Know about Android Operating System


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Mobile OS controls smartphone, tablet, PDA, or other mobile device. Modern mobile operating systems combine the features of a personal computer operating system with touchscreen, cellular, Bluetooth, WiFi, GPS mobile navigation, camera, video camera, speech recognition, voice recorder, music player, Near field communication, personal digital assistant (PDA), and other features.

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Know about Android Operating System

  3. 3. o Android is a Linux-based operating system for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. It is developed by the Open Handset Alliance led by Google. Google purchased the initial developer of the software, Android Inc., in 2005.o The unveiling of the Android distribution in 2007 was announced with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of 86 hardware, software, and telecommunication companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices.o Google releases the Android code as open-source, under the Apache License. The Android Open Source Project (AOSP) is tasked with the maintenance and further development of Android.o Android has a large community of developers writing applications ("apps") that extend the functionality of the devices. Developers write primarily in a customized version of Java.o Apps can be downloaded from third-party sites or through online stores such as Google Play (formerly Android Market), the app store run by Google. As of February 2012 there were more than 450,000 apps available for Android, and the estimated number of applications downloaded from the Android Market as of December 2011 exceeded 10 billiono Android was listed as the best-selling smartphone platform worldwide in Q4 2010 by Canalys with over 300 million Android devices in use by February 2012. According to Googles Andy Rubin, as of February 2012 there are over 850,000 Android devices activated every day
  5. 5. o Android, Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California, United States in October, 2003 by Andy Rubin (co-founder of Danger), Rich Miner (co-founder of Wildfire Communications, Inc.), Nick Sears (once VP at T-Mobile), and Chris White (headed design and interface development at WebTV)o In 2003, Rubin ran out of money. Steve Perlman, a close friend of Rubin, brought him $10,000 in cash in an envelope and refused a stake in the company.o Google acquired Android Inc. on August 17, 2005, making Android Inc. a wholly owned subsidiary of Google Inc. Key employees of Android Inc., including Andy Rubin, Rich Miner and Chris White, stayed at the company after the acquisition.o In September 2007, InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony.o On November 5, 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of several companies which include Broadcom Corporation, Google, HTC, Intel, LG, Marvell Technology Group, Motorola, Nvidia, Qualcomm, Samsung Electronics, Sprint Nextel, T-Mobile and Texas Instruments unveiled itself. The goal of the Open Handset Alliance is to develop open standards for mobile devices.o On the same day, the Open Handset Alliance also unveiled their first product, Android, a mobile device platform built on the Linux kernel version 2.6.
  6. 6. o On December 9, 2008, 14 new members joined, including ARM Holdings, Atheros Communications, Asustek Computer Inc, Garmin Ltd, Huawei Technologies, PacketVideo, Softbank, Sony Ericsson, Toshiba Corp, and Vodafone Group Plc.o The Android Open Source Project (AOSP) is led by Google, and is tasked with the maintenance and development of Android. According to the project "The goal of the Android Open Source Project is to create a successful real-world product that improves the mobile experience for end users.“o AOSP also maintains the Android Compatibility Program, defining an "Android compatible" device "as one that can run any application written by third-party developers using the Android SDK and NDK", to prevent incompatible Android implementations.o The compatibility program is also optional and free of charge, with the Compatibility Test Suite also free and open-source.
