (APCO) dispatchers and communications employees. The loss of signal energy due to absorption, reflection, or diffusion during 27 Attenuation transmission. The verification process to assure that a wireless device and its user are compatible with and authorized to access a wireless network. This process is 28 Authentication accomplished through transmission of identifying data at the time of connection. Used for fraud prevention. Combining a location-sensing device (such as a GPS receiver) with a wireless Automatic Vehicle Location 29 communications link to provide a home office or dispatcher with the location of (AVL) a vehicle or mobile asset (such as a trailer or heavy machinery). Average Revenue Per Unit Measures the average monthly revenue generated for each customer unit, such 30 (ARPU) as a cellular phone or pager, that a carrier has in operation. In early 1981, the FCC announced that it would approve two licenses in each 31 B Block market- a non-wireline company (which became known as the "A" side carrier), and a wireline company (the "B" side carrier).
  3. 3. Sl Abbreviation Expansion Most areas of the US have two cellular carriers, each of which operates on a different frequency band. One is designated the "A" carrier and the other is 32 B Carrier designated the "B" carrier. In some markets there may be only one carrier which may be "A" or "B". The capacity of a telecom line to carry signals. A greater bandwidth indicates 33 Bandwidth the ability to transmit a greater amount of data over a given period of time. The central radio transmitter/receiver that maintains communications with 34 Base Station mobile radiotelephone sets within a given range (typically a cell site). The part of the wireless system's infrastructure that controls one or multiple cell sites' radio signals, thus reducing the load on the switch. Performs radio 35 Base Station Controller (BSC) signal management functions for base transceiver stations, managing functions such as frequency assignment and handoff. The name for the antenna and radio equipment necessary to provide wireless 36 Base Transceiver Station (BTS) service in an area. Also called a base station or cell site. A geographic region defined by a group of counties that surround a city, which is the area's basic trading center. The boundaries of each BTA were formulated 37 Basic Trading Area (BTA) by Rand McNally & Co. and are used by the FCC determine service areas for PCS wireless licenses. The entire US and some of its territories is divided into 493 non-overlapping BTAs. Satellite technology to transmit calls from one point on Earth to a satellite and 38 Bent Pipe Technology back down to another point. Low-earth orbit satellite systems that will offer voice and data services, 39 Big LEO including Iridium and Globalstar. Wireless personal area network (PAN) standard that enables data connections between electronic devices such as desktop computers, wireless phones, 40 Bluetooth electronic organizers and printers in the 2.4 GHz range at 720kbps within a 30- foot range. Bluetooth depends on mobile devices equipped with a chip for sending and receiving information. Describes a communications medium capable of transmitting a relatively large amount of data over a given period of time. A descriptive term for evolving 41 Broadband digital technologies that offers integrated access to voice, high-speed data service, video-demand services, and interactive delivery services. Personal communications services created in the A- through F-Block auctions and used for voice and data. Broadband PCS is allocated 140 MHz of spectrum 42 Broadband PCS with 20 MHz currently unassigned. Frequency blocks A, B, and C were each assigned 30 MHz of spectrum, while frequency blocks D, E, and F were each assigned 10 MHz of spectrum. Grouping various telecommunications services -- wireline and/or wireless -- as a package to increase the appeal to potential customers and reduce advertising, 43 Bundling marketing and other expenses associated with delivering multiple services. For example, a bundled package could include long distance, cellular, Internet and paging services. The third PCS license that was auctioned by the FCC in May 1996. Each contains 44 C Block 30 MHz of spectrum in the 1900 MHz band and is based on BTA geographic partitions. The licenses were reserved for small businesses and entrepreneurs.
  4. 4. Sl Abbreviation Expansion Enables you to restrict or bar certain or all types of calls to and from your 45 Call Barring mobile phone, i.e. outgoing calls, outgoing international calls, incoming calls. Barring is activated with a personal code. 46 Call Divert Enables you to divert incoming calls to another phone or answering service. 47 Call Hold Enables you to put a caller on hold while a second call is answered or made. Enables you to restrict or bar certain or all types of calls to and from your 48 Call Restriction mobile phone, i.e. outgoing calls, outgoing international calls, incoming calls. 49 Call Transfer Enables you to transfer a caller to another number. If your line is busy, callers are asked to wait while you are alerted to their 50 Call Waiting incoming call. An enhanced feature that displays a caller's phone number on the wireless 51 Caller ID handset receiving the call. Many systems are adding the caller's name to the caller ID. A rate plan selected by subscribers when they start up cellular service, usually consisting of a base rate for system access and a per-minute rate for usage. 52 Calling Plan Service plans are designed to provide the most cost-effective rates for different types and amounts of usage by the cellular subscriber. 53 Cap Code A pager's unique electronic identification number. A 3G technology that is an evolutionary outgrowth of cdmaOne. It offers operators who have deployed a 2G cdmaOne system a seamless migration path to 3G. cdma2000 supports the 2G network aspect of all existing operators regardless of technology (cdmaOne IS-136 TDMA, or GSM). This standard is also known by its ITU name IMT-CDMA Multi-Carrier (1X/3X). cdma2000 has been divided into 2 phases. The first phase capabilities are defined in a standard 54 cdma2000 known as 1X, which introduces 144 kbps packet data in a mobile environment and speeds beyond this in a fixed environment. cdma2000 phase two, known as 3X, incorporates the capabilities of 1X. It also supports all channel sizes (5 MHz, 10 MHz, etc.), provides circuit and packet data rates up to 2 Mbps, incorporates advance multimedia capabilities, and includes a framework for advanced 3G voice services and vocoders, including voice over packet and circuit data. The name used by the CDMA Development Group (CDG) for CDMA networks (IS- 55 cdmaOne 95) using 2nd-generation digital technology. The basic geographic unit of a cellular system. Also, the basis for the generic industry term: "cellular." A city or county is divided into smaller "cells," each of which is equipped with a low-powered radio transmitter/receiver. The cells can vary in size depending upon terrain, capacity demands, etc. By controlling the transmission power, the radio frequencies assigned to one cell can be limited to 56 Cell the boundaries of that cell. When a wireless phone moves from one cell toward another, a computer at the Mobile Telephone Switching Office (MTSO) monitors the movement and at the proper time, transfers or hands off the phone call to the new cell and another radio frequency. The handoff is performed so quickly that it is not noticeable to the callers.
