Skeletal, skin, muscle. nervous ppt


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Skeletal, skin, muscle. nervous ppt

  1. 1. Body Organization• Homeostasis – stable internal environment• Tissue and organs (hox genes)• All living organisms have cell(s)• Multiple similar cells form tissue• Tissue comes in 4 types • Epithelial – skin • Nervous – electrical messages • Muscle – movement • Connective – joins, supports, protects, insulates, nourishes cushions (keeps organs from falling apart)
  2. 2. • Two or more tissues working together form an organ• Organs that work together are called organ systems• cells→tissue →organ →organ system• The human body has 11 major organ systems
  3. 3. Systems• Integumentary – skin hair nails, protects underlying tissue• Muscular – move bones• Skeletal – provides frame to support and protect body parts (brain, heart, lungs and spinal cord)• Cardiovascular/circulatory – pumps and transports fluids and blood
  4. 4. Sect 1 Cont.• Nervous – receives and sends electrical messages• Lymphatic – returns leaked fluids to the blood vessels and fights germs• Digestive – breaks down food for nutrients• Endocrine – regulates body functions through chemical messages (hormones – ovaries and testes)
  5. 5. Sect 1 Cont.• Respiratory – lungs absorb O2 and release CO2• Excretory – removes waste from the blood and regulates body fluids• Reproductive – male produces sperm, female produces eggs• S,L,I,M,E R,N C,R,E,D,• Organ systems help the body maintain homeostasis by working together
  6. 6. Skeletal System• Skeletal system – bones, cartilage and structures that connect bones to muscle• Humans have 206 bones• Bones are Living• Used to support, protect, storage, and blood cell production• Composed of living cells called osteoblasts
  7. 7. Cont.• Two types of bone – Compact – rigid and dense with no visible space – Spongy - contains many open space• Provides strength and support• Contains red marrow that makes red and white blood cells (the blood cell factory)
  8. 8. Cont• Cartilage – flexible tissue, the beginning of bone• By adulthood, cartilage is replaced by bone• Only the nose and ears remain cartilage in adulthood• Located between bones (joints) in adults to cushion bones
  9. 9. Sec 2 Cont• Joint – the place where two bones connect• Depending on type of joint allows for movement when muscles contract and pull on bone• Types of joints_ – Fixed – very little movement (skull) – Ball and socket – movement in all directions (shoulder)
  10. 10. Cont – Hinge – movement in two directions (flex or extend) knee or elbow – Sliding – gliding movement, spine• Ligament – strong bands of connective tissue that keep joints together (bone to bone)
  11. 11. Muscular System• Muscular system – made of muscle and connective tissue that attached muscle to bone• Three types of muscle: – Smooth – found in the digestive track and blood vessels – Cardiac – found only in the heart – Skeletal – attached to bone for movement
  12. 12. Cont.• Muscle action:• Voluntary – under your control• Involuntary – not under your control (smooth muscle and cardiac)• Tendons – connects muscle to bone• Muscle movement is caused by electrical signals transmitted to the brain
  13. 13. Cont.• Muscles pull on bone to create movement• Muscle movement is in pairs and moves in two directions• Flexor – muscle bends• Extensor – muscle is straightened• Type of exercise:• Aerobic – strengthens heart and increase endurance
  14. 14. Cont.• Resistance – muscle overcomes weigh• Anabolic steroids – resembles testosterone (male sex hormone)• Causes heart, liver, kidney damage, high blood pressure, stunted growth, roid rage, infertility
  15. 15. Integumentary System• Integumentary system – skin, hair and nails• Integumentary means “covering”• Keeps H2O in and foreign particles out, first line of defense for the body• Largest organ in the body• Not only on exterior of the body but also on the interior
  16. 16. Cont.• Melanin – darkening chemical in skin and hair that determines color• Located in the upper layer of skin (epidermis)• Absorbs UV light• Two layers of skin:• Epidermis – (“epi” means on top of) made of epithelial tissue
  17. 17. Cont.• Thick as two sheets of paper• Most epidermal cells are dead and filled with keratin, a protein that makes skin tough• Dermis - under the epidermis• Fibers of protein called collagen• Where structures of skin are located• Nerve endings, sweat glands, hair follicles, blood vessels, muscle fiber, oil glands
  18. 18. Cont.• 75% of the air you breathe is dead skin cells• Body replaces skin every 3 weeks
  19. 19. Nervous system• Nervous system – a command post collecting and processing data• Two divisions:• 1. central nervous system (CNS) – Includes the brain and spinal cord – Processes all electrical messages coming into and out of the brain
  20. 20. • 2. peripheral nervous system (PNS) – Made of nerves that connect all areas of the body to the CNS• PNS – composed of neurons, specialized cells that transfer messages in the form of fast moving electrical signals• Signals are called impulses, location of impulse is the synapse• Impulse can travel as fast as 150 m/s or as slow as .2 m/s
  21. 21. • Neuron structure – neurons consist of a cell body, dendrites and axons• Cell body – large region in the center containing a nucleus and organelles• Dendrites – short branched extensions that neurons usually use to gather info from other cells• Neurons may have many dendrites which allow it to receive impulses from thousands of cells
  22. 22. • Axon very short or very long fiber used to transmit info from the cell body• Some axons have branches called axon terminals that allow info to travel to other cells• Receptors – structures that detect changes inside and outside the body
  23. 23. • Sensory neurons – specialized neurons that gather info in and around the body• Motor neurons – neurons that send impulses from the brain and spinal cord to other systems “motor” meaning to move• Nerves – connect CNS to the rest of your body• Axons bundled together with blood vessels and connective tissue• Most carry sensory and motor neurons
  24. 24. • CNS – brain, largest organ in the nervous system• Processes are describe as involuntary since the response happens automatically• Other actions are voluntary, movement is made consciously
  25. 25. • Brain is composed of 3 parts, contains 100 billion neurons• Cerebrum – largest part of the brain• Where thinking and memories are stored• Controls voluntary motion allows for the sense of touch, light, sound, odors, taste, pain, heat and cold• Two hemispheres (halves) the left side directs the right side of the body and the right side directs the left side of the body
  26. 26. • Left hemisphere controls reading, speaking, writing and problem solving• Right side controls imagination, appreciation, and creativity• Cerebellum – second largest organ in the CNS• Located underneath the back of the cerebrum
  27. 27. • Receives sensory impulses from skeletal muscle and joints• Controls balance• Medulla (oblongata)– connects brain to spinal cord• About 3cm long controls all involuntary activities like heart rate, breathing and blood pressure
  28. 28. • Spinal cord – part of the CNS• About the size of your thumb• Composed of neurons and bundles of axons that pass impulses to and from the brain• Protected by the vertebrae• Injuries can stop sensory info from traveling