  8. 8. Android has seen a number of updates since its original release, each fixing bugs and adding newfeatures. Each version is named, in alphabetical order, after a dessert, Apple pie, Banana bread, Cupcake, Donut, Eclair, Froyo, Gingerbread, Honeycomb, Ice Cream Sandwich, Jelly Bean* * Jelly Bean is expected to be the next version
  9. 9. o Android V 1.0 Beta was released on 5 November 2007, while the software developers kit (SDK) was released on 12 November 2007. It has two updates Beta V 1.0, Beta V 1.1o Cupcake V 1.5 was released on 30 April 2009, based on Linux kernel 2.6.27. The update included several new features and UI amendmentso Donut V 1.5 The Android 1.6 home screen. On 15 September 2009, the Android 1.6 SDK – dubbed Donut – was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.29. Included in the update were numerous new featureso On 26 October 2009, the Android 2.0 SDK – codenamed Eclair – was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.29. It has three updates V 2.0, V 2.0.1, V 2.1o On 20 May 2010, the Android 2.2 Froyo SDK was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.32. It has three updates V 2.2.1, V 2.2.2, V 2.2.3
  10. 10. 1. 2.3 Gingerbread refined the user interface, improved the soft keyboard and copy/paste features, improved gaming performance, added SIP support (VoIP calls), and added support for Near Field Communication.2. 3.0 Honeycomb was a tablet-oriented release which supports larger screen devices and introduces many new user interface features, support for multi-core processors, hardware acceleration for graphics and full system encryption. The first device featuring this version, the Motorola Xoom tablet, went on sale in February 2011. a. 3.1 Honeycomb, released in May 2011, added support for extra input devices, USB host mode for transferring information directly from cameras and other devices, and the Google Movies and Books apps. b. 3.2 Honeycomb, released in July 2011, added optimization for a broader range of screen sizes, new "zoom-to-fill" screen compatibility mode, loading media files directly from SD card, and an extended screen support API. Huawei MediaPad is the first 7 inch tablet to use this version3. 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich, announced on October 19, 2011, brought Honeycomb features to smartphones and added new features including facial recognition unlock, network data usage monitoring and control, unified social networking contacts, photography enhancements, offline email searching, app folders, and information sharing using NFC. Android 4.0.4 Ice Cream Sandwich is the latest Android version that is available to phones. The source code of Android 4.0.1 was released on November 14, 2011
  12. 12. Android consists of a kernel based on the Linux kernel, with middleware, libraries and APIs written in C andapplication software running on an application framework which includes Java-compatible libraries based onApache Harmony. Android uses the Dalvik virtual machine with just-in-time compilation to run Dalvik dex-code(Dalvik Executable), which is usually translated from Java bytecode.The main hardware platform for Android is the ARM architecture. There is support for x86 from the Android x86project, and Google TV uses a special x86 version of Android.Androids kernel is based on the Linux kernel and has further architecture changes by Google outside the typicalLinux kernel development cycle. Android does not have a native X Window System nor does it support the full setof standard GNU libraries, and this makes it difficult to port existing Linux applications or libraries to Android.Certain features that Google contributed back to the Linux kernel, notably a power management feature calledwakelocks, were rejected by mainline kernel developers, partly because kernel maintainers felt that Google did notshow any intent to maintain their own code.Some Google Android developers hinted that "the Android team was getting fed up with the process", becausethey were a small team and had more urgent work to do on Android. However, in September 2010, Linux kerneldeveloper Rafael J. Wysocki added a patch that improved the mainline Linux wakeup events framework.In December 2011, Greg Kroah-Hartman announced the start of the Android Mainlining Project, which aims to putsome Android drivers, patches and features back into the Linux kernel, starting in Linux 3.3. further integrationbeing expected for Linux Kernel 3.4.
  14. 14. o Handset layouts: The platform is adaptable to larger, VGA, 2D graphics library, 3D graphics librarybased on OpenGL ES 2.0 specifications, and traditional smartphone layouts.o Storage: SQLite, a lightweight relational database, is used for data storage purposes.o Connectivity: Android supports connectivity technologies including GSM/EDGE, IDEN, CDMA, EV-DO,UMTS, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, LTE, NFC and WiMAX.o Messaging: SMS and MMS are available forms of messaging, including threaded text messaging andnow Android Cloud To Device Messaging (C2DM) is also a part of Android Push Messaging service.o Multiple language support: Android supports multiple languages.o Web browser: The web browser available in Android is based on the open-source WebKit layoutengine, coupled with Chromes V8 JavaScript engine. The browser scores 100/100 on the Acid3 test onAndroid 4.0.o Java support: While most Android applications are written in Java, there is no Java Virtual Machine inthe platform and Java byte code is not executed. Java classes are compiled into Dalvik executables andrun on Dalvik, a specialized virtual machine designed specifically for Android and optimized for battery-powered mobile devices with limited memory and CPU. J2ME support can be provided via third-partyapplications.
  15. 15. o Media support: Android supports the following audio/video/still media formats: WebM, H.263, H.264 (in 3GP or MP4 container), MPEG-4 SP, AMR, AMR-WB (in 3GP container), AAC, HE-AAC (in MP4 or 3GP container), MP3, MIDI, Ogg Vorbis, FLAC, WAV, JPEG, PNG, GIF, BMP, WebP.o Streaming media support: RTP/RTSP streaming (3GPP PSS, ISMA), HTML progressive download(HTML5 <video> tag). Adobe Flash Streaming (RTMP) and HTTP Dynamic Streaming are supported bythe Flash plugin. Apple HTTP Live Streaming is supported by RealPlayer for Android, and by theoperating system in Android 3.0 (Honeycomb).o Additional hardware support: Android can use video/still cameras, touchscreens, GPS,accelerometers, gyroscopes, barometers, magnetometers, dedicated gaming controls, proximity andpressure sensors, thermometers, accelerated 2D bit blits (with hardware orientation, scaling, pixelformat conversion) and accelerated 3D graphics.o Multi-touch: Android has native support for multi-touch which was initially made available inhandsets such as the HTC Hero. The feature was originally disabled at the kernel level (possibly to avoidinfringing Apples patents on touch-screen technology at the time). Google has since released anupdate for the Nexus One and the Motorola Droid which enables multi-touch natively.oBluetoothoSupports A2DP, AVRCP, sending files (OPP), accessing the phone book (PBAP), voice dialing andsending contacts between phones. Keyboard, mouse and joystick (HID) (in Android 3.1+), and in earlierversions through manufacturer customizations and third-party applications.