  5. 5. Sl Abbreviation Expansion A wireless telephone that sends and receives messages using radiofrequency 57 Cell Phone energy in the 800-900 megahertz portion of the radiofrequency (RF) spectrum. The location where the wireless antenna and network communications equipment is placed. A cell site consists of a transmitter/receiver, antenna 58 Cell Site tower, transmission radios and radio controllers. A cell site is operated by a Wireless Service Provider (WSP). The process of creating more coverage and capacity in a wireless system by having more than one cell site cover a particular amount of geography. Each 59 Cell Splitting cell site covers a smaller area, with lower power MHz and thus offers the ability to reuse frequencies more times in a larger geographic coverage area, such as a city or MTA. A wireless telephone network that connects radio frequencies from a mobile phone to a system of multiple cell sites, each consisting of an antenna and a base station, to a mobile telephone switching office, and ultimately to the 60 Cellular public wireline telephone system. Called 'cellular' because the system uses many base stations to divide a service area into multiple 'cells'. Cellular calls are transferred from base station to base station as a user travels from cell to cell. The transmission and reception equipment, including the base station antenna, 61 Cellular Base Station which connects a cellular phone to the network. Also called a cell site. An enhanced packet overlay on analog cell phone networks used to transmit and receive data. This technology allows data files to be broken into a number Cellular Digital Packet Data 62 of packets and sent along idle channels of existing cellular voice networks. (CDPD) CDPD provides 19.2 Kbps and is deployed by AT&T among several other carriers. A trade group representing cellular, PCS and enhanced specialized mobile radio Cellular Telecommunications carriers. Customer Proprietary Network Information (CPNI): The carrier's data 63 and Internet Association about a specific customer's service and usage. The FCC governs the usage of (CTIA) CPNI. Generally, information about a customer's account is considered proprietary until the customer authorizes its use. An electrical, electromagnetic, or optical path for communication between two 64 Channel points. In any industry, a measure of the number of customers who leave or switch to 65 Churn another service provider, usually stated as a percentage. Allows a user to use their wireless handset as a modem for laptops, PDAs and other electronic devices via infrared ports or designated data cables. CSD also 66 Circuit Switch Data (CSD) allows a user to access Wireless Internet via their wireless handset (handset must be WAP compatible). A program of the CTIA Foundation providing wireless phones to schools for 67 ClassLink teacher use and student Internet access. A wireless phone programmed with stolen or duplicated electronic serial and mobile identification numbers. The Wireless Telephone Protection Act of 1998 outlawed cloning. The Act prohibits knowingly using, producing, trafficking in, having control or custody of, or possessing hardware or software knowing that 68 Clone/Cloning it has been configured to insert or modify telecommunication identifying information associated with or contained in a telecommunications instrument so that such instrument may be used to obtain telecommunications service without authorization.
  6. 6. Sl Abbreviation Expansion An air interface technology that was developed by the U.S. military and commercialized by the U.S. company Qualcomm. CDMA assigns a code to all speech bits, sends a scrambled transmission of the encoded speech over the air and reassembles the speech to its original form at the other end. CDMA Code Division Multiple Access 69 supports SMS with a message length of 120 characters. With CDMA, each (CDMA) conversation is digitized and then tagged with a code. The mobile phone receives a signal to locate that particular code and it then deciphers the conversation off the airwaves. It codes each conversation expanding it 128 times, making it easy to decipher at the receiving end. Placement of multiple antennas at a common physical site to reduce 70 Collocation environmental impact and real estate costs and speed zoning approvals and network deployment. An FCC designation for any carrier or licensee whose wireless network is Commercial Mobile Radio 71 connected to the public switched telephone network and/or is operated for Service (CMRS) profit. A 1994 law granting law enforcement agencies the ability to wiretap new digital Communications Assistance to 72 networks and requiring wireless and wireline carriers to enable surveillance Law Enforcement Act (CALEA) equipment use in digital networks. Any telephone company that offers service in a specific area. Now that the industry has been deregulated, several companies may offer service in a single Competitive Local Exchange 73 area. New ones entering a market are Competitive Local Exchange Carriers. The Carrier (CLEC) original telephone company at the time of deregulation is known as the Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier (See also "ILEC"). Paging service, beyond telephone number alerts, that include news and sports 74 Content Services headlines, personalized stock quotes, driving directions, restaurant reviews and information contained on Internet sites. A logic channel carrying network information rather than the actual voice or 75 Control Channel data messages transmitted over the network. Refers to the region within which a paging receiver can reliably receive the 76 Coverage transmission of the paging signals. Interference in a wireless communications system from other conversations in 77 Crosstalk nearby cells using the same channel. The average cost to a carrier of signing up an individual subscriber. Some of the 78 Customer Acquisition Cost factors included in the cost are handset subsidies, marketing, advertising and promotions. The fourth and fifth PCS licenses that were auctioned by the FCC in January 1997. Each contains MHz of spectrum in the 1900 MHz band and is based on 79 D and E PCS Blocks BTA geographical partitions. The licenses were reserved for smaller businesses and entrepreneurs. A unit of measure used to express relative difference in power or intensity of 80 Decibel (dB) sound.
