Acids• Most acids start with the element H, hydrogen – EX: HCl (hydrochloric acid), H2SO4 (sulfuric acid)• Any compound that increases the number of hydronium ions, (H+), when dissolved in water is an acid
• Has sour taste (think vinegar or lemons)• NEVER TASTE, SMELL OR TOUCH ACIDS• Corrosive – destroys body tissue, clothing and other materials• React with some metals to produce hydrogen gas• Conduct electricity• Most widely made acid H2SO4
• Common uses of acids • Make paper • Paint • Detergents • Fertilizer• HCl common uses • Separating metals • Swimming pools to stop algae
Bases• Most bases end with OH-, a hydroxide ion, when dissolved in water• Has bitter taste and slippery feel (think soap)• Corrosive properties• NEVER TASTE, SMELL OR TOUCH BASE• Conducts electric current
• Commons uses of bases – Make soap – Make paper – Oven cleaner – Drain cleaner – Household cleaners – Antacids (treat heartburn – rolaids or tums)
Strong -vs- Weak Acids• Strong acids will have additional Hydrogen (H+) molecules in the compound• All of the Hydrogen molecules break apart when dissolved in water• EX:H2SO4 (sulfuric acid) compared to HCl (hydrochloric acid)• Both are very strong acids but H 2SO4 would be the strongest of the two
Strong -vs- Weak base• Strong bases will have additional hydroxide (OH-), molecules in the compound• All of the molecules of a base break apart when dissolved in water and produce hydroxide ions• EX: NaOH (sodium hydroxide) compared to Mg(OH)2 (Magnesium hydroxide)
Salts• Large group of compounds with similar properties• When a reaction occurs between an acid and a base, they neutralize each other• When an acid neutralizes a base, salt and water are produced• Indicators are use to identify acids and bases
• pH scale is used to determine if an acid or base is strong or weak (compared to other acids and bases) REMEMBER ALL ACIDS AND BASES ARE DANGEROUS• 7 on the pH scale is neutral (H2O)• Bases have a pH greater than 7• Acids have a pH less than 7.
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