  16. 16. o Video calling: Android does not support native video calling, but some handsets have a customizedversion of the operating system that supports it, either via the UMTS network (like the SamsungGalaxy S) or over IP. Video calling through Google Talk is available in Android 2.3.4 and later.Gingerbread allows Nexus S to place Internet calls with a SIP account. This allows for enhanced VoIPdialing to other SIP accounts and even phone numbers. Skype 2.1 offers video calling in Android 2.3,including front camera support.o Multitasking: Multitasking of applications is available.o Voice based features: Google search through voice has been available since initial release. Voiceactions for calling, texting, navigation, etc. are supported on Android 2.2 onwards.o Tethering: Android supports tethering, which allows a phone to be used as a wireless/wired Wi-Fihotspot. Before Android 2.2 this was supported by third-party applications or manufacturercustomizations.o Screen capture: Android supports capturing a screenshot by pressing the power and volume-downbuttons at the same time. Prior to Android 4.0, the only methods of capturing a screenshot werethrough manufacturer and third-party customizations or otherwise by using a PC connection (DDMSdevelopers tool). These alternative methods are still available with the latest Android.oExternal storage: Most Android devices include microSD slot and can read microSD cards formattedwith FAT32, Ext3fs or Ext4fs file system. Many Android tablets also include USB A receptacle. Storageformatted with FAT32 is handled by Linux Kernel VFAT driver, while 3rd party solutions are required tohandle other popular file systems such as NTFS, HFS Plus and exFAT.
  18. 18. Google Play is the online software store developed by Google for Android devices. As of October 2011there were more than 300,000 apps available for Android, and the estimated number of applicationsdownloaded from the Android Market as of December 2011 exceeded 10 billion. The operating systemitself is installed on 130 million total devices.Only devices that comply with Googles compatibility requirements are allowed to preinstall Googlesclosed-source Play Store app and access the Market. The Market filters the list of applications presentedby the Market app to those that are compatible with the users device, and developers may restricttheir applications to particular carriers or countries for business reasons.Google has participated in the Play Store by offering several applications themselves, including GoogleVoice (for the Google Voice service), Sky Map (for watching stars), Finance (for their finance service),Maps Editor (for their MyMaps service), Places Directory (for their Local Search), Google Goggles thatsearches by image, Gesture Search (for using finger-written letters and numbers to search the contentsof the phone), Google Translate, Google Shopper, Listen for podcasts and My Tracks, a joggingapplication. In August 2010, Google launched "Voice Actions for Android“, which allows users to search,write messages, and initiate calls by voice.Alternatively, users can install apps directly onto the device if they have the applications APK file orfrom third party app stores such as the Amazon Appstore
  20. 20. Android applications run in a sandbox, an isolated area of the operating system that does not haveaccess to the rest of the systems resources, unless access permissions are granted by the user whenthe application is installed.Before installing an application, Play Store displays all required permissions. A game may need toenable vibration, for example, but should not need to read messages or access the phonebook. Afterreviewing these permissions, the user can decide whether to install the application. Android has beencriticized for providing an ineffective and too coarse grained permission system.Several security firms have released antivirus software for Android devices, in particular- AVG Technologies, Avast!, F-Secure, Kaspersky, McAfee and Symantec.
  22. 22. Android smartphones have the ability to report the location of Wi-Fi access points, encountered asphone users move around, to build databases containing the physical locations of hundreds ofmillions of such access points. These databases form electronic maps to locate smartphones,allowing them to run apps like Foursquare, Latitude, Places, and to deliver location-based ads.Third party monitoring software such as TaintDroid, an academic research-funded project, can, insome cases, detect when personal information is being sent from applications to remote servers.In March 2012 it was revealed that Android Apps can copy photos without explicit user permission,Google responded they "originally designed the Android photos file system similar to those of othercomputing platforms like Windows and Mac OS. Weve always had policies in place to remove anyapps on Android Market that improperly access your data."
  23. 23. COMPARISON