  7. 7. Sl Abbreviation Expansion A method of encoding information using a binary code of 0s and 1s from electrical pulses. Because digital signals are made up only of binary streams, less information is needed to transmit a message. Digital encoding therefore increases the capacity of a given radio frequency. Furthermore, only digitized information can be transported through a noisy channel without degradation. 81 Digital Digital technology reproduces sound exactly, and can even filter out background and electronic "noise." Even if corruption occurs, as long as the one zero patterns are recognizable, the original information content can be perfectly replicated at the receiving end. Most new wireless phones and networks use digital technology. Digital Cellular System (DCS A global system for mobile communications-based PCS network used outside of 82 1800) the U.S. 83 Digital Signal Processor (DSP) A microprocessor that digitizes analog signals. The splitting of a spectrum license into two or more licenses of fewer 84 Disaggregation frequencies. The portion of a telecommunications path from a satellite to the ground. Also 85 Downlink referred to as the reverse link. 86 Drive Test A method of taking signal strength measurements in a cellular coverage area. A feature on some wireless phones that allows the handset to operate using 87 Dual Band either the 800 MHz cellular or the 1900 MHz PCS frequencies. A feature on some wireless phones that allows the handset to operate on both 88 Dual Mode analog and digital networks. Waves of electrical and magnetic energy moving together through space. Also 89 Electromagnetic Energy called electromagnetic radiation. 90 Electromagnetic Field An area containing electromagnetic energy (electromagnetic radiation). Waves of electrical and magnetic energy moving together through space. Also 91 Electromagnetic Radiation called electromagnetic energy. The collection of all electromagnetic energy arranged according to frequency 92 Electromagnetic Spectrum and wavelength. The unique identification number embedded in a wireless phone by the manufacturer. Each time a call is placed, the ESN is automatically transmitted to the base station so the wireless carrier's mobile switching office can check the Electronic Serial Number 93 call's validity. The ESN cannot easily be altered in the field. The ESN differs from (ESN) the mobile identification number, which is the wireless carrier's identifier for a phone in the network. MINs and ESNs can be electronically checked to help prevent fraud. The process of encoding a message such as a digital phone signal to prevent it 94 Encryption from being read by unauthorized parties. 911 service becomes E911 when automatic number identification and automatic location information from a wireless phone is provided to the 911 operator. Reimbursement, or cost recovery, is due to commercial providers of both recurring and nonrecurring costs associated with any services, operation, 95 Enhanced 911 (E911) administration or maintenance of wireless E911 service. Costs include, but are not limited to, the costs of design, development, upgrades, equipment, software and other expenses associated with the implementation of wireless E911 service.
  8. 8. Sl Abbreviation Expansion The final evolution of data communications within the GSM standard. Based on Enhanced Data for GSM 8PSK modulation, EDGE provides 3G packet data throughput on GSM networks, 96 Evolution (EDGE) and uses a new modulation scheme to enable data throughput speeds of up to 384kbit/s using existing GSM infrastructure. Enhanced Specialized Mobile Digital SMR networks that provide dispatch, voice, and messaging and data 97 Radio (ESMR) services. European A standards-setting body in Europe. Also the standards body responsible for 98 Telecommunications GSM. The final PCS license that was auctioned by the FCC in January 1997. Each contains 10 MHz of spectrum in the 1900 MHz band and is based on BTA 99 F PCS Block geographic partitions. The licenses were reserved for small businesses and entrepreneurs. The federal government agency located in Washington, D.C. responsible for Federal Communications 100 regulating telecommunications in the United States, including commercial and Commission (FCC) private wireless spectrum management. Using fine, transparent lines for the transmission of data, digitally encoded into pulses of light. In terms of telephone conversations, a 1/2" copper cable can 101 Fiber Optic transmit about 25 conversations analog, whereas a 1/2" fiber optic line can transmit 193,536 conversations digitally. Originally developed by Apple, this is an increasingly popular and very fast 102 FireWire external bus for transferring data between devices; also known as IEEE 1394 for the name of the standard it engendered. 103 Flash Memory A component used for memory that can retain information without power. Reductions in signal strength or quality due to signal absorption by trees or foliage obstructions in the signal's line-of-sight path. For example, 800 MHz 104 Foliage Attenuation systems are seldom deployed in forested areas. Pine needles -- nearly the same length as 800 MHz antennas -- can negatively affect signal reception in that band. Wideband, packet-based interface used to transmit bursts of data over a wide- 105 Frame Relay area network. Seldom used for voice. The number of oscillations, or vibrations, of radio waves per unit of time, 106 Frequency usually expressed in either cycles-per-second or Hertz (Hz). A signaling method that varies the carrier frequency in proportion to the 107 Frequency Modulation (FM) amplitude of the modulating signal. The ability to use the same frequencies repeatedly across a cellular system, made possible by the basic design approach for cellular. Since each cell is designed to use radio frequencies only within its boundaries, the same 108 Frequency Reuse frequencies can be reused in other cells not far away with little potential for interference. The reuse of frequencies is what enables a cellular system to handle a huge number of calls with a limited number of channels. 109 Gateway Node that connect two different networks. Gateway GPRS Support Node Interface between the GPRS wireless data network and other networks such as 110 (GGSN) the Internet or private networks.
