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Interferometer

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A BRIEF EXPOSURE TO INTERFEROMETERS AS PER ANNA UNIV SYLLABUS

A BRIEF EXPOSURE TO INTERFEROMETERS AS PER ANNA UNIV SYLLABUS

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  • 1. LASER INTERFEROMETER
  • 2. LASER INTERFEROMETER
    What’s laser interferometer?
    The principle of standard interferometer
    Types of interferometers
    Applications
  • 3. What’s a Laser Interferometer?
    Laser Interferometer:
    the instrument used for high precision measurements (distance, angles…. etc.)
    it uses interferometry as the basis for measurement.
    it uses the very small, stable and accurately defined wavelength of laser as a unit of measure.
  • 4. Physics Review
    Interference of Light
  • 5. LASER INTERFEROMETRY
    Brief Description of components
    (i) Two frequency Laser source
    (ii) Optical elements:
    a) Beam splitter:
    b) Beam benders:
    c) Retro reflectors:
    (iii) Laser head’ s measurement receiver .
    (iv) Measurement display .
  • 6. TWO FREQUENCY LASER SOURCE
    Ø It is generally He-Ne type that generates stable coherent light beam of two frequencies.
    one polarized vertically and another horizontally relative to the plane of the mounting
    feet.
    Ø Laser oscillates at two slightly different frequencies by a cylindrical permanent magnet
    around the cavity.
    Ø The two components of frequencies are distinguishable by their
    opposite circular polarization.
  • 7. (ii) Optical elements:
    (a) Beam splitter:
    • Fig shows the beam splitters to divide laser output along different axes. These divide the laser beam into separate beams.
    • 8. To avoid attenuation it is essential that the beam splitters must be oriented so that the reflected beam forms a right angle with the transmitted beam.
    • 9. So that these two beams: are coplanar with one of the polarisation vectors of the input form.
  • b) Beam benders:
    • These are used to deflect the light beam around corners on its path from the laser to each axis.
    • 10. These are actually just flat mirrors but having absolutely flat and very high reflectivity.
    • 11. Normally these are restricted to 90° beam deflections to avoid disturbing the polarizing vectors.
    c) Retro reflectors:
    • These can be plane mirrors, roof prism or cube corners. Cube corners are three mutually perpendicular plane mirrors and the reflected beam is always parallel to the incidental
    beam.,’
  • 12. (iii) Laser head’ s measurement receiver
    • During a measurement the laser beam is directed through optics in the measurement path and then returned to the laser head is measurement receiver which will detect part of the returning beam and a doppler shifted frequency component.
    (iv) Measurement display
    • It contains a microcomputer to compute and display results. The signals from receiver and measurement receiver located in the laser head are counted in two separate pulse converter and subtracted.
    • 13. Calculations are made and the computed value is displayed. Other input signals for correction are temperature, co-efficient of expansion, air velocity etc., which can be displayed.
  • (v) Various version of ACLI
    a) Standard Interferometer:
    • Least expensive.
    • 14. Retro reflector for this instrument is a cube corner.
    • 15. Displacement is measured between the interferometer and cube corner.
    b)Signal beams Interferometer:
    • Beam travelling between the interferometer and the retro reflector.
    • 16. Its operation same as standard interferometer.
    • 17. The interferometer and retro reflector for this system are smaller than the
    standard system.
    • Long range optical path
    • 18. Easy installation
    • 19. Wear and tear.
  • LASER INTERFEROMETER
    It is possible to maintain the quality of interference fringes over longer distance when lamp is replaced by a laser source:
    Laser interferometer uses AC laser as the light source and the measurements to be made over longer distance.
    Laser is a monochromatic optical energy, which can be collimated into a directional beam
    AC. Laser interferometer (ACLI) has the following advantages.
    Ø High repeatability
    Ø High accuracy
    Ø Long range optical path
    Ø Easy installations
    Ø Wear and tear
  • 20. SCHEMATIC ARRANGEMENT OF LASER INTERFEROMETER
  • 21. Two-frequency zeeman laser generates light of two slightly different frequencies with opposite circular polarisation.
    These beams get split up by beam splitter B One part travels towards B and from there to external cube corner here the displacement is to Be measured.
    This interferometer uses cube corner reflectors which reflect light parallel to its angle of incidence. Beam splitter B2 optically separates the frequency J which alone is sent to the movable cube corner reflector.
  • 22. Principle of Michelson Interferometer
    Albert Michelson (1852~1931)
    the first American scientist to receive a Nobel prize, invented the optical interferometer.
    The Michelson interferometer has been widely used for over a century to make precise measurements of wavelengths and distances.
    Albert Michelson
  • 23. Principle of Michelson Interferometer
    Michelson Interferometer
    Separation
    Recombination
    Interference
    A Michelson Interferometer for use on an optical table
  • 24. Principle of Michelson Interferometer
    Analyzing Michelson Interferometer
    The central spot in the fringe pattern alternates between bright and dark when Mirror M2 moves.
    If we can know the spacing distance of M2 betweentwo sequent central bright spots and the number of central bright spots appeared, then we can calculate how long M2 moved.
    Photograph of the interference fringes produced by a Michelson interferometer.
  • 25. MICHELSON INTERFEROMETER
  • 26. PRINCIPLE OF MICHELSON INTERFEROMETER
    Analyzing Michelson Interferometer
    Spacing distance of M2 is .
    • laser has very small, stable and accurately defined wavelength which can help us get high precision measurement.
  • Types of Laser Interferometers
    Homodyne Laser Interferometer (Standard)
    It is based on interference of laser waves (Michelson interferometer)
    Heterodyne Laser interferometer
    It is based on Doppler Effect.
  • 27. Principle of Heterodyne Laser interferometer
    Doppler Effect:
    The change of frequency when a source moves relative to an observer.
    We can get the velocity of an object by measure the frequency change between incident laser wave and reflected laser wave.
  • 28. Applications
    Measurement of Distance
    1) frequency stabilized He-Ne laser tube
    2) combination of beam-splitter and retroreflector
    3) a moving retroreflector
    4) detection electronics`
    Aerotech’s LZR3000 Series Laser Interferometer System
  • 29. Applications
    Other Applications
    Measure angles, flatness, straightness, velocity and vibrations, etc.
    Rearrangements of the light paths
  • 30. Resolution
    • XL-80 Laser Measurement System
  • References
    • http://www.aerotech.com/products/engref/intexe.html
    • 31. http://www.renishaw.com/en/interferometry-explained--7854
    • 32. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michelson_interferometer
    • 33. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interferometry
    • 34. PHYSICS FOR SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS, Randall D. Knight, 2003.
  • PRESENTED BY,
    ABHIJITH MOHAN
    Thank you!

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