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Notes Solubility3

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    • 1. III. Rate of dissolving & Solubility
      • A. Solubility is the ability of one thing to dissolve in another
      • 1. miscible – able to dissolve
      • 2. immiscible – unable to dissolve
    • 2.
      • 3. “like dissolves like” so polar substances dissolve in other polar substances but not in nonpolar stuff
      • a. salt (ionic & polar) dissolves in water (polar)
      • b. vitamin k (nonpolar) dissolves in fat (nonpolar)
      • c. oil (nonpolar) does not dissolve in water (polar)
    • 3. Vitamins
      • Multi Vitamin
        • Provides many essential vitamins
        • “ Expensive urine” because most is urinated out!
      • Water Soluble – will dissolve in water
        • Vitamin C
        • CAN’T be stored - must be replenished regularly
      • Fat Soluble – will NOT dissolve in water (will only dissolve in oils)
        • Can overdose
        • Vitamin A, K …
        • Can be ingested periodically, stored in body fat
    • 4. B. Common ways to increase the rate of dissolving
      • 1. Increase Temperature. Increasing the temperature adds more energy and creates more collisions of solute and solvent to help dissolve .
      • a. Ex: dissolving sugar in Warm tea vs. cold tea
    • 5.
      • 2. Increase surface area.
        • Smaller pieces dissolve more quickly because there are more places to interact between solvent and solute.
        • Pulverize = crush or smash
      • a. Ex: Sugar packets vs. Sugar cubes
    • 6.
      • 3. Increase movement (stirring).
      • By adding motion you add kinetic energy and move the solvent around to dissolve it.
      • a. Ex: Stirring the sugar into the tea vs. letting it dissolve on its own
    • 7. C. Dissolving gases follow different rules
      • 1. Gases dissolved in liquids prefer lower temperatures. Cold soda has more carbonation than warm sodas
    • 8.
      • 2. Prefer less movement, more movement lets the gas escape more easily. Shaken sodas lose the dissolved gases quickly & so have fewer bubbles.
    • 9.
      • 3. Increased Pressure increases rate of dissolving.
        • So when the bottle the soda they bottle it under higher pressure to keep the gas dissolved in it
    • 10. Solubility
      • Solids are more soluble at...
        • high temperatures.
      • Gases are more soluble at...
        • low temperatures &
        • high pressures
        • EX : nitrogen narcosis, the “bends,” soda
    • 11. IV. Concentrations of solution – how “strong” or “weak” the solution is
      • A. 3 types of solutions based on concentration of dissolved solute
    • 12.
      • 1. Unsaturated solution – Solution that can easily dissolve more of the solute does not require an increase in temperature to add more solute.
      • a. Ex. Weak sweet tea or unconcentrated acid.
    • 13.
      • 2. Saturated solution – Solution that has the maximum amount of solute dissolved for that temperature.
        • Any change in temperature will affect the concentration.
    • 14.
      • 3. Supersaturated solution – Solution that has a higher concentration of solute than it normally would at that temperature.
        • It was heated up, come out of solution.
        • Typically can’t be disturbed or it will crystallize.
    • 15. Solubility increasing concentration SATURATED SOLUTION no more solute dissolves UNSATURATED SOLUTION more solute dissolves SUPERSATURATED SOLUTION becomes unstable, crystals form
    • 16.
      • B. Solubility Chart
      • 1. Shows how the solubility changes at different temps
    • 17. Solubility Table LeMay Jr, Beall, Robblee, Brower, Chemistry Connections to Our Changing World , 1996, page 517 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Solubility vs. Temperature for Solids Solubility (grams of solute/100 g H 2 O) KI KCl 20 10 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 110 120 130 140 100 NaNO 3 KNO 3 HCl NH 4 Cl NH 3 NaCl KClO 3 SO 2
        • shows the dependence
        • of solubility on temperature
      gases solids
    • 18. Solubility
      • Solubility
        • maximum grams of solute that will dissolve in 100 g of solvent at a given temperature
        • varies with temp
        • based on a saturated solution
    • 19. Classify as unsaturated, saturated, or supersaturated per 100 g H 2 O 80 g NaNO 3 @ 30 o C unsaturated saturated unsaturated supersaturated 45 g KCl @ 60 o C 50 g NH 3 @ 10 o C 70 g NH 4 Cl @ 70 o C