  9. 9. Sl Abbreviation Expansion A GSM data transmission technique that does not set up a continuous channel from a portable terminal for the transmission and reception of data, but transmits and receives data in packets. GPRS is used to boost wireless data General Packet Radio Service transmission over GSM networks. GPRS can achieve 171.2 kilobits per second 111 (GPRS) (kbps), which is about three times as fast as the data transmission speeds possible over today's fixed telecommunications networks and ten times as fast as current GSM networks. Unlike existing digital wireless Net connections, no dial-up modem is necessary. A system of 24 satellites for identifying earth locations, launched by the U.S. By triangulation of signals from three of the satellites, a receiving unit can pinpoint Global Positioning System 112 its current location anywhere on earth to within a few meters. Lets those on (GPS) the ground, on the water or in the air determines their position with extreme accuracy using GPS receivers. GSM is a digital cellular phone technology based on TDMA that is the predominant system Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia and in parts of America and Canada. First introduced in 1991, the GSM standard has been deployed at three different frequency bands: 900 MHz, 1800 MHz and 1900 Global System for Mobile 113 MHz. GSM 1900 is primarily deployed in North America. Named after its Communications (GSM) frequency band around 900 MHz, GSM-900 has provided the basis for several other networks using GSM technology. GSM uses narrowband TDMA which allows eight simultaneous calls on the same radio frequency. Along with CDMA and TDMA it represents the second generation of wireless networks. Second major LEO-based global communications system; initially created for 114 Globalstar voice, it was launched in late 1999. Also known as DCS 1800 or PCN, GSM 1800 is a digital network working on a 115 GSM 1800 frequency of 1800 MHz. It is used in Europe, Asia-Pacific and Australia. Also known as PCS 1900, GSM 1900 is a digital network working on a frequency 116 GSM 1900 of 1900 MHz. It is used in the US and Canada and is scheduled for parts of Latin America and Africa. The world's most widely used digital network and now operating in over 100 117 GSM 900 countries around the world, particularly in Europe and Asia Pacific. GSM Hosted SMS Teleservice A tunneling protocol that allows a GSM SMS to be embedded in a teleservice 118 (GHOST) that can be transmitted over the air interface of a TDMA based network. A variant of GSM, Half-Rate doubles system capacity by more efficient speech 119 Half-Rate coding. A specialized version of HTML designed to enable wireless pagers, cell phones and other handheld devices to obtain information from Web pages. HDML was Handheld Device Markup developed by (formerly Unwired Planet) before the WAP 120 Language (HDML) specification was standardized. It is a subset of WAP with some features, not included in WAP. AT&T Wireless launched the first HDML-based service in 1996. The process by which the Mobile Telephone Switching Office passes a cellular phone conversation from one radio frequency in one cell to another radio 121 Handoff frequency in another. The handoff is performed so quickly that users usually never notice.
  10. 10. Sl Abbreviation Expansion Frequently, a wireless company will sell a phone (handset) below cost, with the 122 Handset Subsidy hope of making up the loss later on customer usage fees. The amount of loss per handset is called the handset subsidy. An important safety feature that's included with most of today's mobile 123 Hands-Free phones. It permits drivers to use their cellular phone without lifting or holding the hand-set to their ear. A unit of measurement of one cycle per second when one radio wave passes 124 Hertz (Hz) one point in one second of time. Named in honor of Heinrich Hertz, the physicist who developed the theory of radio waves. The final evolution of circuit switched data within the GSM environment. HSCSD enables the transmission of data over a GSM link at speeds of up to High-Speed Circuit Switched 125 57.6kbit/s. This is achieved by concatenating consecutive GSM timeslots, each Data (HSCSD) of, which is capable of supporting 14.4kbit/s. Up to four GSM timeslots are needed for the transmission of HSCSD. A database residing in a local wireless network that contains service profiles 126 Home Location Register (HLR) and checks the identity of a local subscriber. 127 I NTT DoCoMo's mobile Internet access, launched in February 1999. I-mode is an alternative to WAP, though it is only implemented in Japan. It offers Internet access and email service. While WAP uses HDML, I-mode relies on Compact 128 I-Mode HTML (C-HTML). Both languages are a simple version of HTML, for use on mobile phones. Today more than 7000 sites are I-mode compatible and offer a wide range of services over mobile phones: mobile banking, ticket reservation, cartoons downloading, etc. The historic local phone service provider in a market, often a former Bell Incumbent Local Exchange 129 company. Distinct from competitive local exchange carriers (CLECs), new Carrier (ILEC) market entrants. 130 Independent Telephone Companies not affiliated with the local telephone companies. Industrial A Washington, D.C. trade group serving private wireless licensees such as 131 Telecommunications airlines and oil companies. A membership organization founded in 1993 and dedicated to developing standards for wireless, infrared transmission systems between computers. With Infrared Data Association 132 IrDA ports, a laptop or PDA can exchange data with a desktop computer or use (IrDA) a printer without a cable connection. Like a TV remote control, IrDA requires line-of-sight transmission. IrDA products began to appear in 1995. 133 Integrated Circuit Card ID 19 or 20-digit serial number of the SIM card. A wireless communications technology from Motorola that provides support for voice, data, short messages (SMS) and dispatch radio (two-way radio) in one phone. Operating in the 800MHz and 1.5GHz bands and based on TDMA, iDEN Integrated Digital Enhanced uses Motorola's VSELP (Vector Sum Excited Linear Predictors) vocoder for voice 134 Network (iDEN) compression and QAM modulation to deliver 64 Kbps over a 25KHz channel. Each 25KHz channel can be divided six times to transmit any mix of voice, data, dispatch or text message. Used by various carriers around the globe, Nextel Communications provides nationwide coverage in the U.S. Intelligent Roaming Database A list of acceptable and unacceptable networks for a phone to roam with stored 135 (IRDB) either on a SIM card or in the phone.
