Digestion• Groups of organs that work together todigest food so that it can be used by thebody (nutrients)• Food is digest...
• Substance are secreted by the liver,gallbladder, pancreas and salivary glandsto help with digestion• Two types of digest...
• Major nutrients – protein, carbohydratesand fats• Steps in digestion• (1) Digestion begins in the mouth whereteeth (enam...
• Saliva – (amylase - enzyme) liquidproduced by the salivary glands in thegums to begin breaking down complexcarbohydrates...
• (3)Esophagus – passageway to thestomach• Squeezes food along the tube with musclecontractions called peristalsis forcing...
• Continues chemical digestion by releasingenzymes and acids (HCl)• Resulting mixture is called chyme• (5) small intestine...
• Small intestine is approx. 2.5 cm indiameter and about 6 m long (the length ofa car) and flattened out would be largerth...
• Pancreas is located between the stomach andsm intestine that makes enzymes to help in fooddigestion and produces an acid...
• Weighing up to 1.5 kg and has many jobs:• Makes green liquid called bile which isused to digest fat molecules• Stores nu...
• Gallbladder – stores bile made by the liverand is squeezed into the sm intestine tobreak up large fat droplets, allowing...
• (6) large intestine – stores, compacts, andexpels material that are indigestible• About 7.5 cm in diameter and about 1.5...
• Fiber found in fruits, grains, and vegetablescalled cellulose is not digestible by humans andis used by the body to keep...
• Complete digestion from start (mouth) tofinish (anus) takes approx. 24 hrs.
Excretory• Removes waste products fromblood/balances fluids• Excretion – process of removing wastesand excess products (fl...
• Blood moves through the kidney’s 350 X’sper day• Each kidney is composed of over 1 milliontiny filters called nephrons• ...
• Materials diffuse across: water, urea,glucose, salts, amino acids and somevitamins (filtrate)• Plasma, cells, and platel...
• Ureter – passageway from kidney’s to thebladder• Urinary bladder – storage area for urine• Urethra – tube where urine le...
• Urination – process of expelling urine• ADH – antidiuretic hormone producedwhen your body lacks water• Signals the kidne...
• Diuretics – thirst is an indication the bodyneeds water• Diuretics cause the kidneys to make moreurine decreasing the am...
Digestion and urinary
Digestion and urinary
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Digestion and urinary

1,743 views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Business
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,743
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1,388
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Digestion and urinary

  1. 1. Digestion• Groups of organs that work together todigest food so that it can be used by thebody (nutrients)• Food is digested as it passed through thebody: needs H2O, carbohydrates, fats,proteins, vitamins, minerals• Composed of the mouth, pharynx,esophagus, stomach, small intestine,large intestine, rectum, anus
  2. 2. • Substance are secreted by the liver,gallbladder, pancreas and salivary glandsto help with digestion• Two types of digestion:– Mechanical – physical breaking and crushingof food– Chemical – large molecules are broken downby enzymes (chemical scissors) into smallerparticles that the body can use for growth,maintenance, and repair
  3. 3. • Major nutrients – protein, carbohydratesand fats• Steps in digestion• (1) Digestion begins in the mouth whereteeth (enamel) used to break down andgrind food into small manageable pieces• Teeth are composed of molars, premolars,incisors and canines adults have 32 teeth
  4. 4. • Saliva – (amylase - enzyme) liquidproduced by the salivary glands in thegums to begin breaking down complexcarbohydrates into simple sugars andmoisten food• (2) pharynx – throat, food is pushed by thetongue to the back of the mouth andenters the pharynx which splits into 2tubes
  5. 5. • (3)Esophagus – passageway to thestomach• Squeezes food along the tube with musclecontractions called peristalsis forcing foodinto the stomach• (4) stomach – muscular baglike organconnected to the end of the esophagus• Continues physical digestion by churningfood with muscle contractions
  6. 6. • Continues chemical digestion by releasingenzymes and acids (HCl)• Resulting mixture is called chyme• (5) small intestine – (three partsduodenum, Jejunum, ileum) chyme isreleased by pyloric valve into the smallintestine slowly allowing the small intestinetime to mix chyme with fluids from the liverand pancreas
  7. 7. • Small intestine is approx. 2.5 cm indiameter and about 6 m long (the length ofa car) and flattened out would be largerthan a tennis court• Inside wall is covered with villi – fingerlikeprojections covered with nutrientabsorbing cells that allows nutrients to bediffused into the bloodstream by capillaries
  8. 8. • Pancreas is located between the stomach andsm intestine that makes enzymes to help in fooddigestion and produces an acid neutralizercalled bicarbonate– Also part of the endocrine system that makeshormones that regulate blood sugar (insulin)• Liver – large as a football located on the rightside of abdomen, most massive internal organ
  9. 9. • Weighing up to 1.5 kg and has many jobs:• Makes green liquid called bile which isused to digest fat molecules• Stores nutrients• Breaks down toxic substances in the blood• Makes cholesterol for cell membranes– HDL – high density phospholipids (good)– LDL – low density phospholipids (bad)
  10. 10. • Gallbladder – stores bile made by the liverand is squeezed into the sm intestine tobreak up large fat droplets, allowing foreasier digestion
  11. 11. • (6) large intestine – stores, compacts, andexpels material that are indigestible• About 7.5 cm in diameter and about 1.5 mlong• No nutrient absorption takes place in thelarge intestine• Water absorption takes place and createsa solid mass called feces
  12. 12. • Fiber found in fruits, grains, and vegetablescalled cellulose is not digestible by humans andis used by the body to keep feces soft andmoving in the lg. intestine• Lg intestine also secretes mucus to allow fecesto move smoothly• Last part of the lg intestine is the rectum wherefeces is stored before passing out of the bodythrough the anus
  13. 13. • Complete digestion from start (mouth) tofinish (anus) takes approx. 24 hrs.
  14. 14. Excretory• Removes waste products fromblood/balances fluids• Excretion – process of removing wastesand excess products (fluids and somesolid matter; filtrates) from the body• 3 systems remove waste– Urinary, respiratory, integumentary• Urinary sys. removes waste like CO2 andammonia from the body
  15. 15. • Blood moves through the kidney’s 350 X’sper day• Each kidney is composed of over 1 milliontiny filters called nephrons• Each nephron is surrounded by capillariescalled the glomerulus encased in a hollowcup-shaped structure called Bowman’scapsule (permeable)
  16. 16. • Materials diffuse across: water, urea,glucose, salts, amino acids and somevitamins (filtrate)• Plasma, cells, and platelets are to large topass and remain in blood.• Removes toxic substances containingnitrogen called urea, which forms as thecells use protein for energy, maintains pH,and blood volume by regulating water
  17. 17. • Ureter – passageway from kidney’s to thebladder• Urinary bladder – storage area for urine• Urethra – tube where urine leaves thebody• Urine – liquid waste (yellow) that remainsbehind when nephrons remove water andother substances and returns these to thebloodstream
  18. 18. • Urination – process of expelling urine• ADH – antidiuretic hormone producedwhen your body lacks water• Signals the kidney’s to take back waterfrom the nephrons and return the waterback to the bloodstream• The process makes less urine but a higherconcentration of urine
  19. 19. • Diuretics – thirst is an indication the bodyneeds water• Diuretics cause the kidneys to make moreurine decreasing the amount of water inblood• caffeine

×