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  1. 1. chapter 2 <ul><li>quiz </li></ul><ul><li>quiz groups </li></ul><ul><li>group development stages </li></ul><ul><li>group goals </li></ul><ul><li>group norms </li></ul><ul><li>characteristics of effective groups </li></ul>
  2. 2. groups group 1 group 2 group 3 group 4 group 5 corissa andrea michelle h. kaytie ariana heather krystal linda j. linda d joshua michelle r. leticia ryan marvin rosaena erica elio youa nokou jessie diana john danielle
  3. 3. group development stages <ul><li>forming stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>explore personal goals, group goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>awkward / unfamiliar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>primary tension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>social unease / stiffness that accompanies getting-acquainted stage in new groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>will resolve naturally </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. group development stages <ul><li>storming stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>task work starts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>conflict <-> cohesion dialectic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>leadership <-> followership dialectic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>secondary tension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>conflict over power/influence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>must deal with it </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. group development stages <ul><li>norming stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>resolve tensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more order / trust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>structure <-> spontaneity dialectic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>establish norms/rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>conforming <-> nonconforming dialectic </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. group development stages <ul><li>performing stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>roles / responsibilities known </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adaptable to change according to group needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>morale is high </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>task <-> maintenance dialectic </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. group development stages <ul><li>adjourning stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>group has reached goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>individual goals become more prominent again </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sometimes a sense of loss is felt </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. group goals <ul><li>Lock and Latham’s goal theory explains that groups function best when their goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are hard by realistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are accepted by members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are used to evaluate performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are linked to feedback and rewards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are set by members and groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allow for member growth </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. goal-setting steps <ul><li>specify the nature of the task to be accomplished in terms of outcomes and/or behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>specify how group outcomes and/or behaviors will be measured </li></ul><ul><li>specify the performance standard for achieving the goal </li></ul><ul><li>specify the time span and deadlines for achieving subgoals and overall goal </li></ul><ul><li>specify the coordination requirements for goal achievement </li></ul>
  10. 10. goal-setting steps - in question form in question form <ul><li>what do we want to accomplish? </li></ul><ul><li>how will we know when we’ve accomplished our goal? </li></ul><ul><li>how well have we achieved our goal? </li></ul><ul><li>what tasks do we need to complete in order to achieve our goal by a specific date? </li></ul><ul><li>how will we coordinate the work / contributions of group members most efficiently and effectively? </li></ul>
  11. 11. hidden agendas <ul><li>when individual goals and group goals conflict </li></ul><ul><li>to avoid - be honest, open about your other commitments </li></ul>
  12. 12. presentation guidelines <ul><li>Present a discussion in which you tell the class about a serious problem facing the local community - the problem may exist in other communities, but this presentation is to focus on the local aspects of the problem. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>magnitude: large, serious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>costs: financial, human, community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>populations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reasons it exists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>barriers to solve the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You will be evaluated on strong delivery skills, appropriate use of language, engaging vocal variety, energetic and enthusiastic gestures and strong eye contact - as well as level of cohesion and commitment in groups. </li></ul>
  13. 13. group norms <ul><li>sets of expectations held by group members concerning what kinds of behaviors or opinions are acceptable or unacceptable, good or bad, right or wrong, appropriate or inappropriate </li></ul><ul><li>group norms help </li></ul><ul><ul><li>express the values of the group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the group to function smoothly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>define appropriate social behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the group to survive </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. types of norms <ul><li>explicit: put into writing and shared verbally </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>implicit: rarely discussed or openly communicated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learned from prior group experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>learned from early group interactions </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. writing and establishing rules <ul><li>to help form group goals, consider the following questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how long should our meeting last? standard date and time for meeting? what do we do if we can’t make it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how will we ensure that each member is doing their work? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how will we manage conflict? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how will we make our decisions? </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. conformity <-> nonconformity <ul><li>conformity: when members adopt attitudes and actions that adhere to groups norms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>groups may put pressure on members to conform </li></ul></ul><ul><li>nonconformity: when member does not meet the expectations of the group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>constructive nonconformity can still be worked out within the group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>destructive nonconformity cannot be. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>accept, confront or ignore behavior </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. characteristics of effective groups <ul><li>the most effective groups share these 8 characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>clear, elevated goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>resulsts-driven structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>competent team members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unified commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a collaborative climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>standards of excellence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>external support and recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>principled leadership </li></ul></ul>