  11. 11. Sl Abbreviation Expansion Short Message Service that allows users to send alphanumeric messages from their wireless handset to other wireless handsets or to email addresses. 136 Interactive Messaging Interactive Messaging also allows the user to receive emails and web messages from the internet. The connecting of one network with another, e.g. a cellular carrier's wireless 137 Interconnection network with the local exchange. A designation of the Telecommunications Industry Association --usually 138 Interim Standard (IS) followed by a number--that refers to an accepted industry protocol; e.g., IS-95, IS-136, IS-54. A unique 15-digit number that serves as the serial number of the GSM handset. The IMEI appears on the label located on the back of the phone. The IMEI is International Mobile 139 automatically transmitted by the phone when the network asks for it. A Equipment Identifier (IMEI) network operator might request the IMEI to determine if a device is in disrepair, stolen or to gather statistics on fraud or faults. International Mobile A unique 15-digit number which designates the subscriber. This number is used 140 Subscriber Identifier (IMSI) for provisioning in network elements. International Mobile A trade group serving specialized mobile radio and public access mobile radio 141 Telecommunications carriers around the world. International An agency of the United Nations, headquartered in Geneva that furthers the 142 Telecommunication Union development of telecommunications services worldwide and oversees global (ITU) allocation of spectrum for future uses. The ability of a network to operate with other networks, such as two systems 143 Interoperability based on different protocols or technologies. Very high energy electromagnetic radiation that strips electrons away from 144 Ionizing Radiation their normal locations in atoms and molecules. First LEO-based global communications system backed by Motorola. Built 145 Iridium primarily for voice transmissions, it was launched in 1998 and went into Chapter 11 in 1999. 146 IS-136 The latest generation of the digital standard TDMA technology. The network standard that allows all switches to exchange information about 147 IS-41 subscribers. 148 IS-54 The first generation of the digital standard TDMA technology. North American standard for 1.9 GHz wireless spread spectrum radio-frequency access technology based on a composite of CDMA and TDMA technologies To 149 IS-661 reduce infrastructure costs and allow higher data speeds than mainstream GSM or TDMA platforms. 150 IS-95 The standard for CDMA. 151 Japanese Total Access Like the European TACS, JTAC is the Japanese analog cellular system. Traditional wired phone service. Voice, video and data transmission technology 152 Land Line that relies on wires. Also called wireline. Lighter weight battery than earlier types, having relatively longer cycle life and 153 Lithium-Ion Battery (Li-Ion) generally do not suffer from memory effect. 154 Local Calling Area The geographical area that a customer may call without incurring toll charges. Located in the 28 GHz and 31 GHz bands, LMDS is a broadband radio service Local Mulitpoint Distribution 155 designed to provide two-way transmission of voice, high-speed data and video Service (LMDS) (wireless cable TV). The ability of subscribers to switch local or wireless carriers and still retain the Local Number Portability same phone number, as they can now with long-distance carriers. Wireless 156 (LNP) carriers do not have to offer LNP until March 2002 and seek further postponement of this deadline.
  12. 12. Sl Abbreviation Expansion The geographical area that a customer may call without incurring toll charges, 157 Local Service Footprint also known as "local service area," or "local calling area." Local-State Governmental An FCC-established group that is working on an antenna-siting solution. The 158 Advisory Committee (LSGAC) LSGAC will advise carriers and communities on antenna siting. A term used to describe the orbital altitude range (500 to 2000 km above the 159 Low Earth Orbit surface of the Earth) of certain communications satellites. Usually composed of several contiguous basic trading areas. A service area 160 Major Trading Area (MTA) designed by Rand McNally and adopted by the FCC. There are 51 MTAs in the United States. The life of a battery may be gradually shortened if it is recharged before it is completely discharged. Memory effect most commonly occurs with Nickel 161 Memory Effect Cadmium batteries are less of a problem with Nickel Hydride batteries and even less with Lithium Ion batteries. One of 306 geographic regions, primarily urban areas, in the United States that Metropolitan Statistical Area 162 are used as license areas in the cellular frequency band. Originally, two wireless (MSA) operators were licensed in each MSA. A cell having a very small coverage area, which could be as small as one floor of an office building, one part of an airline terminal, or one corner of a busy intersection. These cells are typically used when coverage and/or capacity is 163 Microcell strained and the use of a normal sized cell would cause interference or would be impractical to install. These cells transmit with extremely low power outputs. A subset of radio waves that have frequencies ranging from around 300 million 164 Microwaves waves per second (300 MHz) to three billion waves per second (3 GHz). The "mix-and-match" communications software that acts as a universal translator between diverse radio frequency technologies and protocols. Middleware resides on a remote client and a communications server, located 165 Middleware between the client and the applications server. The software eases computing and communicating with corporate information and encourages applications development, making wireless data more attractive to corporate customers. Uniquely identifies a mobile unit within a wireless carrier's network. The MIN often can be dialed from other wireless or wireline networks. The number Mobile Identification Number 166 differs from the electronic serial number (ESN), which is the unit number (MIN) assigned by a phone manufacturer. MINs and ESNs can be checked electronically to help prevent fraud. Powerful communications transmission service provided by satellites. A single 167 Mobile Satellite Service satellite can provide coverage to the whole United States. The central switch that controls the entire operation of a cellular system. It is a Mobile Telephone Switching sophisticated computer that monitors all cellular calls, tracks the location of all 168 Office (MTSO) cellular-equipped vehicles traveling in the system, arranges handoffs, keeps track of billing information, etc. 169 Modem Pools Racks of modems used to deliver reliable cellular data communications. Signal distortion when a signal is reflected from nearby surfaces on its way to a 170 Multipath Propagation receiver. When multiple phone calls are carried in the same frequency band at the same 171 Multiplexing time. In wireless, major multiplexing methods include TDMA and CDMA.
  13. 13. Sl Abbreviation Expansion The concept that carriers must pay when they terminate traffic on the 172 Mutual Compensation networks of carriers with which they are interconnected. 173 Mutually Exclusive Two or more applications for the same spectrum use rights. Narrowband Advanced Combines cellular voice processing with digital signaling, increasing the capacity 174 Mobile Phone System of AMPS systems and adding functionality. The next generation of paging networks, including two-way, acknowledgment 175 Narrowband PCS and "wireless answering machine" paging. National Emergency NENA's mission is to foster the technological advancement, availability and 176 Numbering Association implementation of a universal emergency telephone number system. (NENA) National Telecommunications The federal government's executive branch advisory committee for 177 and Information telecommunications. Any system that was designed to provide one or more access paths for communication between users at different geographic locations. Communication networks may be designed for voice, text, data, fax and video. 178 Network They may feature limited access (private networks) or open access (public networks), and will rely upon whatever analog or digital switching and transmission technologies are appropriate. A rechargeable battery that typically lasts for 700 charge and discharge cycles. If not completely discharged before recharging, the NiCd battery can suffer Nickel Cadmium Battery 179 from memory effect that may reduce the life of the battery. Non-Ionizing (NiCd) Radiation: Levels of electromagnetic radiation that is too low to strip electrons away from their normal locations in atoms and molecules. A rechargeable battery that is capable of holding more power that a NiCd Nickel Metal Hydride Battery 180 battery and suffers much less from memory effect. It is also typically more (NiMH) expensive than a NiCd battery. 181 Nordic Mobile Telephone An older analog cellular protocol used in Europe and elsewhere. North American Cellular An organization of cellular providers that facilitates cellular calls across the 182 Network (NACN) country to be linked for seamless roaming. The FCC advisory group formerly responsible for administering the North American Numbering Plan that oversees assignment of area codes, central North American Numbering 183 office codes and other numbering issues in the United States, Canada, Bermuda Council (NANC) and part of the Caribbean. NANC administration responsibility was transferred to Lockheed Martin. The NAM is the electronic memory in the cellular phone that stores the Number Assignment Module telephone number and an electronic serial number. Phones with dual- or multi- 184 (NAM) NAM features offer users the option of registering the phone with a local number in more than one market. Increasingly popular tactic for conserving phone numbers. Numbers are returned by all carriers to a central authority, which puts them in a pool, from 185 Number Pooling which carriers receive numbers in lots of 1,000, not 10,000 as was originally done. Smaller lots of numbers reduce their cost and maximize the availability of new numbers to meet public demand. A term used to describe the capability of individuals, businesses and 186 Number Portability organizations to retain their existing telephone number(s) –– and the same quality of service –– when switching to a new local service provider. Periods of time during which carriers offer discounted airtime charges. Each 187 Off-Peak carrier designates its own off-peak hours, usually after normal business hours during the week, and weekends. 188 Omnibus Budget The first legislation authorizing the FCC to auction spectrum.
  14. 14. Sl Abbreviation Expansion Operators Harmonization A worldwide organization of operators and manufacturers dedicated to 189 Group (OHG) achieving a uniform standard for third-generation wireless systems. A solution to the scarcity of new phone numbers, overlays involve issuance of 190 Overlay Area Code new 10-digit phone numbers for use alongside an area's existing seven-digit numbers, which have a different area code. The ability of carriers to add new types of services to a customer's handset by Over-The-Air Service 191 using the wireless network instead of requiring the customer to bring the Provisioning (OTASP) phone to a carrier's location for reprogramming. 192 Partitioning Dividing a spectrum license into two or more geographic areas. A wireless telephone that uses radiofrequency signals in the 1850-1990 193 PCS Phone megahertz (MHz) portion of the radiofrequency (RF) spectrum. PCS stands for portable communication system. Highest-usage period of the business day when a cellular system carries the 194 Peak most calling traffic. The total number of subscribers for a carrier divided by the population that it 195 Penetration serves expressed as a percentage. Personal Communications A trade group representing PCS, SMR, private radio and other wireless users 196 Industry Association (PCIA) and carriers. A second-generation digital voice, messaging and data cell phone system in the 2GHz range. PCS is supported mostly by GSM. PCS systems use a different radio Personal Communications frequency (1.9 GHz band) than cellular phones and generally use all digital 197 Service (PCS) technology for transmission and reception. "Digital PCS" is a redundancy, as all PCS are digital, but the phrase is used in marketing to distinguish PCS from cellular. 198 Personal Digital Cellular (PDC) The Japanese cellular standard. Personal Identification A code used by a mobile telephone number in conjunction with an SIM card to 199 Number (PIN) complete a call. If a GSM or GAIT subscriber enters the wrong PIN three times in a row, then the 200 PIN Unblocking Key (PUK) wireless mobile phone is locked until the PUK is entered. A joint government/industry standard setting effort to develop technical 201 Project 25 standards for the next generation of two-way communications equipment. Public Switched Telephone Traditional landline network that mobile wireless systems connect with to 202 Network (PSTN) complete calls. Public Utility Commission The state regulatory body charged with regulating utilities, including 203 (PUC) telecommunications. The dispatch office that receives 911 calls from the public. A PSAP may be local Public-Safety Answering Point 204 fire or police department, an ambulance service or a regional office covering all (PSAP) services. The ability to request services (e.g. ringtones or games) from a wireless handset 205 Pull SMS via Wireless Internet. The service requested is sent back to the handset via SMS. The ability to request services (e.g. ringtones or games) from a wireless handset 206 Push SMS via sending a preset SMS code to a predetermined number. The service requested is sent back to the handset via SMS. The emission and transmission of energy through space or through a material 207 Radiation medium. The spectrum of electromagnetic energy between audio and light: 500 KHz to 208 Radio Frequency (RF) 300 GHz.
  15. 15. Sl Abbreviation Expansion Electromagnetic energy with frequencies in the 3000 hertz (3 kHz) to 300 billion 209 Radio Waves Hertz (300 GHz) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. A process that identifies a cellular phone by the unique "fingerprint" that Radio-Frequency characterizes its signal transmission. RF fingerprinting is one process used to 210 Fingerprinting prevent cloning fraud, because a cloned phone will not have the same fingerprint as the legal phone with the same electronic identification numbers. The geographic area used by local exchange carriers to set rate boundaries for 211 Rate Center billing and for issuing phone numbers. Device that receives a radio signal, amplifies it and retransmits it in a new direction. Used in wireless networks to extend the range of base station signals, 212 Repeater expanding coverage more economically than building additional base stations. Repeaters typically are used for buildings, tunnels or difficult terrain. The ability to use your cellular phone outside your usual service area – when traveling outside of the "home" service area defined by a service provider. 213 Roaming Higher per-minute rates are usually charged for calls made or received while roaming. Long distance rates and a daily access fee may also apply. An agreement between two or more wireless telephone companies outlining the terms and conditions under which the participating companies will provide 214 Roaming Agreement wireless service to each others subscribers. Roaming agreements commonly are used where no one company can offer complete national and international coverage. When calls are billed by the minute, any call that uses a portion of a minute is 215 Round-Up Calls/Billing rounded up and billed for the whole minute. For example, if you make a call that lasts 3 minutes and 2 seconds, you are billed for a 4-minute call. The frequency spectrum near 2 GHz used for land based microwave and some 216 S-Band mobile satellite communications. The amount customers pay each month to receive wireless service. This 217 Service Charge amount is fixed, and to be paid monthly regardless of how much or how little customers use their wireless phones. The rate plan you select when choosing a wireless phone service. A service plan typically consists of a monthly base rate for access to the system and a fixed 218 Service Plan amount of minutes per month. Service plans are designed to provide the most cost-effective rates for different types and amounts of usage by the cellular subscriber. The transmission of short alphanumeric text-messages to and from a mobile phone, fax machine and/or IP address. Messages must be no longer than 160 219 Short Message Service (SMS) alphanumeric characters and contain no images or graphics. Once a message is sent, it is received by a Short Message Service Center (SMSC), which must then get it to the appropriate mobile device. Short Message Service Center The hardware device submitting the messages. Currently, SMSC devices 220 (SMSC) support binary formats. A small printed circuit board that must be inserted in any GSM-based mobile phone when signing on as a subscriber. It contains subscriber details, security information and memory for a personal directory of numbers. The card can be 221 SIM Card a small plug-in type or sized as a credit-card but has the same functionality. The SIM card also stores data that identifies the caller to the network service provider.
  16. 16. Sl Abbreviation Expansion A sequence of commands and replies where pages are delivered to individual Simple Network Paging paging terminals. The most obvious benefit is the elimination of the need for 222 Protocol (SNPP) modems and phone lines to produce alphanumeric pages, and the ease of delivery of pages to terminals in other cities or countries. A signaling technique that broadcasts the same signal over multiple sites in a 223 Simulcast network. Designed to conserve battery life, this mode automatically turns off a terminal 224 Sleep Mode after it has been unused for a specified period of time. The unit is reactivated when the keypad is touched. An antenna system that focuses its beam on a desired signal to reduce interference. A wireless network employs smart antennas at its base stations in 225 Smart Antenna an effort to reduce the number of dropped calls, improve call quality and improve channel capacity. A plastic card containing important data about a person's identity to allow 226 Smart Card access to a network or premises. Also, a card containing subscriber information, often inserted into GSM phones for roaming in different countries. A class of wireless phone handsets with many features, and often a keyboard. 227 Smart Phone What makes the phone "smart" is its ability to handle data, not only voice calls. When two base stations -- one in the cell site where the phone is located and the other in the cell site to which the conversation is being passed - both hold 228 Soft Handoff onto the call until the handoff is completed. The first cell site does not cut off the conversation until it receives information that the second is maintaining the call. 229 Soft Key A key below the phone's main display panel that performs special functions. Space Division Multiple A variation of TDMA and CDMA that potentially will be used in high-bandwidth, 230 Access (SDMA) third-generation wireless products. Dispatch service ("walkie-talkie-type" service used by taxis, delivery trucks, Specialized Mobile Radio 231 etc.). SMR providers in the United States operate in the 800 MHz and 900 MHz (SMR) frequency bands. 232 Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) A measure of the rate at which RF energy is absorbed by the body. The range of electromagnetic radio frequencies used in the transmission of 233 Spectrum sound, data and television. Federal government assignment of a range of frequencies for a category of use or uses. For example, the FCC allocated the 1900 MHz band for personal 234 Spectrum Allocation communications services. Allocation, accomplished in FCC proceedings, tracks new technology development. However, the FCC can shift existing allocations to respond to changes in spectrum demand. Federal government authorization for use of specific frequencies or frequency 235 Spectrum Assignment pairs within a given allocation, at specific geographic locations. 236 Spectrum Cap A limit to the allocated spectrum designated for a specific service. Initially devised for military use, this radio transmission technology "spreads" 237 Spread Spectrum information over greater bandwidth than necessary to resist jamming and other interference. The amount of time you can leave your fully charged cellular portable or 238 Standby Time transportable phone turned on before the phone will completely discharge the batteries. See Talk Time. 239 Stratospheric Platform Blimp-like platform for wireless telephone service in urban areas.
  17. 17. Sl Abbreviation Expansion The concept that a wireless 911 call should be routed to the cell site with the strongest link to the phone, regardless of which carrier holds the caller as a 240 Strongest Signal customer. A shortcoming is that strength of the call's setup link isn't always equal to that of the link the cell assigns for voice traffic because the latter can be weaker. Securing wireless service with intent to avoid payment. This is different from 241 Subscriber Fraud bad debt, which occurs when a known person or company has a payment obligation overdue and the debt cannot be collected. A card inserted into a GSM/TDMA or GSM-only handset containing subscriber- Subscriber Identity Module 242 related data. The card contains 18 digits for GSM markets and 20 digits for (SIM) TDMA markets. Compiling subscriber usage information (such as frequency of calls, locations called to or from and monthly airtime usage), to identify potentially fraudulent 243 Subscriber Profiling use or to identify customers likely to terminate service. This information can also be used to target customers when marketing a carrier's product and service offerings. A mechanical, electrical or electronic device that opens or closes circuits, 244 Switch completes or breaks an electrical path, or selects paths or circuits. 245 T The length of time you can talk on your portable or transportable cellular phone without recharging the battery. The battery capacity of a cellular portable or 246 Talk Time transportable is usually expressed in terms of so many minutes of talk time or so many hours of standby time. When you're talking, the phone draws additional power from the battery. See Standby Time. 247 TD-CDMA A 3G proposal combining elements of TDMA and CDMA. The transmission of words, sounds, or images, usually over great distances, in 248 Telecommunications the form of electromagnetic energy, for example by telegraph, telephone, radio, or television. 249 Telecommunications Industry The United States' telecommunications standards making body. The integration of wireless communications, vehicle monitoring systems and 250 Telematics location devices. The embedded vehicle control unit that communicates with the automobile 251 Telematics Control Unit (TCU) controls, GPS satellite and customer service center to provide Telematics features to a driver. The system of wires, fiber-optic cables, satellites, and transmission towers that 252 Telephone Network transmit telephone messages from caller to receiver. Telephone Transmission 253 A telephone base station located on top of a tall, free-standing structure. Tower Originally meaning voice (analog) communication by telephone (land line), this term has come to encompass virtually all telecommunications, because virtually 254 Telephony all telecommunications can be done over or while connected to a telephone line. Fees that wireless telephone companies pay to complete calls on wireline 255 Termination Charges phone networks or vice versa.
  18. 18. Sl Abbreviation Expansion A new wireless standard promising increased capacity and high-speed data applications up to two megabits. Third generation wireless employ wideband frequency carriers and a CDMA air interface. Networks must be able to transmit 256 Third Generation (3G) wireless data at 144 kilobits per second at mobile user speeds. Implemented in Europe as UMTS and CDMA2000 in North America, its goals are high-quality multimedia and advanced global roaming (in house, cellular, satellite, etc.). A method of digital wireless communications transmission allowing a large number of users to access a single radio-frequency channel without interference. Each user is given a unique time slot within each channel. SMS Time Division Multiple Access 257 Mobile Originate has now gone live on several TDMA networks around the (TDMA) world including Telecom New Zealand, Midwest Wireless USA, Algar Telecom Brazil and Cellcom Israel. Other TDMA network operators such as AT&T Wireless in the U.S. have launched SMS nationally. 258 Total Access Communication European analog cellular. Equipment to handle the broadcast and reception of radio signals with network 259 Transceiver or subscriber equipment. The process of pinning down a caller's location using three or more radio 260 Triangulation receivers, a compass and a map. A network infrastructure or wireless phone designed to operate in three 261 Tri-Band frequency bands: 800 MHz, 900 MHz and 1800MHz. 262 Tri-Mode Phones that work on three modes GSM, TDMA and analog. Spectrum-efficient technology that establishes a queue to handle demand for 263 Trunking voice or data channels. The goal of UMTS is to enable networks that offer true global roaming and can support a wide range of voice, data and multimedia services. A new-generation technology for rapidly moving data and multimedia over wireless devices. The Universal Mobile European implementation of the 3G wireless phone system, UMTS provides 264 Telecommunications System service in the 2GHz band and offers global roaming and personalized features; (UMTS) designed as an evolutionary system for GSM network operators, multimedia data rates offered by UMTS are: vehicular - 144 kbit/s; pedestrian 384 kbit/s; in- building 2Mb/s. 265 Universal Wireless An industry group supporting TDMA and WIN technology. The portion of a telecommunications path from the ground to the satellite, also 266 Uplink referred to as the forward link. A third-generation wireless standard proposal based on TDMA technology that was developed by the Universal Wireless Communications Consortium and is one of the 3G candidates submitted to the International Telecommunication Union by the United States. UWC-136 represents an evolutionary path for both the old analog Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) and the second- 267 UWC-136 generation TIA/EIA-136 technologies, which were designed specifically for compatibility with AMPS. UWC-136 radio transmission technology proposes a low-cost incremental, evolutionary deployment path for both AMPS and TIA/EIA operators. The technology is tolerant of the frequency band in which it is deployed: 500 MHz to 2.5 GHz. 268 V 269 Visitor Location Register (VLR) A network database that holds information about roaming wireless customers.
  19. 19. Sl Abbreviation Expansion A convenient safety feature that allows a subscriber to dial a phone by voice 270 Voice Activation instead of physically punching in the numbers. The capability for cellular phones, PCs and other communications devices to be 271 Voice Recognition activated or controlled by voice commands. 272 W 273 Wavelength The distance covered by one cycle of a wave. A 3G mobile services platform, based on modern, layered network-protocol structure, similar to the protocol structure used in GSM networks. WCDMA has been designed for high-speed data services and more particularly, internet- based packet-data offering up to 2Mbps in stationary or office environments, and up to 384Kbps in wide area or mobile environments. The third generation radio standard that will offer voice, data, motion-video and other multimedia 274 Wideband CDMA (WCDMA) capabilities, and increases data transmission rates in GSM systems by using CDMA instead of TDMA. WCDMA has become the Direct Sequence (DS) mode in the ITU's 3G specification, which includes the 1X Multi-Carrier mode (1X MC) and 3X Multi-Carrier mode (3X MC). 1X MC (formerly known as cdma2000) and 3X MC comprise the 3G upgrade path for carriers already using CDMA (cdmaOne). Wideband Packet CDMA A technical proposal from Golden Bridge Technology that wraps WCDMA and 275 (WPCDMA) cdma2000 into one standard. An open standard for communication between handsets and the Internet. WAP is a wireless communications environment for delivering web data to wireless terminals with minimal screen display. An initiative started by Unwired Planet, Wireless Application Protocol Motorola, Nokia and Ericsson to develop a standard for wireless content 276 (WAP) delivery on the next generation of mobile communicators. WAP strips all but graphics for display on small screens, such as mobile phones. A mini-browser is an integral part of WAP enabled phones. WAP enabled phones first appeared in Europe at the end of 1999. Wireless Communications The variety of services available using frequencies in the 2.3 GHz band for 277 Services (WCS) general fixed wireless use. Wireless Instant Messaging Bridges the gap between wired and wireless networks. WIM seamlessly allows 278 (WIM) a desktop user to instantly send a message to a handset. The architecture needed to match the capabilities of the wireline intelligent Wireless Intelligent Network 279 network. In addition to transparent roaming, selective call screening, short (WIN) message service and pre-paid billing are features that a WIN can provide. The languages used to create WAP pages. WML is similar to the way HTML is Wireless Markup used to create web pages and WMLScript is based on JavaScript. Both are 280 Language/Script adapted and optimized for a wireless environment (compression to save (WML/WMLScript) bandwidth). Wireless Telephone Base The combination of antennas and electronic equipment used to receive and 281 Station transmit wireless telephone signals. Sometimes called a base station.
  20. 20. Sl Abbreviation Expansion The security layer of the WAP which provides privacy, data integrity and authentication for WAP services. WTLS, designed specifically for the wireless environment, is needed for the client and server to be authenticated in order Wireless Transport Layer for wireless transactions to remain secure and also because the connection 282 Security (WTLS) needs to be encrypted. For example, a user making a transaction with a bank over a wireless device needs to know that the connection is secure and private and not subject to a security breach during transfer. WTLS is needed because mobile networks do not provide complete end-to-end security. 283 Wireline Traditional telephone technology that relies upon wires. Also called land line.